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  • Lead and compounds


CIS 83-782 Fukaya Y., Gotoh M., Matsumoto T., Okutani H.
Automated microdetermination of lead in capillary blood from earlobes by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry
The procedure for lead analysis, in which 70µl of heparinised whole blood from the earlobe gave a satisfactory result, is described. The blood was diluted 1:9 with Triton 5000X for complete haemolysis of erythrocytes, releasing the matrix-bound lead and permitting better distribution of samples in the graphite tube. Correlations between results and determinations in venous blood of the same workers were highly significant. The method is recommended for routine clinical use.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1982, Vol.24, p.126-132. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 83-767 Gartside P.S., Buncher C.R., Lerner S.
Relationship of air lead and blood lead for workers at an automobile battery factory
Air and blood lead data, recorded over a period of 3 years for 972 workers (exposed to 25-350µg/m3) in an automobile battery factory were statistically analysed. The air lead values were measured by mobile area samplers for 2 years and then by personal samplers for 1 year. Blood lead analyses were usually performed once a month. The trend in air lead levels was significantly upward in the 1st year and significantly downward in the 2nd year, while the trend in blood levels was significantly downward in the 1st year and the 3rd year. The relationship between air lead and blood lead was assessed, and the variables age, job tenure, and department identity were included in an ananlysis of covariance. The data support the conclusions reached by the WHO (1980). The occupational relationship between air lead and blood lead is so weak that blood lead must be used as a starting point to determine a health criterion.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 1982, Vol.50, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 83-740 Bencko V., Erben K., Zmatlíková K., Filková L., Tichý M.
Lead levels in hair and blood as a possible indicator of occupational and non-occupational exposure to this substance
Příspěvek k možnosti použití stanovení olova ve vlasech a v krvi při monitorování profesionální a neprofesionální expozice této noxe [en checo]
Results of lead exposure tests in 20 workers engaged in lead battery manufacture and in 20 children, aged from 7 to 14, living near the factory. Lead levels in hair and blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels, whether in hair or blood, were 4 times higher in the occupationally exposed persons than in the children. The possibility of using lead levels in hair as an exposure test is examined.
Československá hygiena, May 1982, Vol.27, No.4, p.206-211. 19 ref.

CIS 83-739 Blaive C., Botta A.
Difficulties confronting the occupational physician in the toxicological diagnosis of lead poisoning
Les difficultés du médecin du travail devant le diagnostic toxicologique du saturnisme [en francés]
On the basis of findings in enamelling workers, a review is given of the difficulties that face the occupational physician in diagnosing lead poisoning, due to the wide individual differences in the level of urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid. Emphasis is placed on the value of measuring erythrocyte protoporphyrin - a simple test which is the best indicator of the degree of lead absorption.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1982, Vol.10, No.3, p.153-158. 13 réf.

CIS 83-457 Farsam H., Salari G.H., Nadim A.
Absorption of lead in Tehran traffic policemen
The average value of blood lead in 228 traffic policemen was 29.52 ± 7.78µg/100ml; this value was significantly higher than that of 21.74 ± 5.63µg/100ml found for 68 policemen engaged in office duties. No correlation between blood lead level and age or length of occupation was found. Lead emissions from motor vehicles are believed to cause this effect.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1982, Vol.43, No.5, p.373-376. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 83-512 Malcolm D., Barnett H.A.R.
A mortality study of lead workers 1925-76
The principal causes of death of 754 individuals from a population of 1,898 pensioners from 4 lead-acid battery factories during the period 1 Jan. 1925 to 31 Dec. 1976 were studied. Causes of 553 deaths occurring before retirement were also studied. A significant excess of deaths from cerebrovascular accidents and renal disease occured in the high-exposure group of pensioners. There was no significant excess of deaths from all causes, nor from cancer, hypertensive disease, nor any other circulatory disease. The introduction of regular blood lead analysis in 1964, had, by 1976, reduced blood lead levels in the high-exposure group to roughly the same level as that of the moderate-exposure group in 1965-1967. Conditions are probably now adequate to prevent any excess of mortality in any of the 3 groups.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.404-410. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-508 Sakai T., Yanagihara S., Kunugi Y., Ushio K.
Relationships between distribution of lead in erythrocytes in vivo and in vitro and inhibition of ALA-D
Study to clarify the nature and mechanisms of δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) inhibition by lead, in which the relations between ALA-D inhibition and the distribution of lead among erythrocyte components in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Proteins in the ALA-D fraction from gel filtration of erythrocyte supernatant have the highest affinity for lead among erythrocyte components. At low lead concentrations, the extent of ALA-D inhibition correlates with that of lead concentrations in the ALA-D fraction. Although lead is found in the haemoglobin fraction, lead responsible for inducing inhibition is not bound to haemoglobin fraction proteins. Zinc completely restored the inhibition of ALA-D activity to the control level.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.382-387. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 83-422
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (Finland) (Social- och hälsovĺrdsministeriet)
Order of the Council of State concerning the prevention and monitoring of harmful effects due to the use of lead
Statsrĺdets beslut om avvärjande och övervakning av menliga verkningar, som användning av bly medför [en sueco]
This Order (effective 1 June 1983) applies to work involving the exposure to lead and its inorganic compounds. Sections cover: engineering measures designed to reduce the lead exposure hazard; personal protective equipment and its upkeep; washing facilities (showers, locker rooms, cleanliness); cleaning of work premises (vacuum cleaners); preventive maintenance of ventilation systems and respirators; warning notices to be posted and written instructions to be distributed to all employees regarding precautions against lead exposure; employees' obligations; medical examinations; TLVs (workers with blood lead levels >50µg/dL should be removed from exposure; lead concentration in air should not exceed 0.1mg/m3 over 8h); determination in air; blood monitoring. Appended: list of work involving lead exposure hazards.
Suomen asetuskokoelma - Finlands författningssamling, 28 June 1982, No.356, p.775-778.

CIS 83-494 Skender L.J., Prpić-Majić D., Karačić V.
Comparison of methods for the determination of erythrocyte protoporphyrins (EP) and zinc protoporphyrins (ZPP)
Odnos između metoda za određivanje eritrocitnog protoporfirina (EP) i cink-protoporfirina (ZPP) [en serbocroata]
Comparison of 3 methods for determining EP and ZPP as a means of screening for increased lead absorption (Chisholm Brown spectrofluorometric method, Cripps-Peters spectrophotometric method for EP, and the direct haematofluorimetric method for ZPP). The Chisholm-Brown method was found to be specific, accurate, sensitive and reproducible; in addition, it is rapid, easy to apply and does not require complex instrumentation or large biological samples. It is recommended as a method of determining EP in screening for increased lead absorption.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, Sep. 1982, Vol.33, No.3, p.227-238. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 83-218 Bittnerová D.
Biological exposure tests for the early detection of lead exposure
Biologické exposiční testy jako časný indikátor zvýšené exposice olovu [en checo]
Study to determine the value of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations as an early indicator of lead exposure, in comparison with other exposure tests (blood lead concentration and blood haemoglobin levels, urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid and coproporphyrins, erythrocyte count, haematocrit). The study covered 230 lead workers (divided into subgroups on the basis of lead exposure levels), 10 persons disabled due to chronic lead poisoning and 44 non-exposed controls. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels gave better information about lead absorption than did blood lead concentrations or urinary ALA and coproporphyrin levels. They can indicate a danger of lead poisoning and can be used to assess working capacity following chronic poisoning.
Pracovní lékařství, Jan. 1982, Vol.34, No.1, p.19-24. 23 ref.

CIS 83-204 Sartorelli E., Loi F., Gori R., Catalano P., Valiani M.
Inorganic lead exposure in workers at 2 glassware factories in the upper Elsa valley (Italy)
Esposizione a piombo inorganico in lavoratori di due cristallerie dell'Alta Val d'Elsa [en italiano]
Report of long-term studies in 2 glassware factories to determine the sources and levels of lead exposure and measures atmospheric lead, blood lead and protoporphyrin and urinary ALA. Health status was evaluated by assessing changes in various body organs and systems. The environmental and biological exposure indicators showed that the lead hazard was highest in glass melting but progressively decrased in glass mixing and the shaping of the final glassware. The most pronounced symptoms of exposure were found in the digestive and nervous systems.
Lavoro umano, July-Aug. 1982, Vol.30, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 83-185 Pekari K., Arsac F., Esmaelzadeh A., Boudčne C.
Determination of urinary coproporphyrins by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and its importance for preventing chronic lead poisoning
Dosage des coproporphyrines urinaires par chromatographie en phase liquide haute pression - Intéręt pour la prévention du saturnisme [en francés]
Description of a simple and rapid method of determining urinary coproporphyrins (UCP): acidification and centrifugation of sample and separation by reverse phase column (C18) chromatography. This method was used for the determination of UCP in 28 workers with occupational lead exposure. There was close correlation with urinary ALA (correlation coefficient of 0.74). UCP determination is adequately sensitive but is lacking in biological specificity; it should therefore be considered only as a back-up test procedure in occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.449-454. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 83-176 Karai I., Fukumoto K., Kageyama K., Horiguchi S.
Effect of lead in vitro on water metabolism and osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes
Results of a study to clarify the mechanism by which lead decreases the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes and the relation between intracellular water and this osmotic fragility in vitro. The results showed that 0.05µM/ml blood lead concentration decreased the osmotic fragility, the intracellular water content, the intracellular potassium and mean corpuscular volume, increased the plasma water content and trapped water content, and contracted the erythrocyte shape. These changes corresponded well with each other, and close coincidence of the osmotic fragility and the intracellular water content was also observed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1982, Vol. 39, No.3, p.295-299. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 83-175 Karai I., Fukumoto K., Horiguchi S.
An increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes in workers employed in a lead refining factory
Report of a study to clarify the differences between in vitro studies in which the addition of lead to erythrocyte membrane fragments inhibts Na+/K+-ATPase activity and in vivo studies in which an increase in erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase activity was found in workers in a lead refining plant. Blood samples were collected from 31 male workers in a scrap lead refinery and 50 controls, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity and other parameters were determined. Values for Na+/K+-ATPase activity, blood and urine lead, urine delta-aminolaevulinic acid and urine coproporphyrin were significantly higher in lead workers than in controls. A strongly positive relationship between blood lead and Na+/K+-ATPase activity was observed in lead workers, and a strongly negative relation between Na+/K+-ATPase activity and intracellular sodium was found in both groups.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1982, Vol.39, No.3, p.290-294. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 83-159 McMichael A.J., Johnson H.M.
Long-term mortality profile of heavily-exposed lead smelter workers
Report on a follow-up study of 241 male lead smelter workers who had, during the period 1928-1959, been diagnosed as having lead poisoning. The cause-of-death profile of the 140 known to have subsequently died was compared with that of 695 other males from the same smelter plant who had died (mainly production workers) and with that of the Australian male population. Age-standardised proportional mortality analysis shows a substantial excess in the number of deaths from chronic renal disease and cerebral haemorrhage, particularly prior to 1965. A moderate excess was also apparent for the other smelter workers. In recent years, the mortality excesses in lead-exposed workers have largely dissipated.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1982, Vol.22, No.5, p.375-378. 8 ref.

CIS 83-153 Araki S., Ushio K.
Assessment of the body burden of chelatable lead: a model and its application to workers
A hypothetical model was established to estimate the body burden of chelatable lead from the mobilisation yield of CaEDTA. An average, 14 and 19% of body burden was estimated to be mobilised into the urine in 24h following injection of 20mg and 40mg CaEDTA/kg bodyweight, respectively. Chelatable lead body burden ranged from 0.8mg to 24.9mg in lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 6-60µg/100g. There were linear relations between blood lead concentrations and body burden of chelatable lead on a log scale.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1982, Vol.39, No.2, p.157-160. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 83-152 Karai I., Fukumoto K., Horiguchi S.
Mechanism of increased osmotic resistance of red cells in workers exposed to lead
The mechanism of increased osmotic resistance in red blood cells in lead workers was studied by examining 19 lead refining workers and 18 controls for red cell count, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood and urine lead concentrations, urine coproporphyrin and delta-aminolaevulinic acid (DALA), osmotic resistance of red cells, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in serum, and cholesterol content and cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio of the red cell membrane. Osmotic resistance of red cells, red cell membrane cholesterol content, blood and urine lead, urine coproporphyrin and urine DALA were higher in lead workers than in controls. In lead workers, close correlations were found between osmotic resistance and blood lead concentration, osmotic resistance, LCAT activity and red cell membrane cholesterol.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1982, Vol.39, No.2, p.153-156. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 82-1966
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Medical supervision of lead workers
Medicinsk kontroll vid blyarbete [en sueco]
This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1983) applies to all workers who produce, use or handle metallic lead or inorganic lead compounds (except for work with material below 50°C containing less than 2%Pb, for exposure of less than 5h/week or 20 days/year). Sections cover: medical examination and periodic blood monitoring (every 3 months; where the blood lead level (PbB) is consistently below 2.0µmo1/l, 6-monthly monitoring is sufficient); certificates and records; measures to be taken in cases of higher lead uptake (employer has to take measures to reduce exposure if a worker's PbB exceeds 2.0µmo1/l, workers with a PbB>3.0µmo1/l must be transferred to other work). The appended commentaries are mainly concerned with the toxic effects of lead.
LiberFörlag, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 8 Apr. 1982. 15p.

CIS 82-1963 Valentine J.L., Baloh R.W., Browdy B.L., Gonick H.C., Brown C.P., Spivey G.H., Culver B.D.
Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption - A prospective study. Part IV. Evaluation of heme synthesis effects
The effects of chronic lead exposure on haeme synthesis in 69 workers with subclinical responses and in 35 controls were evaluated. Delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the control group but not with those in the exposed group. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the exposed group but not with those in the controls and was found to be a good indicator of blood lead history among exposed persons. Haemoglobin values determined at initial employment were not statistically different from those determined during the baseline tests for a group of 12 workers with a maximum blood lead level of 86µg/100ml during their exposure history. The effect that such haeme inhbition may have on other body functions is uncertain.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.24, No.2, p.120-125. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 82-1713 Grunder F.I., Moffitt A.E.
Blood as a matrix for biological monitoring
The potential for determination of a chemical agent, or its metabolite, in a biological medium such as blood as a means of providing accurate information on worker exposure and the effects of exposure to hazardous substances is discussed. Analytical techniques have been developed to successfully use blood-lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels as a means of evaluating lead exposure, absorption and metabolism.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1982, Vol.43, No.4, p.271-274. 10 ref.

CIS 82-1692 Dollimore J., Jagasia M.H.
The toxicity of ingested lead - A mathematical theory
A logarithmic growth model is proposed for lead in blood. It enables comparisons between parts per million ingested and resultant blood levels. It is suggested that medical examinations based on the model might enable the detection of toxicity before its effects became too serious.
International Environment and Safety, Aug. 1982, p.38-39. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 82-1102 Saito S.
A fact-finding study on lead exposure of workers in painting of a tower and bridge
In 125 painters, exposed to lead (Pb) in the course of painting a bridge and tower, the erythrocyte ALAD and zinc protoporphyrin correlated well with blood-Pb levels.
Occupational Health Journal - Sangyō Igaku Jānaru, Jan. 1982, Vol.5, No.1, p.28-32. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 82-999 Landrigan P.J., Baker Jr. E.L., Himmelstein J.S., Stein G.F., Weddig J.P., Straub W.E.
Exposure to lead from the Mystic river bridge: The dilemma of deleading
Occupational and environmental lead (Pb) exposures were monitored during the removal, by sand-blasting and scraping, of deteriorating and flaking Pb-based paint from a river bridge which spanned residential areas. Deficiencies in safety precautions and inadequate respiratory protection resulted in significant worker exposure. Pb concentrations were 10-1090µg/m3 in the vicinity of abrasive blasting enclosures and were 24-1017µg/m3 amongst workers scraping old paint and priming. Average blood-Pb levels were 61.2µg/dl and 33.2µg/dl for workers on the centre span and for abrasive blasting workers respectively. Toxicity symptoms, e.g. tiredness, memory problems, sleep disturbances and central nervous system dysfunction were observed in centre span workers but not in abrasive blasting workers. Recommendations are made for protecting community residents and workers from excessive Pb exposures in this and similar situations.
New England Journal of Medicine, 18 Mar. 1982, Vol.306, No.11, p.673-676. 23 ref.

CIS 82-867 Jahn O., Oswald E.
Current trends in the medical supervision and medicolegal assessment of lead-exposed workers
Aktuelles zur arbeitsmedizinischen Überwachung und Begutachtung bleiexponierter Personen [en alemán]
Following a review of the difference between primary prevention (monitoring of threshold limits at the workplace) and secondary prevention (monitoring internal stress), parameters are listed of internal stress and the resultant strain, and look at the diagnostic value of these parameters in assessng the biological effects of lead exposure. Urinary ALA is the most important diagnostic indicator. Following consideration of the neurological and mental effects of lead exposure and their value in preventive monitoring, an analysis is made of the concept of personal prevention based on biologically acceptable threshold (BAT) values. The biologically tolerable levels recommended (70µg/dl for blood lead and 15mg for urinary ALA) should ensure an adequate safety margin. The clinical picture of lead poisoning is described together with its 3 successive phases and the corresponding medical measures. Problems of case assessment and recommendations for monitoring lead-exposed workers.
Österreichische Ärztezeitung, Feb. 1982, Vol.37, No.3, p.125-131. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 84-756 Garza Chapa R., Leal Garza C.
Plomo y aberraciones cromosómicas
Factors studied were: blood lead (PbB) levels, urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), duration of lead exposure, and age. Lymphocyte cultures were analysed from 77 lead exposed workers and 2 control groups. There was a significant increase in cells with chromosome aberrations in the exposed group. An association was found between these aberrations and PbB levels and with duration of exposure. In the control groups there was an association of chromosome aberrations and age.
Salud Pública de México, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.389-397. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 84-168 Nuzzaco A., L'Abbate N., Soleo L., Misciagna G., Ferrannini F.
Relationship between electromyographic changes and biological indicators of lead exposure
Rapporti tra alterazioni elettromiografiche ed indicatori biologici dell'esposizione a piombo [en italiano]
96 workers exposed to lead, without observable neurological disorders, were examined by electromyography (EMG). They also underwent blood and urine lead monitoring. No significant correlation was found between abnormal EMG findings and lead and related levels above the biological threshold (in blood: 40µg/100cm3; in urine: 70µg/24h; erythrocyte protoporphyrin: 80µg/100cm3; urinary coproporphyrin: 150µg/l).
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.5, p.13-19. 15 ref.

CIS 83-1599 Dolgyrev E.I., Kajdanovskij G.N., Lihtareva T.M., Porozov N.V.
Apparatus and method for whole-body measurement of 210Pb in man
Apparaturno-metodičeskii kompleks dlja naturnyh izmerenij soderžanija 210Pb v tele čeloveka [en ruso]
Body burden of 210Pb is a quantitative indicator of exposure of the respiratory tract to daughters of radon; radon is a frequent contaminant of mine air. The 46.7-keV gamma radiation of 210Pb in a subject's skeleton is measured in a thick-walled iron chamber additionally shielded with layers of lead, copper and plastic. Two sodium iodide detectors are placed on opposite sides of the subject's head. The contribution of scattered 40K and 137Cs radiation to the counting rate in the main channel of the counter is determined by comparing the rates of counting in the 30-55keV main channel and a 100-150keV secondary channel. The apparatus is calibrated with a series of 210Pb sources of known activity and an anthropomorphic phantom. The minimum amount of 210Pb detectable is 0.35nCi. This is equivalent to a monthly inhalation of radon and its daughters with an aggregate alpha-particle energy of 130,000meV/l air.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1981, No.9, p.56-57. 1 ref.

CIS 83-1464 Dos Reis Caixeta Braga W.
Control and prevention of lead poisoning
Controle e prevençăo do saturnismo [en portugués]
Medical examination of 266 patenting-shop workers in a Brazilian wire drawing plant revealed 90 cases of chronic lead poisoning of different degrees. These cases could have been prevented by engineering measures designed to reduce the amount of lead stripped off the patented wire and to control the dust at the reels. The clinical symptoms for diagnosis of lead poisoning are detailed, and complementary examinations (determination of urinary coproporphyrin, urinary ALA, complete haemogramme with reticulocyte count and evidence of erythrocyte stippling, biochemical blood analysis) are dealt with. Comments on the diminution of lead poisoning cases in this plant during the past 5 years owing to medical prevention.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 1981, Vol.9, No.36, p.11-15. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 83-1390 Sokolov V.V., Gribova I.A., Ivanova L.A.
Cellular and subcellular reactions to the effect of low concentrations of toxic substances on the body
Kletočnye i subkletočnye reakcii v izučenii vlijanija na organizm malyh koncentracij toksičnyh veščestv [en ruso]
The blood cells of workers exposed to various toxic substances were subjected to structural, functional and cytochemical analysis. The substances (toluene, lead, trinitrotoluene, beryllium and a mixture of unspecified toxic substances) were present at levels below or only transiently exceeding their TLVs. While exposure caused no clinical signs of poisoning and no quantitative changes in the blood cells of the workers, there were structural and functional effects at the cellular level. Along with negative effects, adaptive or compensatory reactions of the cells or their organelles were observed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1981, No.7, p.5-8. 10 ref.

CIS 83-1365 Pen E.A.
The diagnostic value of some biochemical parameters at various levels of lead exposure
Diagnostičeskaja informativnost' nekotoryh biohimičeskih pokazatelej pri različnyh urovnjah vozdejstvija svinca [en ruso]
In exposed workers, moderate and high concentrations of lead produce both changes in porphyrin metabolism and disruptions in nitrogen metabolism, especially in the end products of nitrogen metabolism and in urea synthesis. The degree of alteration of nitrogen metabolism is proportional to lead exposure and parallels a reduction in delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) levels. Thus, ALAD activity is a useful indicator of lead exposure level.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1981, No.6, p.46-48. 6 ref.

CIS 83-999 Lead in the workplace
This booklet provides general information for workers, health and safety committee members, supervisors and managers, on lead uses and its health effects, with guidelines for controlling exposure and setting up a control programme.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street East, 23rd Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1981. 15p. Illus.

CIS 83-747 Villalbi J.R., Mestre J., Perez de la Osa R.
Control de trabajadores expuestos al plomo
Blood lead, urinary zinc protoporphyrins and aminolaevulinic acid, general health status and duration of lead exposure were studied in a non-homogeneous group of 177 lead-exposed workers. Urinary zinc protoporphyrins are shown to be a sensitive indicator of excessive lead exposure although certain discrepancies were found to exist between urinary zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and blood lead levels - in particular at low levels of exposure or in cases of intermittent exposure.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sept. 1981, Vol.29, No.115, p.105-108. 10 ref.

CIS 83-524 Gold R.B.
Women entering labour force draw attention to reproductive hazards for both sexes
The increase of women in the American labour force in the last decade had lead to an increased awareness of the reproductive hazards posed, to both sexes, by occupational exposures to dangerous materials such as lead. Industry has attempted to protect the child-bearing potential of female employees but did not address the overall problem. The lead standard, finalised in 1978, should provide worker protection but its adequacy with regard to reproductive effects is still uncertain.
Family Planning / Population Reporter, Feb. 1981, Vol.10, No.1, p.10-13

CIS 82-1967 Specchio L.M., Bellomo R., Pozio G., Dicuonzo F., Assennato G., Federici A., Misciagna G., Puca F.M.
Smooth pursuit eye movements among storage battery workers
11 male workers with lead (Pb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin blood actual levels >50 and 100µg%, respectively, and 18 male controls not exposed to Pb, were tested using a clinical pendular eye tracking test (PETT). Measurements of blood Pb, urine Pb, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid were made for all workers. The smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) were evaluated by an eye tracking technique in which subjects followed a horizontally moving target in the form of a luminous spot on a dark background. The maximum predicted eye movement velocity during tracking was about 30°/s. SPEM were plotted on a polygraph using skin electrodes. The Pb-exposed workers displayed a disorder of motor coordination of SPEM system. The PETT was useful, when associated with biochemical data, as a means of evaluating the degree of subclinical damage to the nervous system during Pb poisoning.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.11, p.1269-1276. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 82-1956 Alessio L., Castoldi M.R., Odone P., Franchini I.
Behaviour of indicators of exposure and effect after cessation of occupational exposure to lead
The behaviour of blood lead (PbB) and some biological markers of lead incorporation (erythrocyte protoporphyrin IX (EP), delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU)) were studied in subjects who had ceased working with inorganic lead for at least 1 year. Relations were analysed between these indices and lead deposits in the body as determined by chelatable lead (PbU-EDTA) in urine following intravenous injection of 1g CaNa2EDTA and compared with findings in workers currently exposed to lead. In workers with ceased exposure, PbB levels were significantly lower, EP levels were identical for corresponding levels of chelatable lead but lower in relation to PbB levels and ALAU levels were distinctly lower at the same PbU-EDTA levels but identical for similar PbB levels. It is concluded that in subjects with past exposure, EP and ALAD can be used to determine persistence and extent of an "active deposit" of lead in the body but that PbB is of very limited use.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.38, No.3, p.262-267. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 82-1631 Grandjean P., Hollnagel H., Olsen N.B.
Occupationally related lead exposure in the general population: a population study of 40-year-old men
The blood lead concentration (Pb-B) was determined for 88% of the 40-year-old male residents of 4 suburban communities and information on job category and place of work was obtained by interview. Of 504 men, 482 were currently employed, 18 were unemployed and 4 were retired. The total median Pb-B was 13µg/100ml. Men employed in construction, industrial production, and transportation had the highest Pb-B levels and very low concentrations were found among pensioners and farmers. Blue-collar workers had higher Pb-B levels than white-collar workers. Very high levels were found in 2 men employed at a secondary Pb smelter. The occupationally-related, increased Pb-B levels identified in this population contributed significantly to normal background levels.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.298-301. 14 ref.

CIS 82-1691 Trevisan A., Chinello V., Buzzo A., Gori G.P.
Postulated mode of action of lead on aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in chronic exposure
In order to find a selective method of identifying the subjects in whom ALAD values were lower than normal without lead exposure, the variations of erythrocyte ALAD activity in subjects exposed and not exposed to lead were studied in vitro before and after 3 tests: heat treatment of the sample, addition of SH-glutathione (GSH), addition of zinc. A study of the ratios before and after treatments showed that GSH and zinc were better than heating in identifying false positives, and that zinc was preferable because of smaller dispersion of results. It is postulated that, in lead exposure, the metal acts only on the thiol groups, which may be reactivated by an optimal concentration of GSH.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.3, p.295-300. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 82-1688 Karai I., Fukumoto K., Horiguchi S.
Studies on osmotic fragility of red blood cells determined with a coil planet centrifuge for workers occupationally exposed to lead
In order to clarify the relationship between lead exposure level and osmotic fragility of red blood cells as determined by the coil planet centrifuge method, several clinical laboratory examinations were performed on 27 workers in a scrap-lead refinery and on controls. The examinations included measurement of red blood cell and reticulocyte counts, hematocrit, blood and urine lead concentrations, urine coproporphyrin, and urine δ-aminolevulinic acid. The osmotic fragility of red blood cells was lower in lead workers; values for blood and urine lead, coproporphyrin, and δ-aminolevulinic acid of lead workers were much higher than those of the controls. In the lead workers, close relationships between the osmotic fragility and these laboratory findings were observed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.3, p.273-281. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 82-1667 Hirata M., Suenaka T., Tabuchi T., Kosaka H., Miyajima K., Hara I.
A lead-poisoning case in a lead refinery, with peculiar side effects due to D-penicillamine
In a lead (Pb) refinery worker with 28 years service since 1978, suffering from lead poisoning and severe colic, chelation therapy evoked 6758µg/day Pb-urine indicating high Pb exposure. In 1979 he was treated with oral D-penicillamine (DP) at 600mg/day for 5 continuous days in a 2 week period. 6 weeks after the beginning of this treatment he exhibited high fever and a measles-like eruption, and 2 months after that his hair and nails fell out. The mechanism of these disorders was thought to be inhibition of collagen maturation by DP.
Proceedings of the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, June 1981, No.19, Occupational Health Series, p.7-10. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 82-1610 La Bua R., Ferrari A., Carelli G., Rimatori V., Vinci F., Iannaccone A.
Polyvivnyl chloride processing technology and lead contamination of the working environment
Tecnologia di trasformazione del cloruro di polivinile e relativo inquinamento da piombo nell'ambiente di lavoro [en italiano]
The chemical reaction of PVC polymerisation is described and a review is given of the various additives used to modify the characteristics of the final polymer: stabilisers, plasticisers, lubricants and pigments. Stabilisers and pigments may contain lead, and the mixing of the dry-blend of PVC granules and these additives may give rise to high atmospheric lead contamination. The mixing process is described and a report is given on studies to monitor atmospheric lead concentrations at various parts of a PVC plant over the years 1971 to 1979. The highest concentrations were encountered in the dry blending process; these concentrations have been reduced by industrial hygiene measures, in particular local exhaust ventilation.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.379-388.

CIS 82-1402 Horiguchi S., Kawai T., Nakano H., Teramoto K.
Measurement of zinc protoporphyrin in erythrocyte as a screening test on lead workers
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in erythrocytes was measured using the Hemafluor ZP instrument on 314 male and 52 female workers not occupationally exposed to lead. Those with anaemia were excluded. The geometric mean was 11.2µg/dl with a 95% upper limit of 23.8µg/dl in male workers and 213.7µg/dl with a 95% upper limit of 24.5µg/dl in female workers. The normal upper limit in screening tests for lead poisoning was set at 25µg/dl. The coefficient of correlation between blood level (PbB) and ZPP was 0.86. A PbB of 25.1µg/100g corresponded to a ZPP value of 25µg/dl. The ZPP value was more closely related ot PbB than the urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid or coproporphyrin.
Osaka City Medical Journal, 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.25-34. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 82-1401 Horiguchi S., Teramoto K., Kiyota I., Shinagawa K., Nakano H., Karai I., Matsuda F.
Relationships among the parameters of lead absorption and lead effects especially on the hematopoietic system
Relations between various biological parameters of lead (Pb) absorption and blood lead level (PbB) were examined in a group of 32 male workers exposed to Pb concentrations in the air from 13 to 3677µg/m3, i.e. a geometric mean of 219.7µg/m3, in a Pb remelting shop. The parameters were: PbB, urine lead (PbU), urine delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALAU), urine coproporphyrin (CPU), erythrocyte free protoporphyrin (EFP), erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD), specific gravity of whole blood, haemoglobin, haematocrit, red and white cell count, blood pressure, age and duration ef employment. A matrix was generated and regression equations calculated. Significant coefficents of correlation were found between PbB and each of PbU, ALAU, CPU, EFP and ALAD.
Osaka City Medical Journal, 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.35-45. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 82-1384 Teramoto K., Kiyota I., Horiguchi S.
Supplementary report on activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D) with special reference to lead exposure, (part 2). δALA-D activity on different sorts of lead workers and relationship between ALA-D activity and lead in blood or lead in workroom air
In a mass screening examination ALAD activity was measured for groups of office workers, workers in under-river tunnelling, tank truck drivers, workers who formerly handled lead compounds in a paint factory, workers handling lead stearate, former lead arsenate workers, workers in a soldering manufacturing facility, and workers in a secondary lead refinery, and compared with blood lead levels (Pb-B) and lead concentrations in workplace air (Pb-A). ALAD activity decreased as log Pb-B increased, and log ALAD decreased as Pb-A increased. The relation was found among groups and among individuals. ALAD activity reflects both Pb-B and Pb-A.
Journal of the Osaka City Medical Center, June 1981, Vol.30, No.2, p.221-227. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 82-1368 Sato A., Sasaki T., Taniguchi N., Saito K.
Normal pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase activity level in Japanese and its significance as a marker for low blood lead concentrations
To determine the value of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (Py5'N) activity as a biological index of exposure to low concentrations of lead, a study was made of normal Py5'N activity levels in Japanese, correlation between blood lead and erythrocyte Py5'N activity levels and of the interfering effects of other blood metals in subjects with various blood lead levels. Py5'N activity levels were measured in 209 health adults (109 males and 100 females), 7 lead refinery workers and 3 clerks in a battery works. The mean and standard deviation of Py5'N activity levels for normal subjects were found to be 13.9±3.2µmoles Pi/gHb/h. No significant difference was observed for sex or age, but regional differences were significant. A remarkably high negative correlation between log Py5'N activity and lead concentration in the blood of lead-workers was observed. For the addition test in vitro, 10-4M lead solution reduced markedly the Py5'N activity, but no effect of zinc on this enzyme was observed. The study suggests that erythrocyte Py5'N may be used as an index of subclinical lead exposure.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, June 1981, Vol.36, No.2, p.518-525. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 82-1086 Yamada Y., Kido T., Okada A., Nogawa K., Kobayashi E.
Studies on the biological effects of low level lead exposures - Part 1. Estimation of usefulness of some biochemical tests as parameters for occupational lead exposures
Erythrocyte ALAD, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), ALA and coproporphyrin (CP) in urine, and lead (Pb) levels in blood (PbB) and in urine (PbU), were monitored in male painters in a ceramics works. At PbB levels of 5-50µg/dl and PbU levels of 10-200µg/l log ALAD and log FEP showed good linear correlations with PbB, and ALA-U and CP-U showed significant but lesser correlations with PbB. A good linear correlation was found between PbU and log ALAD and log FEP, and ALA-U showed fairly good correlation with log PbU. ALAD and FEP were the most sensitive tests for determining increasing PbB or PbU. FEP monitoring is the most sensitive and useful test for occupational lead exposures.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1981, Vol.23, No.3, p.260-269. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 82-1064 Suga R.S., Fischinger A.J., Knoch F.W.
Establishment of normal values in adults for zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) using a hematofluorometer: correlation with normal blood lead values
The blood lead (B-Pb) levels and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) values were determined for 395 subjects not occupationally exposed to lead (Pb). B-Pb determinations were made using an extraction procedure and flameless atomic absorption method. ZPP values were obtained with a haematofluorometer. A normal ZPP with a mean of 23µg/dl and an upper limit of the 95% probability range of 40µg ZPP/dl were established by applying Hoffman's statistical analysis. ZPP values of ≥ 54µg/dl generally represented B-Pb values > 40µ/dl. In the normal ranges no correlation was found between B-Pb and ZPP values. In the elevated ranges a correlation coefficient of 0.87 was found for log ZPP versus B-Pb. ZPP values for males increased with increasing age.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1981, Vol.42, No.9, p.637-642. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 82-981 Bauman A., Horvat D.
The impact of natural radioactivity from a coal-fired power plant
Radiation surveys of the working area inside a coal-buring power station were performed, and urine samples from 6 non-smokers working in contaminated areas were assayed for Pb 210; 6 non-exposed power station workers served as controls. Mean Pb 210 level in 24-h urine controls was 1.04 ± 0.53pCi/l; in workers exposed to various levels of radioactivity, the levels ranged from 1.8 to 14.47pCi/l. Radiometric surveys within the power plant showed that certain areas were significantly contaminated with radioactive material. Chromosome analysis of metaphase cells in exposed workers showed that 6-10% of the cells had chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, rings, inversions, breaks, gaps), while only 1.5-4% of those from controls displayed chromosomal aberrations (deletions only).
Science of the Total Environment, 1981, Vol.17, p.75-81. 11 ref.

CIS 82-798 Chmielnicka J., Komsta-Szumska E., Szymańska J.A.
Arginase and kallikrein activities as biochemical indices of occupational exposure to lead
Urine lead concentration (Pb-U), blood Pb concentration (Pb-B), haematocrit, δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and arginase activities, and urinary ALA and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations, and kallikrein activity were determined in 60 Pb-exposed workers. Correlation coefficients of -0.78 and 0.77 for Pb-B/ALAD and Pb-B/arginase were found respectively for Pb/B >40g/dl, and 0.82, 0.76,-0.74 and -0.64 for Pb-U/ALA, Pb-U/Cp-U, Pb-U/kallikrein, and ALA/kallikrein, respectively. An increase in serum arginase activity may indicate liver damage, while a decrease in kallikrein activity may indicate kidney damage in Pb-exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1981, Vol.38, No.2, p.175-178. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 82-844 Gillanders T.G.E., Bennett A.
An investigation of air pollution experienced by toll-collectors at a major road bridge toll
Breathing zone samples of airborne gaseous and particulate pollutants to which 33 toll-collectors, seated in booths at a road bridge, were exposed in the period Oct. 1978 to Apr. 1979, were collected and analysed. Blood lead levels of these workers were also determined. The average values found for carbon monoxide, total nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide were higher than those of the general urban environment but were lower than established TLV. This exposure has not produced any acute effects and is unlikely to produce chronic effects.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1981, Vol.24, No.3, p.267-272. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-718
UK Health and Safety Executive
Control of lead: Air sampling techniques and strategies
Guidance note describing acceptable techniques to determine lead-in-air concentrations for use in connection with the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 and the associated approved code of practice. Preliminary survey and assessment; routine monitoring; sampling method for lead dust and fume; analytical methods (reference to 5 Health and Safety Executive publications). Appended: calculation of 8h TWAs from full shift and split samples; and for intermittent workers (and their interpretation), with calculation examples.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 539, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Aug. 1981. 5p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Ł1.00.

CIS 82-764 Yamauchi H., Arai F., Yamamura Y.
Determination of triethyllead, diethyllead and inorganic lead ions in urine by hydride generation-flameless atomic absorption spectrometry
The lead compounds triethyllead (Et3Pb+), diethyllead (Et2Pb2+) and inorganic lead (Pb2+) were successively extracted from urine. The sample solutions were prepared using 0.5M DL-malic acid as a buffer for Et3Pb+, 0.75M H2O2-0.004M HClO4 for Et2Pb2+ and 1.6M DL-malic acid-0.05M K2Cr2O7 for Pb2+. Sodium borohydride was added and the Pb hydrides formed were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The recovery rates were 99.7, 97.3, 91.4, and 95.9% for Et3Pb+, Et2Pb2+, Pb2+, and total Pb respectively. The coefficients of variation for the same 3 ions and total Pb were, respectively, 5.6, 7.5, 2.1, and 2.9% and the detection limits were 0.005µgPb for Et3Pb+ and Et2Pb2+ and 0.1mggPb for Pb2+.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.2, p.115-124. Illus. 14 ref.

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