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  • Cadmium and compounds

1983

CIS 83-1976 Odone P., Bertelli G., Dell'Orto A., Castoldi M.R., Alessio L.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium
Monitoraggio biologico dei lavoratori esposti a cadmio [en italiano]
A survey of the biological monitoring methods used to measure cadmium exposure in workers: measurement of cadmium levels in urine (CdU) and in blood (CdB); beta2-microglobulin concentration in urine; retinol-binding protein presence in urine; metallothionein presence in urine. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium is recommended to be annual if fewer than 5% of the subjects have CdU levels above 2.8µg/g creatinine, semi-annual if 5-20% of the subjects have such CdU levels and three times a year if over 20% have them.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1983, Vol.74, No.3, p.182-190. 57 ref.

1982

CIS 84-769 Honda R., Yamada Y., Kobayashi E., Tsuritani I., Ishizaki M., Nogawa K.
Distribution of lead and cadmium in the blood of persons exposed to lead or cadmium
Determination of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the blood of exposed workers revealed Pb concentrations in whole blood (PbB), in erythrocytes (PbE) and in plasma (PbP) of 578, 1409 and 20.3µg/l and of CdB, CdE, and CdP of 13.4, 43.8 and 0.36µg/l respectively. The mean PbP/PbB and CdP/CdB ratios were 3.4% and 2.9% respectively. In controls the corresponding Pb values were 43.0, 91.9 and 1.52µg/l and the Cd values 1.87, 4.17 and <0.10µg/l respectively. The PbP/PbB ratio was 3.6%. The osmotic fragility of red cells was not changed in the exposed workers.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1982, Vol.9, No.1, p.27-31. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 83-1925 Salangina L.I., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Čekunova M.P., Minkina N.A.
Bases of the maximum allowable concentration of lead-cadmium solders in air
K obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii svincovo-kadmievyh pripoev v vozduhe [en ruso]
The toxicity of a lead-cadmium solder (LCS, a eutectic alloy consisting of the 3 crystal lattices of lead, cadmium and tin) was determined in acute, subacute and chronic experiments with rats. LCS specifically affected the haematopoietic system, the liver and the kidney. Pituitary-gonadal effects of the solder were due both to specific effects of lead and cadmium and to the general toxicity of the metals. An LCS concentration of 0.01mg/m3 is close to the threshold of action. A TLV of 0.001mg/m3 as lead is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1982, No.1, p.84-87. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1694 Slováček R., Hůzl F., Sýkora J., Senft V., Kavářová A.
Use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the detection of proteinuria in workers exposed to cadmium
Využití elektroforézy na polyakrylamidovém gelu k charakteristice proteinurie u zaměstnanců v exposici kadmiu [en checo]
59 active or retired workers from alkaline-battery or cadmium-oxide plants were examined for proteinuria by electrophoresis of urine samples in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. All cadmium-exposed subjects showed higher urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins than did non-exposed controls. This tubular proteinuria was detectable in the absence of subjective symptoms of cadmium poisoning, and in the absence of clinically detectable functional disturbances. Thus, electrophoresis is a sensitive method for the early detection of cadmium poisoning.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1982, Vol.34, No.6-7, p.209-214. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-1408 Webb M.A.H., Chettle D.R., Al-Haddad I.K., Downey S.P.M.J., Harvey T.C.
Measurement of cadmium in liver and kidney using in vivo techniques
This non-invasive technique was studied in 88 workers of a large industrial complex. In vivo neutron activation analysis gave the clearest results. Workers fell into 3 exposure categories on the basis of the results: mean liver Cd concentrations were 26, 10 and 4ppm, and kidney Cd concentrations 9.5, 5 and 3ppm, respectively. Stored Cd levels in people currently exposed were not significantly different from those who had been exposed in the past.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1982, Vol.25, No.1, p.33-37. 14 ref.

CIS 83-1310 Elinder C.G.
Cadmium and health: a survey
A general non-specialist review. Section headings: production, uses and environmental contamination: exposure routes; cadmium in food, daily intake; metabolism; acute toxicity; chronic toxicity. Occupational exposure to cadmium (primarily airborne) is contrasted with exposure (primarily food-borne) in other environments. Epidemiological studies suggest that present TLVs (e.g. 50µg cadmium oxide/m3 workroom air in the United Kingdom) may not be low enough to prevent kidney damage on prolonged exposure. Whereas the renal cortex is the critical organ in long-term exposure, obstructive lung disease is the predominant effect at high levels of exposure.
International Journal of Environmental Studies, 1982, Vol.19, p.187-193. 43 ref.

CIS 83-1092 Honda R., Yamada Y., Tsuritani I., Kobayashi E., Ishizaki M., Nogawa K.
Significance of low molecular proteinuria in cadmium poisoning
The most useful parameters for detecting the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure were studied by examining the urinary concentrations of Cd, protein, glucose, amino acids, proline and low-molecular-weight proteins such as β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 534 inhabitants of a Cd-polluted area. The most useful tests were those for the detection of the low-molecular-weight proteins β2-MG and RBP in urine. Low-molecular-weight proteins appear in the urine of Cd-exposed subjects as a result of renal tubular damage. Summary in English.
Journal of Kanazawa Medical University, Sep. 1982, Vol.7, No.3, p.142-151. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-1055 Taguchi T., Nakamura K.
Isolation and properties of cadmium-binding protein induced in rat small intestine by oral administration of cadmium
Chromatographic properties and amino acid composition of Cd-binding protein are reported. The chromatogram showed 2 major and 1 minor Cd-containing peaks as hepatic and renal metallothionein. The amino acid composition of the peaks resembled that of metallothionein from other materials. Induced intestinal Cd-binding protein may be capable of preventing the transport of oral Cd from the intestinal mucosa into other organs.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1982, Vol.9, No.3, p.401-409. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 83-1054 Zenick H., Hastings L., Goldsmith M., Niewenhuis R.J.
Chronic cadmium exposure: Relation to male reproductive toxicity and subsequent fetal outcome
Male rats were exposed to zero, 17.2, 34.4 or 68.8ppm Cd for 70 days. They were mated after exposure and the offspring tested for teratological effects and behavioural changes. No significant effects on any of the parameters studied were observed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1982, Vol.9, No.3, p.377-387. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 83-1049 Vahter M.
National Swedish Institute of Environmental Medicine and Department of Environmental Hygiene, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Assessment of human exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring
Final report of the UNEP/WHO Pilot Project on Assessment of Human Exposure to Pollutants through Biological Monitoring (Metals Component) designed to: review and agree internationally on selected methods for the analysis and evaluation of levels of a limited number of pollutants in selected tissues and body fluids; provide technical advice and arrange training programmes for scientists and technicians; design and implement a programme for rigid quality control for the sampling, storage, transport and analysis of tissues and body fluids; and carry out pilot studies on selected segments of the population in a specified number of countries.
Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1982. 136p. Illus. 140 ref.

CIS 83-1045 Roels H., Djubgang J., Buchet J.P., Bernard A., Lauwerys R.
Evolution of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction in workers removed from exposure
19 workers who had been examined before and after removal from Cd exposure of more than 15 years duration were studied. 0.3-7.9 years after removal from exposure, all exhibited signs of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Cadmium-induced renal lesions are not reversible when exposure ceases.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 83-1041 Nomiyama K.
Carcinogenicity of cadmium
Cd has been thought to be carcinogenic for 10 years. 98 papers on its carcinogenicity are reviewed. Ten papers describing epidemiological studies on Cd workers do not lead to a solid conclusion that Cd is carcinogenic. Chromosomal aberrations in Cd workers, tumorigenesis at the site of Cd injection in animals, and Leydig cell tumour formation in animals given subcutaneous injections of Cd all point to the possibility that Cd is a weak carcinogen.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Jan. 1982, Vol.24, No.1, p.13-23. 98 ref.

CIS 83-733 Cikrt M., Tichý P., Kobrle V., Havrdová J., Hurych J., Škoda V.
Cadmiun and zinc concentration in the liver, kidneys and lungs and changes in pulmonary collagenous proteins following repeated inhalation of CdCl2 aerosols by rats
Obsah kadmia a zinku v játrech, ledvinách, plících a změny plicních vazivových bílkovin po opakované inhalační expozici krys aerosolu CdCl2 [en checo]
Male rats were exposed once a day for 5 days a week to CdCl2 aerosol at a concentration of 60mg/m3. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in the liver, kidneys and lungs and changes in the levels of pulmonary fibrous proteins were determined in relation to length of exposure (5, 10 and 20 days). There was a significant absorption of Cd into the lungs and progressive deposition of this metal in the kidneys and the liver in relation to the length of exposure. A high Zn concentration was found in the kidneys and liver of exposed animals. Cd exposure leads to an increase in the pulmonary level of collagen and elastin and a concomitant increase in total mass. Only the elastin concentration increases after 20 days Cd exposure.
Pracovní lékařství, Oct. 1982, Vol.34, No.9, p.299-304. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 83-529 Slováček R., Hůzl F., Sýkora J., Senft V., Kovářová A.
Use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the identification of the type of proteinuria in cadmium-exposed workers
Využití elektroforézy na polyakrylamidovém gelu k charakteristice proteinurie u zaměstnanců v expozici kadmiu [en checo]
A study carried out on 59 workers exposed to cadmium, of whom 43 were employed in the production of alkaline batteries, 10 in CdO production and 10 were retired, revealed a significant elimination of low-molecular-weight proteins. This tubular proteinuria was not related with any functional signs of cadmium poisoning. The technique used (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using sodium dodecyl sulfate) proved effective in the determination of the spectrum of low-molecular-weight proteins in the urine of exposed workers.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1982, Vol.34, No.6-7, p.209-214. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-497 Marek K., Braszczyńska Z., Linscheid D., Trojanowska B.
Assessing occupational cadmium exposure by determining cadmium concentration in air and body fluids
Ocena narażenia zawodowego na kadm na podstawie stężeń tego metalu w powietrzu i w płynach ustrojowych [en polonés]
Blood and urine concentrations were determined in 92 workers exposed to cadmium, and the atmospheric CdO concentrations were monitored for 3 years at 9 workposts using a stationary sampler and at 2 workposts using individual samplers. There was good correlation between CdO concentration measurements using the stationary sampler and those made using individual samplers when workers remained at the same workpost for the complete shift. Urinary cadmium was more closely correlated to exposure levels than was blood cadmium. Once cadmium levels in the body have reached saturation point, urine cadmium is a better indicator of exposure than is blood cadmium.
Medycyna pracy, 1982, Vol.33, No.1-2, p.31-37. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 83-465 Wibowo A.A.E., Herber R.F.M., van Deyck W., Zielhuis R.L.
Biological assessment of exposure in factories with second degree usage of cadmium compounds
Biological assessment of occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd pigments for glass bottle labelling, Cd stabilisers in plastics production, Cd electroplating of engine parts, Cd stabilisers and pigments in wall paper production, CdS in television tube production) in 124 exposed and control workers included: cadmium in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU), β-microglobulin, creatinine in urine, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. In these types of work the low external cadmium exposure does not result in different CdB levels, but only in different CdU levels, revealing an increased body burden due to long-term low-level occupational Cd exposure. In biological assessment of exposure to Cd, it is essential to take age and smoking habits fully into account.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.49, No.3-4, p.265-273. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 82-1627 Cowan V.
Cadmium: Its uses and processes
This review of the hazards associated with occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd) covers: legislation and exposure limits; hazards of fumes; metabolism and body transport; biological half-life; effects of Cd poisoning; signs and symptoms of exposure; emphysema; liver damage; extraction from ore.
Occupational Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.34, No.2, p.78-88. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-1678 Nomiyama K., Nomiyama H., Yotoriyama M., Matsui K.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate acrylamide gel electrophoretic studies on low-molecular-weight proteinuria, an early sign of cadmium health effects, in rabbits
Rabbits received subcutaneous injections of 0.5mg cadmium (Cd)/kg for 42 weeks. The effects observed were: in the first week, a gradual increase in urine Cd; in the third week, slight low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, proteins of molecular weight (MW) 12,000 and 25,000; in the sixth week, slight proteinuria, proteins of MW 67,000; in the 11-13th weeks, aminoaciduria, glycosuria, proteinuria, and LMW proteinuria. Proteins of MW 12,000 and 25,000 increased in urine earlier than proteins of MW 67,000, and the presence of LMW proteins was an effective index for screening for early effects of Cd. Cd-treated rabbits had 60-80% of proteins of MW 67,000 in their urine and only 10% of LMW proteins, suggesting that Cd affects both tubules and glomerules.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.1, p.11-18. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 82-1677 Nomiyama K., Nomiyama H., Yotoriyama M.
Low-molecular-weight proteins in urine from rabbits given nephrotoxic compounds
Rabbits were given 0.5mg cadmium (Cd)/kg by subcutaneous injection 6 times a week for 32 weeks. The main protein component in the urine of these animals had a molecular weight (MW) of ≥67,000 suggesting tubular and glomerular dysfunction. Low MW proteins were found, in addition, in the urine of animals given a single injection of uranium (U), chromium (Cr), or mercury (Hg). The MW distribution of proteins in the urine of these animals was very similar to that of Cd-treated rabbits. Low MW tubular reabsorption of phosphorus was >80%.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 25 ref.

1981

CIS 83-1613 Nečiporenko N.I., Procerova T.K., Klauček V.V.
Atomic-absorption determination of cadmium in workplace air
Atomno-absorpcionnoe opredelenie kadmia v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Particulate cadmium or cadmium oxide in workplace air is determined by passing air to be sampled through a perchlorovinyl filter, extracting the filter with dilute hydrochloric acid, and subjecting the extract to atomic absorption analysis. The sensitivity of the method is 3 x 10-5mg/ml. Airborne cadmium concentrations of 3 x 10-2mg/m3 can be determined by sampling 10l of air. Levels below the maximum permissible concentration can be determined: a concentration of 0.009 ± 0.003mg/m3 was measured in a representative shop. The method can also be used for monitoring contamination of workers' hands or workplace surfaces.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.55-56. 5 ref.

CIS 82-1698 Suzuki Y., Toda K., Koike S., Yoshikawa H.
Cadmium, copper and zinc in the urine of welders using cadmium-containing silver solder
Urine samples from 12 male welders aged 20 to 50 years who had been engaged in work with cadmium-containing silver solder for 3-23 years were analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) and compared with samples from 5 controls. Mean concentration values of Cd, Cu, and Zn for welders were 26, 2.4 and 2.6 times those of controls. A linear relation was found between urine concentrations of Cd, and both Cu and Zn. In chromatographic analyses of samples from 2 welders suspected of suffering from Cd-induced renal injury, the metallothionein fraction contained Cd and Cu but not Zn, and the Cu content of this fraction was much greater than the Cd content. The Cd and Cu in this fraction represented 6 and 10% of totals; the remaining Cd and Cu were recovered from high molecular weight protein and low molecular weight non-protein fractions. Urinary Zn was present in both of these fractions. Cd accumulation affects the excretion of Cu and Zn in urine, and urinary excretion of metallothionein containing Cd and Cu may be involved in Cd-induced renal injury.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.4, p.223-230. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 82-1670 Kobayashi E.
Zinc levels in serum and urine of cadmium-exposed and nonexposed people
Urine sampling of 19 itai-itai patients, 20 suspected patients, 28 women exposed to cadmium (Cd), and 31 non-exposed women were analysed for zinc (Zn), Cd and β2-microglobulin (MG). Serum samples from these groups were analysed for Zn. Urinary concentrations of Zn were almost equal in the Cd-exposed and non-exposed groups, although Cd and MG concentrations in urine were much higher in Cd-exposed subjects than in non-exposed subjects. Serum Zn levels were slightly lower in itai-itai patients than in non-exposed women. Urinary excretion of Zn was not increased in subjects with severe renal tubular damage caused by Cd exposure.
Journal of Kanazawa Medical University, Sep. 1981, Vol.6, No.3, p.123-126. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 82-1668 Kawahara K., Samamoto M., Kushihata T.
Correlation between renal dysfunction and imino acid in cadmium poisoning. 1. Urinary findings of copper and/or cadmium-administered rats for three months
In rats receiving copper (Cu) and/or cadmium (Cd), high correlation coefficients were found between (1) urinary Cd and both protein and free proline; (2) between urinary total proline and both free proline and free hydroxyproline; (3) between urinary Cd and calcium in the femur; and (4) between urinary proline and protein. Correlation was found between urinary imino acids in rats receiving 200ppm of Cu and Cd simultaneously or 200ppm of Cu alone. Urinary Cd, protein and glucose, and total and free proline can be used for early detection of chronic Cd poisoning.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1981, Vol.8, No.1, p.14-18. 16 ref. Price: Y.2000.

CIS 82-1666 Kobayashi E.
Copper levels in serum and urine of cadmium-exposed people
Blood and urine samples were taken from 19 itai-itai patients, 21 suspected patients, 29 subjects exposed to cadmium (Cd), and 31 non-exposed subjects. Copper (Cu) concentration in urine was higher in the Cd-exposed group, especially in itai-itai patients and suspected patients, than in the non-exposed group. Cu levels in serum were almost the same in both groups. The correlation coefficient between β2-microglobulin and Cu-urine concentrations of all subjects was 0.95. Exposure to Cd caused an increase in urinary excretion of Cu due to renal tubular dysfunction.
Journal of Kanazawa Medical University, Sep. 1981, Vol.6, No.3, p.119-122. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 82-1396 Murray T., Walker B.R., Spratt D.M., Chappelka R.
Cadmium nephropathy: Monitoring for early evidence of renal dysfunction
In an attempt to establish a screening method for early detection of cadmium-induced nephropathy at a reversible stage, periodic analyses of cadmium (Cd) level were determined in the blood, urine, and hair of 23 workers exposed to platics and pigments containing a Cd stabiliser. Urine cytology, creatinine clearance and urinary levels of lysozyme, β-2-microglobulins, immunoglobulins and aminoacids were also monitored. Cd levels in blood and urine were only useful as indicators of acute environmental exposure. Hair Cd content was elevated in most workers. Urine cytology was not reliable as an indicator of possible nephropathy. All 5 measures of renal function are recommended in screening and follow-up of Cd workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.36, No.4, p.165-171. 25 ref.

CIS 82-1354 Chichester C.O., Palmer K.C., Hayes J.A., Kagan H.M.
Lung lysyl oxidase and prolyl hydroxylase: Increases induced by cadmium chloride inhalation and the effect of β-aminopropionitrile in rats
Rats were exposed for 2h to 0.1% cadmium chloride aerosol and were killed 2, 4, 7, 10 and 21 days after exposure. At 4 days lung lysyl oxidase (LO) was increased 14.8 times compared with control animals and returned to near normal at 10 days. Total lung prolyl hydroxylase (PH) activity increased 7.4 times by day 4 in exposed versus unexposed animals. A significant increase in total lung hydroxyproline was also observed. Administration of β-aminopropionitrile prevented much of the increase in LO activity and the accumulation of collagen. The altered tissue amounts of LO and PH correlated well with interstitial cell hyperplasia 4-5 days after exposure and indicated that connective tissue protein synthesis is activated soon after cadmium exposure.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Dec. 1981, Vol.124, No.6, p.709-713. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 82-1353 Ellis K.J., Morgan W.D., Zanzi I., Yasumura S., Vartsky D., Cohn S.H.
Critical concentrations of cadmium in human renal cortex: dose-effect studies in cadmium smelter workers
Cadmium (Cd) was measured in vivo (using a neutron activation technique) in the left kidney and liver of 82 industrially exposed workers and 10 control subjects. The range of Cd values for the industrial group was 0.9-57mg for the whole kidney and 0.8-120ppm for the liver, compared to 0.4-11.8mg and 0.6-7.9ppm for the controls. At <40ppm in the liver, the kidney Cd burden increased with increasing liver concentration. At >40ppm, the kidney Cd content decreased as the liver concentration increased. This relation between Cd in the kidney and the liver for all subjects showed a critical level (Cd burden at which adverse effects occurred in the kidney) of 31mg Cd in the kidney. Estimates of the critical level by β2-microglobulin and urinary protein measurements yielded values of 31-42mg Cd for the whole kidney (300-400µg/g for the renal cortex).
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May 1981, Vol.7, No.5, 691-703p. 23 ref.

CIS 82-1344 Vorob'eva R.S., Bubnova N.I.
Biological effects of cadmium metal and cadmium telluride
Dejstvie na organizm ėlementarnogo i telluristogo kadmija [en ruso]
Metallic cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic in animals when ingested and moderately toxic when inhaled. Both Cd and Cd telluride have marked cumulative properties and constitute a severe risk of chronic poisoning. Cd telluride poisoning is characterised by calcium metabolism and thermoregulation disorders. The pneumatic, fibrogenic and gonadotropic effects of Cd telluride are similar to those of metallic Cd and other Cd compounds; they are due to the presence of the Cd ion in the molecule of the substance. A threshold limit value of 0.5mg/m3 for Cd telluride in the workplace air is recommended as a precaution.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1981, No.2, p.42-43. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 82-1098 Komoike Y., Takano Y., Nakamura K., Horiguchi S.
Results of health examinations of cadmium handlers in a refining/smelting plant
Urinary cadmium (Cd) was determined twice a year in 250 refining-smelting plant workers, of whom two-thirds were 30-49 years old, and in a group of subcontractors of whom 42% were ≥50 years old. Cd concentrations in the working environments were generally < 1/10-1/30 of the Japanese TLV of 0.1mg/m3. 15.6% of remelters, 9.3% of subcontractors, 5.7% of blast-furnace workers, and 5.3% of electrolysis workers were found with > 10µg/L urinary Cd excretion.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, Apr. 1981, No.17, p.53-58. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 82-1063 Radioimmunological determination of β2-microglobulins in occupational health supervision examinations
Radioimmunologische Bestimmung von β2-Mikroglobulin für arbeitsmedizinische Überwachungsuntersuchungen [en alemán]
As a criterion for the evaluation of renal tubule lesions due to cadmium, the urinary concentration of β2-microglobulins can play an important role in the medical supervision of persons exposed to cadmium. The radioimmunoassay method is reliable and practical for group screening. Blood and urine analyses among non-exposed persons showed normal β2-microglobulin levels of 1.0-2.3mg/l serum and a normal upper limit of 3.20µg/l urine.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1981, Vol.16, No.3, p.62-65. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 82-797 Stewart M., Hughes E.G.
Urinary β2 microglobulin in the biological monitoring of cadmium workers
Pre-employment values of urinary β2 microglobulin (β2m) were measurfed in 203 men not occupationally exposed to cadmium (Cd). The overall geometric mean was 76µg/l, but a significantly higher level of 96µg/l was found in specimens stored continually at -20°C compared with 73µg/l in specimens that thawed during transport. Sodium azide had been added to all specimens. Employees exposed to Cd pigments at ≥50µg/m3 for ≤11 years showed no evidence of raised urinary β2m. Raised urinary β2m concentrations were found in 5 known cases of Cd-induced proteinuria whose exposure ceased ≤15 years ago. Moderately raised concentrations were found in 7 subjects with a history of Cd oxide exposure, in whom proteinuria had not been detected.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1981, Vol.38, No.2, p.170-174. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 81-2015 Horvat Dj., Račić J., Rozgaj R.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in V79 cells of Chinese hamsters exposed to heavy metals
Učestalost izmjena kromatida sestara u V79 stanica kineskog hrčka nakon izloženosti teškim metalima [en serbocroata]
The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method was used to investigate the mutagenic effect of heavy metals (Pb++, MN++, Ni++, Cd++). In vitro experiments with Chinese hamster V79 cells showed that Pb and Ni did not cause any significant change in SCE values, whereas exposure to Mn and Cd increased the number of changes; in particular, Cd had a marked mutagenic effect, doubling the number of exchanges after 2-h cell incubation.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.147-156. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 81-1958
Health and Safety Executive, Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratories
Cadmium and inorganic compounds of cadmium in air - Laboratory methods using: 1. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. 2. Atomic absorption spectrometry
Industrial use of cadmium, cadmium oxide and cadmium sulfide; description of sampling and analysis methods using (1) atomic absorption spectrometry; (2) x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Aspects covered: scope, analytical limits, interfences, principle, reagents, apparatus, procedure (calibration of sampling pumps, collection of samples, analysis), calculations.
Directorate of Information and Advisory Services (IAS 5), Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TF, United Kingdom, June 1981. 3p. + 3p. 5 ref. Price: Ł0.50 each data sheet.

CIS 81-1678 Mithal R.K.
Histopathological studies with reference to chronic cadmium exposure in adrenal and spleen of common Indian ground squirrel
Ground squirrels were injected intraperitoneally with a daily dose of cadmium acetate, at 1.0mg Cd/kg body weight, for 4, 5, 6 and 7 weeks, and the adrenals and spleen of exposed animals were compared with those of controls. The adrenals showed dilatation of sinusoids, fatty change in the cells of the cortex, hyaline-like mass in the medulla, haemorrhage adjacent to the medulla, circumscribed haemorrhage in the cortex, and congested blood vessels. The spleen showed congestion in blood vessels, thickening of vessel walls, and congestion and dilatation of sinusoids. The body weight gain of Cd-exposed animals was significantly lower than that of the controls, and the increase in spleen weight was significantly higher.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.1, p.9-14. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 81-1403 Buchet J.P., Roels H., Bernard A., Lauwerys R.
Assessment of renal function of workers simultaneously exposed to inorganic lead and cadmium.
62 workers exposed to both metals were examined. Results were compared with those in 3 other groups: exposed to lead only, cadmium only, and controls. There was no interaction between lead and cadmium. Renal dysfunction occurring in the sumultaneously exposed group is attributed to cadmium exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.348-352. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 81-1359 De Silva P.E., Donnan M.B.
Chronic cadmium poisoning in a pigment manufacturing plant.
Cadmium concentrations in blood and urine of 12 past and present employees exposed to cadmium were determined. All 6 men who had worked in the production plant for 7 years or more showed signs of renal tubular damage; 2 of them exhibited exertional dyspnoea and pulmonary dysfunction. One had moderated airways obstruction. It is suggested that urinary Cd concentrations should be kept below 15µg/day to avoid the possibility of renal damage.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.76-86. Illus. 12 ref.

1980

CIS 82-649 Burhanov A.I.
The pathogenic effects of mixed dust generated in cadmium production
K ocenke patogennogo dejstvija pyli kadmievogo proizvodstva [en ruso]
Rats inhaling mixed dust from copper and cadmium ore concentrates (10mg/m3 and 2mg/m3) were studied by physiological, biochemical and pathomorphological methods to detect toxic and fibrogenic effects. Apart from functional impairments, the inner organs, examined morphologically after one month of exposure, showed inflammatory changes due to the absorption of the metals. Fibrogenic effects were detected after longer periods, involving high levels of oxyproline and lipids in the lung tissue during the second phase of the experiment. Increased lung mass is evidently linked to the formation of fibrous tissue and dust accumulation. As rats inhaling the 2mg/m3 concentration developed early functional and later organic damage, this level cannot be taken as an exposure limit.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.39-41.

CIS 81-1997 Greenberg S.R.
Fluorescent studies on the potential existence of vascular metallic immune complexes
In an acridine orange-stained preparation of the rat kidney, positive fluorescence was observed in the media of renal arterioles following long-term implantation of cadmium wire into the cortex, but was absent in animals similarly treated with copper wire or plastic. The presence of lymphocytic foci around the thickened vesels in Cd-containing kidneys, together with evidence of an association of RNA with immune complex formation, suggest that the vascular thickening in the presence of Cd ions is attributable to the mural location of a metallic-originated immune complex.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1980, Vol.35, No.3, p.148-151. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 81-1973 Schaller K.H., Gonzales J., Thürauf J., Schiele R.
Early screening for kidney damage in persons occupationally exposed to lead, mercury and cadmium
Früherkennung von Nierenschäden bei beruflich gegenüber Blei, Quecksilber und Cadmium exponierten Personen [en alemán]
Report on medical examinations of 81 exposed workers in the metal trades and in manufacture of Ni-Cd storage batteries. To evaluate exposure, concentrations of these metals in blood and urine samples were determined. Renal excretion of certain proteins also served as an indicator of sub-clinical kidney damage. Description of analysis methods, results, and interpretation of results by comparison with those obtained by other authors. After relatively long-term exposure to Cd, characteristic β2-microglobulinuria and a high level of excreted total proteins can be observed; these phenomena are also observed, to a lesser extent, in persons exposed to Hg. Examination of persons exposed to lead did not show high levels of urinary protein excretion. Proposals are made for the urine analyses to be performed as part of a preventive medical examination in the case of exposure to Cd, and for limit concentrations of urinary and blood mercury to be observed in the case of exposure to Hg.
Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Originale Reihe B, 171, 1980, No.4-5, p.320-335. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 81-1616 Occupational exposure to cadmium
Papers read, and discussions held, at a seminar (London, United Kingdom, 20 Mar. 1980) are reproduced in 3 sections: sampling and measurement; presentation of data (mortality studies, biological monitoring, epidemiologic studies); interpretation and significance of data.
Cadmium Association, 34 Berkeley Square, London W1X 6AJ, United Kingdom, 1980. 64p. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 81-1064
Department of the Environment
Cadmium in the environment and its significance to man.
Concerned primarily with environmental questions, this booklet contains considerable information of interest to occupational health: production; properties of Cd metal; plating; batteries; alloys; pigments; plastics stabilisers; uptake of Cd by man (pathways and absorption, excretion, accumulation, effects, monitoring).
Pollution Paper 17. HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1980. 64p. 179 ref. Price: Ł3.50.

CIS 81-479 Hůzl F., Janech J., Sýkora J., Naxera P., Jandová P.
Biological exposure tests in cadmium-exposed workers in the light of occupational hygiene parameters
Biologické expoziční testy u pracujících v riziku kadmia ve vztahu k některým hygienickým parametrům pracoviště [en checo]
Studies in 60 workers in an alkaline storage battery plant and a control group are reported. Of the values measured (urinary Cd, ALA-D activity, atypical proteins, Donaggio test, blood cholinesterase activity), only ALA-D activity increased with the length of exposure. The absence of an effect of the dust level or hazard index on these parameters suggests that length of exposure is one of the chief factors underlying the results of certain exposure tests in cadmium workers, and confirms the hypothesis of accumulation of cadmium in the body.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1980, Vol.32, No.5, p.181-185. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 81-437 Recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to heavy metals.
Exposition aux métaux lourds: limites recommandées d'exposition professionnelle ŕ visée sanitaire. [en francés]
Report of a WHO study group (Geneva, 5-11 June 1979) on health-based limits for occupational exposure to cadmium, inorganic lead, manganese and mercury. Recommendations on TLVs for workplace air, and on biological limits (level of toxic substances or their metabolites in human biological material at which no adverse effect is determined) as relatively recently developed indicators of permissible exposure, and as a first step towards the establishment of operational limits. Considerations, for each metal, on: metabolism and toxicity, relationship between exposure and health effects, research possibilities, current status of exposure limits, periodic reappraisal, relations between exposure-effect and exposure-response.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland. 116p.Illus. 19 ref. Price: SF.8.00.

CIS 81-463 Buchet J.P., Roels H., Bernard A., Lauwerys R.
Assessment of renal function of workers exposed to inorganic lead, cadmium or mercury vapor.
Renal function of 148 cadmium workers, 63 mercury workers, and 25 inorganic lead workers was compared with 88 controls. Pb exposure (blood level up to 62µg/100ml) did not seem to affect renal function. High Cd exposure increases urinary excretion of low- and high-molecular-weight proteins and of tubular enzymes, especially in workers excreting more than 10µg Cd/g creatinine or with a blood level above 1µg/100ml. Hg exposure induces glomerular dysfunction, above all in workers with blood Hg above 3µg/ml and urinary Hg above 50µg/g creatinine. These Hg concentrations are proposed as biological threshold limits. Glomerular dysfunction induced by Cd and Hg might result from an autoimmune mechanism.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.22, No.11, p.741-750. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 81-175 Bernard A., Roels H., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.
Screening for early diagnosis and prevention of kidney damage due to occupational exposure to cadmium
Dépistage précoce et prévention des lésions rénales dans l'exposition professionnelle au cadmium. [en francés]
Contents: properties and uses of Cd; characteristics of kidney damage due to Cd (epidemiology, early screening by determination in urine of proteins of low molecular weight such as β2-microglobulin, or of high molecular weight such as albumin or transferrin); relation between kidney damage and exposure to Cd (exposure parameters; critical concentration in air and in biological media (kidney tissue, urine, blood); detection by determination of urinary Cd levels); recommendations.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June 1980, Vol.17, No.2, p.47-64. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 81-119 Ščerbakov G.G.
Prediction of the degree of toxicity and calculation of exposure limits of cadmium compounds based on their electronic structure
Prognozirovanie stepeni toksičnosti i rasčety gigieničeskih norm (PDK) kadmievyh kompozicij na osnove ih ėlektronno-konfiguracionnogo stroenija [en ruso]
Studies of cadmium-zinc luminophors are reported. The toxicity of the constituent elements of the luminophors is related to their molecular weight, melting point, binding energy, and electron mobility. Equations are given for calculation of the lethal dose 50% and the indicative exposure limit of compounds belonging to the group of cadmium sulfide luminophors.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.42-45. 11 ref.

CIS 81-195 Smith T.J., Ferrel W.C., Varner M.O., Putnam R.D.
Inhalation exposure of cadmium workers: effects of respirator usage.
Cadmium concentrations were measured inside the respirator and in the worker's breathing zone. In 9 workers studied, average inhalation exposure was 3-67µg/m3, and lapel concentrations were 19-3600µg/m3. Respirator use substantially reduced inhalation exposure when breathing zone concentrations were >100µg/m3. Average inhalation exposure was 26% of the breathing zone concentration, but protection varied widely.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1980, Vol.41, No.9, p.624-629. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 80-1982 Blainey J.D., Adams R.G., Brewer D.B., Harvey T.C.
Cadmium-induced osteomalacia.
The case history of a battery plate maker exposed to cadmium for 36 years is reported. Proteinuria had been present for 25 years and he had suffered increasing disability from gross bone disease for the last 12 years of his life. Bone biopsies and metabolic studies showed typical severe osteomalacia. The liver contained a gross excess of cadmium, as did the kidneys after death. Histological findings, calcium balance and uptake studies, renal function tests, and cadmium studies are reported. The pathogenesis is discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.37, No.3, p.278-284. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 80-1372 Iwao S., Tsuchiya K., Sakurai H.
Serum and urinary beta-2-microglobulin among cadmium-exposed workers.
10 workers with past heavy Cd exposure, 3 with low exposure, and 5 controls were studied. Blood and urinary Cd were higher in the heavily exposed workers even after cessation of exposure. Elevated blood Cd was significantly associated with elevated serum β-2-microglobulin (β2M). High β2M in urine is not necessarily due to tubular impairment but may result from a plasma β2M level exceeding the renal threshold.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1980, Vol.22, No.6, p.399-402. 22 ref.

CIS 80-1046 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 68. Zinc, cadmium, mercury
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 68. Zinc, cadmium, mercure. [en francés]
Description, based on examples from the literature, of possible hazardous chemical reactions (pyrolysis, fires, explosions) of zinc, cadmium and mercury in presence of various substances or compounds such as acetic acid, water, ammonium nitrate, barium nitrate, ammonium sulfide, selenium, acetylene, ammonium hydroxides, chlorine, acetylene compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1980, No.98, Note No.1235-98-80, p.127-130. 33 ref.

1979

CIS 81-1371 Delage C., Gualde N., Malinvaud G., Guichard C.
Identification of a genetic marker of predisposition to cadmium accumulation
Mise en évidence d'un marqueur génétique prédisposant au stockage du cadmium. [en francés]
Development of an atomic absorption technique for determining cadmium levels in biological fluids, especially blood, and its use in persons with non-occupational exposure (mean values: 5.5 ± 3.5mg/ml) and in workers employed in the manufacture of cadmium-rich dyes (mean value: 25 ± 20ng/ml). HLA phenotypes in the subjects examined were determined to study possible relations between specific phenotypes and predisposition to blood accumulation of cadmium. A3 group subjects have a particularly high predisposition to cadmium fixation in blood. In-vitro studies confirmed this predisposition.
Annales pharmaceutiques françaises, 1979, Vol.37, No.9-10, p.475-482. 18 ref.

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