Arsenic and compounds - 236 entradas encontradas
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Mundt W., Angerer J., Maassen J.
Determination of arsenic in urine by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry
Bestimmung von Arsen im Harn mit Hilfe der flammenlosen Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie [en alemán]
Description of a method of determination particularly well suited for early screening for arsenic poisoning. The method is based on the conversion of arsenic in urine into arsine by reduction, using sodium borohydride, and on the thermal decomposition of arsine into elemental arsenic, which appears in the atomic absorption spectrometer. Description of preparation of the sample, method of determination, set-up required, reagents and results of recovery tests. Reliability criteria of the method are shown in a table. The limit of detection is 14µgAs/l urine; the recovery percentage is 90-100%.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1978, Vol.13, No.3, p.62-64. Illus. 25 ref.
NIOSH current intelligence bulletin reprints - Bulletins 1 thru 18.
These reprints include the initial notification of the hazards presented, the background (studies, toxicity in animals and humans, workers and industries subject to exposure, supplier and users of the substances) and bibliographies. Studies in progress are mentioned and recommendations are given for chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, chrome pigments, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, diethylcarbamoyl chloride, explosive azides, inorganic arsenic, nitrosamines in cutting fluids, metabolic precursors of 2-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-127, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1 Mar. 1978. 125p. 104 ref.
Axelson O., Dahlgren E., Jansson C.D., Rehnlund S.O.
Arsenic exposure and mortality: a case-referent study from a Swedish copper smelter.
In the case-referent study design, subjects (cases) dying of specific conditions (here malignant tumours, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, cirrhosis of the liver) are compared with subjects (referents or controls) dying from all other causes (except for a few exclusions). In the present study there were 251 cases and 74 referents. The work environment was characterised by the presence of trivalent arsenic in combination with sulfur dioxide, copper and other agents. Lung cancer mortality was increased 5-fold and cardiovascular disease 2-fold, with a dose-response relation to arsenic exposure. Mortality from leukaemia and myeloma and cirrhosis of the liver was slightly increased. Reports of excess mortality due to cardiovascular disease are rare. Questions of bias and confounding factors are discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1978, Vol.35, No.1, p.8-15. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Executive.
Arsine - Health and safety precautions.
Information on: properties, synonyms; United Kingdom TLV (0.05ppm); reference to information on method of detection in air; industrial occurrences; acute and chronic toxicity; enclosure of plant; extraction ventilation; regulations.
Guidance Note EH 11, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Sep. 1977. 2p. Price: £0.30.
Experiments on urinary arsenic excretion
Versuche zur Ausscheidung von Arsen im Urin [en alemán]
In these self-administration experiments, a single dose of 2.65mg arsenic trioxide (2mg As) yielded maximum urinary excretion after 3-6h. Daily administration of 1mg arsenic trioxide (0.76mg As) produced a steady state after 5 days; daily excretion was 69-72% of the daily dose. Intake of 12mg finely powdered arsenic selenide (As2Se3) did not increase urinary arsenic excretion. Conclusions: screening arsenic trioxide-exposed workers may be performed as little as 2 weeks after start of employment, and should be done after at least 4 consecutive working days. There is normally only a small difference between the rate of excretion at the beginning and end of the shift.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 22 Dec. 1977, Vol.40, No.4, p.267-272. Illus. 5 ref.
Clay J.E., Dale I., Cross J.D.
Arsenic absorption in steel bronze workers.
The steel "bronzing" solution consists of arsenic and iron chlorides in strong hydrochloric acid (approx. 10% arsenic). Two cases from the literature and a new case of arsine poisoning due to bronzing of zinc or brass objects are described. Chemical investigations at the workplace and neutron activation analysis of hair and nails of workers provide evidence of the hazard.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, July 1977, Vol.27, No.3, p.102-104. 10 ref.
Hine C.H., Pinto S.S., Nelson K.W.
Medical problems associated with arsenic exposure.
This article reviews the records of all employees at a copper smelter and refinery from 1946-1971 (workforce ranging from 763 to 1,431 over this period). Arsenic concentrations in different departments are shown. Areas of highest exposure were roasters, Cottrell units, arsenic plant, and waste heat boiler room. Aspects dealt with: medical programme; arsenic excretion; dermatological findings; cumulative effects; hepatic, renal, haematological, cardiac, respiratory and neurological effects; arsenic and cancer. A medical biological monitoring programme for arsenic-exposed workers is recommended.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1977, Vol.19, No.6, p.391-396. 29 ref.
A review of the carcinogenicities of nickel, chromium and arsenic compounds in man and animals.
More than 400 cases of lung cancer and 125 of nasal cancer in nickel-exposed workers are compiled. Mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. Chromium-induced respiratory tract, nasal cavity and laryngeal cancers; experimental carcinogenicity of lead chromate and lead-molybdenum chromate. Arsenic-induced cancer of the lung, skin and other organs in copper refinery workers, gold miners, smelters, sheep-dip workers, workers using or manufacturing insecticides. There is no evidence of carcinogenicity of arsenic compounds in experimental animals.
Preventive Medicine, June 1976, Vol.5, No.2, p.279-294. 167 ref.
Study of autonomic changes due to the combined effects of lead and arsenic
Proučvane nevro-vegatativnite promeni pri kombiniranoto văzdejstvie na olovo i arsen [en búlgaro]
Results of autonomic nervous function tests (Aschner-Dagnini reflex, orthostatic test, Crampton's test) in 61 workers employed in a smelting plant. Characteristic reflex modifications could be observed as from the initial stages of exposure, and increased in severity as the concentrations increased. The subjective symptoms coincided with the neurological condition and confirmed the objective alterations. During the latent period, functional modifications of the nervous system precede the clinical manifestations and haematological changes. The author emphasises the importance of the asthenia-autonomic nervous system-impairment syndrome and certain neurological signs for early diagnosis.
Problemi na higienata, Dec. 1976, No.2, p.107-112. 12 ref.
Guidance Note, Environmental Hygiene/8, Health and Safety Executive, London.
Arsenic - Health and safety precautions.
This guidance note deals with arsenic and its compounds excluding arsine. Threshold limit values; industrial uses; occurrence; acute and chronic poisonous effects; preventive measures (control, personal protection, first aid, medical supervision); and legal requirements are discussed.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1976. 4p.
Study of occupational skin cancer of chemical origin
Contribution à l'étude des cancers cutanés professionnels d'origine chimique. [en francés]
MD thesis. Cancer as an occupational disease, and not resulting from an occupational accident, is considered. General remarks (identification of the carcinogenic agents, the chief chemical carcinogens, mechanism of action, pathogenesis) are followed by a description of 10 cases of arsenical skin cancer and 2 of cancer due to coal tar seen by the author. 2 long chapters are devoted to a literature review of arsenical skin epithelioma (history, chemical data, sources of poisoning, physiopathology, arsenic and cancer formation, clinical study, diagnosis of arsenical poisoning and arsenical cancer, treatment) and of skin epithelioma due to coal tar and petroleum derivatives (chief derivatives, history, clinical study). A final section examines the French regulations relating to prevention and compensation. Conclusions: characteristics of cancers due to chronic contact with toxic agents, difficulty of proving the occupational nature of certain cancers, inadequacy of present French legislation.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1976. 178p. 169 ref.
Pinto S.S., Varner M.O., Nelson K.W., Labbe A.L., White L.D.
Arsenic trioxide absorption and excretion in industry.
Study in 24 copper ore and concentrate workers. There was a statistically significant correlation between airborne arsenic trioxide of <300µg/m3 and urinary arsenic levels of <500µg/l. An average exposure of 53µg/m3 for one week increased urinary arsenic from 152 to 200µg/l (a 32% rise). The rate of fall of urinary arsenic when exposure ceases varies with the urinary arsenic level. Below 200µg/l it was 9.5%/day initially; above 600µg/l, about 21%/day. The influence of eating seafood on urinary arsenic can be considerable, and recommendations for monitoring procedure are made.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1976, Vol.18, No.10, p.677-680. 5 ref.
Case report - Arsine poisoning: Evaluation of the acute phase.
A case report of a 27-year-old man who had worked in a copper smelter and refinery for 3 years, and a note on the mechanism of arsine production, are followed by discussion of diagnosis and treatment of arsine poisoning. Acute, moderate to severe poisoning is characterised by migratory abdominal cramps and tenderness, nausea, vomiting and painless haemoglobinuria. There is leukocytosis, elevated plasma haemoglobin and haemoglobinuria without cellular debris. Blood and urinary arsenic determinations should be made if possible.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1976, Vol.18, No.9, p.633-635. 8 ref.
Peripheral circulatory disorders and acrocyanosis in Moselle vineyard workers with arsenic poisoning
Periphere Durchblutungsstörungen und Akrocyanose bei arsengeschädigten Moselwinzern [en alemán]
Observations made during check-ups on 155 vineyard workers showing late signs of arsenic poisoning. Average exposure time was 20 years; inhaled dose was estimated at 3-30mg daily. The late health damage consisted of melanosis, precancerous dermatosis, carcinoma and palmar or plantar keratosis. Description of the lesions and latency periods (average: 26 years). Other health damage included acrocyanosis, worsening with age and accompanied by peripheral circulatory disorders, cyanosis of the lips, dyspnoea and emphysema complicated by cardiac insufficiency.
Berufs-Dermatosen, June 1976, Vol.24, No.3, p.78-84. Illus. 10 ref.
Lamberton J.G., Arbogast B.L., Deinzer M.L., Norris L.A.
A rapid method for the determination of arsenic concentrations in urine at field locations.
Description of a colorimetric method for arsenic utilising a portable hood and requiring minimal laboratory facilities. Urine samples are combusted in a hot plate oven with magnesium oxide and magnesium nitrate. Arsine is generated from the ashed product and passed into silver diethyldithiocarbamate in pyridine. Inorganic and organic arsenicals are detectable in urine at 0.03ppm with 6% variation. Testing was also satisfactorily performed by non-chemists.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1976, Vol.37, No.7, p.418-422. Illus. 11 ref.
Hamada T., Horiguchi S.
Occupational chronic arsenical poisoning.
Report on the cutaneous manifestations in 28 workers exposed to arsenic for up to 24 years in the manufacture of lead and calcium arsenate insecticides. Corn-like punctate keratoses mainly on the palms and soles, multiple Bowen's disease and diffuse bronze pigmentation with raindrop areas of hypopigmentation on the trunk and extremities were found, considered to be characteristic cutaneous symptoms of chronic arsenical poisoning. There was no correlation between the intensity of the symptoms and arsenic exposure. Careful medical supervision of workers with cutaneous manifestations is considered necessary even after contact with arsenic has ceased. Abstract and captions in English.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1976, Vol.18, No.2, p.103-115. Illus. 60 ref.
Occupational lead and arsenic exposure - A symposium.
This symposium was held in Chicago, USA, 24-25 Feb. 1975 to review the state of knowledge to assist in establishing safe levels of the substances. Papers and discussions covered: sources of lead and arsenic in industry, monitoring of workplaces and problems involved; toxicology (special lead problems in women workers, neurological and behavioural toxicology, central nervous system, kidney, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects of arsenic); epidemiology (fish, children, community exposure, smelter worker mortality); threshold limit values; research needs in lead exposure; medical surveillance of lead workers.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-134, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Feb. 1976. 341p. Illus. 252 ref.
Pella P.A., Hughes E.E., Taylor J.K.
Development of gas-blending systems for calibration: Application to hydrogen fluoride, arsine and phosgene in air.
Standard samples are required to calibrate and evaluate analytical monitoring devices for measuring atmospheric concentrations of gaseous contaminants. The techniques used at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards for preparing samples of known concentrations of hydrogen fluoride, arsine and phosgene in air from 0.5 to 5 times the respective TLV are described. The basic apparatus consists of a dynamic gas-blending system which is described for each of the 3 substances.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1975, Vol.36, No.10, p.755-759. Illus. 9 ref.
Oddo N., Vitali A.
New instrument systems in atomic absorption spectroscopy, applied to analysis of toxic elements - Determination of arsenic by the latest sampling methods
Nuovi sistemi strumentali in spettroscopia di assorbimento atomico, applicati all'analisi di elementi tossici - Determinazione dell'arsenico con le più recenti tecniche di campionamento [en italiano]
After referring to the inherent difficulties in arsenic determination by atomic absorption, the article describes microwave discharge lamps developed for this technique to replace hollow cathode lamps. The main developments have however been replacement of flame atomisation by apparatus that generates arsine from an air sample containing arsenic or by graphite sampling tubes treated and atomised in the furnace.
Chimica e l'industria, Feb. 1975, Vol.57, No.2, p.93-96. Illus. 10 ref.
Wilkinson S.P., McHugh P., Horsley S., Tubbs H., Lewis M., Thould A., Winterton M., Parsons V., Williams R.
Arsine toxicity aboard the Asiafreighter.
Medical report on 8 cases of poisoning on a ship due to arsine that had escaped from the cargo hold. The article describes the incident, the initial symptoms, and the effects on the haematological, renal, neurological, pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, skin, nails and hair, liver, and joints. 4 patients were severely poisoned and intravascular haemolysis was complete in one case, requiring an exchange transfusion. All 4 developed renal failure, and 2 of them peripheral neuropathy. The article is illustrated by photographs and tables.
British Medical Journal, 6 Sep. 1975, Vol.3, No.5893, p.559-563. Illus. 20 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic - New criteria 1975
Revised recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases caused by exposure to arsenic and its inorganic compounds. No worker should be exposed to a concentration in excess of 0.002mg/m3 (for a 40-h week) as determined by 15-min breathing zone samples. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, informing employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed under the headings: biological effects of exposure, environmental data and biological evaluation, development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of arsenic in air and determination in urine are detailed and additional useful information is given in appendices. The basis for the previous recommended standard are given (CIS 74-488).
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-149, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, Apr. 1975. 140p. Illus. 111 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 28. Arsenic, antimony and bismuth
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 28. Arsenic, antimoine, bismuth. [en francés]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions of arsenic, antimony and bismuth with various substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.78, Note No.950-78-75, p.129-130.
Lung cancer due to the effects of arsenic in an industrial worker
Cancer du poumon provoqué par l'action de l'arsenic chez un ouvrier de l'industrie. [en francés]
Translation of: Lungenkrebs durch Arsen-Einwirkung bei einem Industriearbeiter. Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Heidelberg, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Mar. 1970, Vol.20, No.3, p.75-78. 19 ref. (CIS 2431-1970 Cak Gtz Mqs Nyt). Case history of a 53-year-old worker in a chemical factory who was exposed for 10 years to very light arsenic-containing dusts and died from lung cancer. Autopsy disclosed bronchial carcinoma and postnecrotic cirrhosis of the liver. In view of the simultaneous occurrence of hyperkeratosis, death was attributed to occupationally-induced chronic arsenic poisoning. The author discusses statistics and literature on the occurrence of cancer due to arsenic.
Traduction INRS 47 B-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 12p. 19 ref.
Ott M.G., Holder B.B., Gordon H.L.
Respiratory cancer and occupational exposure to arsenicals.
The proportionate mortality experience of 173 deceased workers exposed primarily to lead arsenate and calcium arsenate was compared with that of 1,809 deceased controls not exposed to these compounds. An overall increase in respiratory cancer and a positive dose-response relationship was found in the exposed employees. No common factor other than exposure to the compounds was found among the employees to explain these observations. Arsenic therefore deserves further investigation as a cause of respiratory cancer.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1974, Vol.29, No.5, p.250-255. Illus. 12 ref.
Cases of lung cancer following exposure to arsenic
Accumulation de cas de cancer du poumon après exposition à l'arsenic. [en francés]
Translation of: Eine Häufung von Lungenkarzinomen nach Arsenexposition. Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Stuttgart, Germany (Fed.Rep.), May 1971, Vol.6, No.5, p.127-128. After referring to the literature on the carcinogenic effect of arsenic, the author discusses the appearance of lung cancer in 5 workers in an arsenic production plant. The main findings, together with details of exposure and latency times, are presented in tables. In the light of the information obtained in these 5 cases, the authors conclude that the inhalation of arsenic may be followed by the formation of lung tumours even where there has been no previous positive picture of poisoning.
Traduction INRS 48 B-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 7p.
Antov G., Zlateva M.
Changes in the levels of sulfhydryl groups and soluble proteins in certain internal organs of white rats under the combined effect of lead and arsenic
Promeni v količestvoto na sulfhidrilnite grupi i raztvorimite beltăci v njakoi vătrešni organi na beli plăhove pri kombinirano dejstvie na olovo i arsen [en búlgaro]
Study of changes in the -SH and -S-S- groups and soluble proteins in liver, kidney, brain and small intestine homogenates of white rats exposed to arsenic trioxide in doses of 1/10 and 1/100 of the LD50 and to lead acetate (1/100 of the LD50), fed both separately and together, under conditions of subacute and chronic exposure. The combined action produced a fall in the levels of -SH groups and soluble proteins and an increase in -S-S- groups in the organs examined. These changes were proportional to the doses ingested and the duration of action. In the subacute test, the combined effect produced a fall in -SH groups and soluble proteins, closer to the effect of lead acetate, while in the chronic test synergism was marked. The changes observed are evidence of a disturbance of protein metabolism and redox processes.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.155-165. Illus. 22 ref.
Lung cancer due to arsenic in an industrial worker
Cancer du poumon provoqué par l'action de l'arsenic chez un ouvrier de l'industrie. [en francés]
Translation of: Lungenkrebs durch Arsen-Einwirkung bei einem Industriearbeiter. Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Heidelberg, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Mar. 1970, Vol.20, No.3, p.75-78. 24 ref. Case history of a 53-year-old worker in a chemical factory who was exposed for 10 years to very light arsenic-containing dusts and died from lung cancer. Autopsy disclosed bronchial carcinoma and postnecrotic cirrhosis of the liver; in view of the simultaneous occurrence of hyperkeratosis, death was attributed to occupationally-induced chronic arsenic poisoning. The author discusses statistics and literature on the occurrence of cancer due to arsenic.
Traduction INRS 47 B-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 11p. 24 ref.
Biliary excretion of arsenic in rats, rabbits, and dogs.
Studies were carried out in rats, dogs and rabbits to determine if arsenic is transported from the plasma to the bile against a concentration gradient and if biliary excretion is important in the removal of arsenic from the body. It was shown that arsenic is excreted into the bile against a large bile/plasma concentration gradient in rats, suggesting excretion by an active transport mechanism.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Sep. 1974, Vol.29, No.3, p.447-457. Illus. 10 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Sep. 1973.
Principles applicable to preventive medical examinations - Hazards associated with arsenic and its compounds
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Gefährdung durch Arsen oder seine Verbindungen [en alemán]
Principles are laid down for the prevention and early detection of diseases which may be caused by arsenic and its compounds (with the exception of arsine). They cover the scope of aptitude tests and periodic medical checkups as well as the following subjects: hazard sources, absorption and mode of action, clinical picture of acute and chronic poisoning, prohibition of employment of women and young persons, and determination in biological samples.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Feb. 1974, Vol.9, No.2, p.38-40. 19 ref.
Wagner S.L., Weswig P.
Arsenic in blood and urine of forest workers as indices of exposure to cacodylic acid.
5 healthy forest workers exposed to cacodylic acid (dimethyl arsinic acid), a newly introduced herbicide, but observing safe procedures, were examined for evidence of accumulation of arsenic in the blood, the pattern of its urinary excretion and signs of clinical intoxication. The total urinary excretion of arsenic appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure than arsenic concentration in blood or in random urine samples. None of the workers manifested signs of arsenic intoxication. Because there was no illness, no attempt was made to set threshold limits for excretion based on these studies. The possibility of the formation of arsine gas in treated forest areas is a potential hazard.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1974, Vol.28, No.2, p.77-79. 7 ref.
Some inorganic and organometallic compounds.
A series of 7 monographs consisting of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 29 Nov.-4 Dec. 1972). Individual monographs are devoted to: asbestos, arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds, cadmium and inorganic cadmium compounds, chromium and inorganic chromium compounds, nickel and inorganic nickel compounds, tetraethyl- and tetramethyllead and iron-carbohydrate complexes.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.2. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France, 1973. 181p. Illus. 432 ref. Price: SF.12.00.
Katagiri Y., Kawai M., Tati M.
Determination of arsenic in biological materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine arsenic levels in human hair and urine. There were no significant interferences by Cu, Fe, Sb, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo or Ni ions in solution or by submolar concentrations of Na or K salts or perchloric and phosphoric acids, but nitric acid was found to interfere. Levels of urinary arsenic in workers employed for periods of 0.3-10 years in an arsenic mine and who retired 15-30 years prior to measurement are broken down according to type of work; the highest levels as a rule were found in ore conveyance.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Jan. 1973, Vol.15, No.1, p.67-74. Illus. 14 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases caused by exposure to elemental arsenic and its inorganic compounds other than arsine and lead arsenate. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure should not exceed 0.05 mg As/m3 over a 40-hour week. Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of arsenic in air and its determination in urine are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 105 p. Illus. 87 ref. Price: US-$1.25.
Criteria for evaluating occupational arsenic exposure
Criterii de apreciere a expunerii profesionale la arsen [en rumano]
A study of 127 non-ferrous metal smelters (49 zinc sulfate processors and 78 cadmium and zinc refiners) exposed to minimal concentrations of arsenic oxide and arsine showed that work in the zinc sulfate processing shop was significantly more hazardous than that in the cadmium and zinc refining plant. It was also found that the arsenic content of hair is a more reliable method of determining exposure than urine arsenic. Interpretation of haemolytic effects should make allowance for interference from other elements (lead, zinc, cadmium, etc.).
Igiena, May 1972, Vol.21, No.5, p.259-264. 8 ref.
American Industrial Hygiene Association
Arsenic and its compounds
Description of the silver diethyldithiocarbamate method, which is based on the reduction of arsenic to arsine and the reaction of the latter with silver diethyldithiocarbamate in pyridine. Sampling, interferences, sensitivity, special reagents and equipment. The method is said to be simpler that the molybdenum methods and more sensitive than the Gutzeit method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.197. 3 ref.
Health damage in workers exposed to high concentrations of arsenicals
Oštećenija kod radnika izloženih povišenoj koncentraciji arsenovih spojeva [en serbocroata]
158 ferrosilicon workers (with exposure to high arsine concentrations) and 152 gypsum-plant workers (control group) were examined for arsenic absorption; chemical analysis of urine, fingernails and hair revealed no differences. Analysis of medical findings showed no statistical difference between the 2 groups - except for a higher incidence of acute hepatitis in the arsenic-exposed group. The only significant difference was revealed by dermatological examination: arsenic-exposed workers suffered more from melanoderma, hyperkeratitis, leuco-melanoderma and nail changes.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.3, p.245-252. 9 ref.
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