Arsenic and compounds - 236 entradas encontradas
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Costello R.J., Eller P.M., Delon Hull R.
Measurement of multiple inorganic arsenic species
Traditional sampling methods and atomic absorption analysis quantify only total inorganic arsenic. Samples collected by NIOSH during a field study at a lead-acid battery manufacuring plant were used to develop a technique capable of separating mixtures of particulate inorganic arsenic compounds and arsine and of detecting and quantifying arsenic trioxide vapour. The collection device consists of a 13mm cassette containing a cellulose-ester membrane filter without support pad and a 150mg charcoal tube connected in series. Sampling flow is 0.2l/min. It seems that, in the presence of heated arsenic sources, monitoring solely with conventional filters will underestimate arsenic exposure because of inefficient collection of arsenic trioxide vapour.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.21-28. Illus. 12 ref.
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Arsenic and its inorganic compounds
Arsenic et ses composés minéraux [en francés]
Uses, physical and chemical properties; storage; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology; toxicology: experimental toxicity, metabolism, search for mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic effects in animals and man; acute and chronic toxicity in man (American (ACGIH) TLV: 0.2mg/m3 as As). French regulations on occupational health and safety, neighbourhood protection and uses in agriculture, and French and international regulations on transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, p.605-610.
Andersson K., Kragh E., Nilsson C.A., Nygren O., Rehn M.
Sampling and analysis of pressure-impregnated wood dust - II. Method of selective analysis of As(III) and (V) and determination of Cr, Cu and As in such wood dust
Provtagning och analys av trädamm frĺn tryckimpregnerat virke. II. Metod för selektiv analys av As(III) och (V) samt bestämning av Cr, Cu och As i trädamm [en sueco]
Contents of this research report: reagents and instruments required; source of dusts; sample preparation (extraction, partition); methods of determination (atomic absorption spectrophotometry). Metal levels detected were 7.0 ± 4.6mg/g chromium, 4.9 ± 1.9mg/g copper and 9.5 ± 5.1mg/g arsenic; all the arsenic was pentavalent.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 13p. 7 ref.
The consequences of chronic arsenic poisoning among Moselle wine growers - Pathoanatomical investigations of post-mortem examinations performed between 1960 and 1977
Post-mortem findings of 163 wine growers with chronic arsenic poisoning resulting from the use of arsenical insecticides in viniculture. Lung cancers were found in 66% of all wine growers affected; however, nearly the same amount of carcinomas or pre-carcinogenic changes in the skin were observed. The use of arsenic for insecticidal purposes in Germany was banned in 1942; however, this did not mean the eradication of arsenic poisoning. Modern theories of the carcinogenic action of arsenic, the question of tumour latency and the relation of specific cancers to arsenic exposure are discussed.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, Feb. 1983, Vol.105, No.2, p.173-182. 69 ref.
Welch K., Higgins I., Oh M., Burchfiel C.
Arsenic exposure, smoking, and respiratory cancer in copper smelter workers
The vital status of 1800 men from an original cohort of over 8000 copper smelter workers who, in 1969, had shown a 3-fold excess of respiratory cancer was determined. There was a clear dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and respiratory cancer mortality. Men exposed to ≥5000µg/m3 had a 7-fold excess. Ceiling As exposure seemed to be more important than TWA exposure. Sulfur dioxide and asbestos did not seem to be implicated. Smoking was less important than As exposure, nor was there evidence of an interaction. The problems of estimating As exposure are discussed.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1982, Vol.37, No.6, p.325-335. 12 ref.
Exposure to arsenic: Five years after the Manfredonia accident
Esposizione ad arsenico: a cinque anni dall'incidente di Manfredonia [en italiano]
This whole issue is devoted to articles reporting various aspects of the explosion that occurred on 26 Sep. 1976 at Manfredonia, Italy, which produced arsenic pollution in the factory and the surrounding area. Papers dealing more specifically with OSH aspects are: arsenic poisoning (review) (p.278-301); early action (results of the medical examinations in 1188 workers) (p.309-323); follow-up health studies (p.324-334); follow-up proteinuria studies (p.335-338); clinical data on hospitalised cases (p.339-346); 2 papers on biological monitoring of arsenic workers; total urine arsenic concentrations (p.353-364); analytical methods for determination of metabolised arsenic in the urine (p.365-380).
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1982, Vol.73, No.3, Suppl., p.259-380. Illus. Bibl.
Landrigan P.J., Costello R.J., Stringer W.T.
Occupational exposure to arsine: An epidemiological reappraisal of current standards
Studies at a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant are reported. Personal air samples for exposure to arsine and particulate arsenic (As) and area air samples for arsenic trioxide (AS2O3) vapour concentrations were done. Arsine levels in 177 breathing-zone air samples were 0-49µg/m3. Highest levels were in the battery formation area. Exposures to As and As2O3 were generally lower. 8 of 39 production workers had urinary As concentrations that indicated As absorption. The current arsine exposure standard, 200µg/m3, fails to prevent chronic increased absorption of trivalent arsenic from the inhalation of arsine.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.169-177. Illus. 48 ref.
Criteria Group for Occupational Standards (Sweden)
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards II
A collection of consensus reports which bring together and evaluate the relevant scientific data on substances which may present an occupational health risk; these consensus reports are intended for use as background material by the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health in the preparation of its occupational standards (exposure limits). Substances considered are: chlorine and chlorine dioxide; inorganic arsenic (excluding arsenic hydride); benzene; synthetic inorganic fibres; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; diisocyanates; oil mist; wood dust.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 solna, Sweden, 1982. 97p. Illus. 160 ref.
Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.R.
Evaluation of exposure to inorganic arsenic
Evaluation de l'exposition ŕ l'arsenic inorganique [en francés]
A technique for analysis of various forms of arsenic, enabling the metabolism of inorganic arsenic to be studied in man, showed that the urinary excretion of this substance and its metabolites is copious and rapid. Metabolism of the inorganic form is a methylation process leading to the formation of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which are excreted in urine with part of the unchanged inorganic form. Biological surveillance of inorganic arsenic-exposed workers gives valid results when using urinary excretion monitoring for this element, provided that the monitoring method used determines specifically the inorganic form and the metabolites MMA and DMA, and excludes the organic form of marine origin.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1982, Vol.19, No.1, p.15-23. Illus. 15 ref.
Conri C., Vargue C., Moreau F.
Chronic arsenic poisoning
Arsénicisme chronique [en francés]
Considerations on various clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic (As) poisoning linked to a case study of chronic poisoning due to handling a product containing As used in agriculture: haematological, neurological, digestive and cardiovascular signs. Pitfalls in diagnosis: As monitoring methods; physiopathology; course of this occupational disease and its treatment. Latent development of cancer of the skin or internal organs must be considered.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 1982, Vol.58, No.4, p.242-245. 26 ref.
Biological monitoring of arsenic, chromium, nickel, mercury, selenium and thallium in man: analytical procedures, results and tolerances
Analytik, Ergebnisse und Toleranzwerte des Biological Monitoring von Arsen, Chrom, Nickel, Quecksilber, Selen und Thallium beim Menschen [en alemán]
Record of proceedings of a committee of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) on the possibilities and limitations of biological monitoring methods. Papers presented covered: normal and occupational arsenic concentrations in urine, and their determination; physiological and epidemiological aspects of chromium and biological monitoring; determination of nickel concentrations in biological material; recent biological and epidemiological results concerning nickel; methods for determination of mercury concentrations in human biological material; epidemiological studies of mercury excretion; biological effects of selenium; analysis and results of biological monitoring of thallium; medical aspects of biological monitoring of thallium.
Staub, Apr. 1982, Vol.42, No.4, p.131-154. 257 ref.
Gosselin B., Mathieu D., Desprez-Nolf M., Cosson A., Goudemand J., Haguenoer J.M., Wattel F.
Four case studies of acute arsine poisoning
Intoxications aiguës par l'hydrogčne arsénié. 4 observations [en francés]
During repair work on a zinc liquation furnace 4 workers were accidentally exposed to an emission of arsine. Very acute intravascular haemolysis occurred some hours afterwards. Immediately on diagnosis exsanguinotransfusion was performed. Detailed description of symptoms and treatment. Secondary observations: course of poisoning effects and symptoms resemble those of arsenic poisoning. Regular monitoring of As blood and urine levels enabled changes in As levels to be followed, spontaneously, under exsanguinotransfusion and under haemodialysis. Haemodialysis seems to be the best method for clearance and elimination of toxics.
Nouvelle presse médicale, 1982, Vol.11, No.6, p.439-442. Illus. 12 ref.
Misra U.K., Nag D., Misra N.K., Krishna Murti C.R.
Macular degeneration associated with chronic pesticide exposure
64 workers in a malaria control unit sprayed Baytex, Temephos (both organic thiophosphates) and Paris green (copper acetoarsenite) in oil for 5-6h per day without use of protective clothing, face masks or gloves. On examination 14 members of the group, aged 24-42 years with exposure in the range 1-8 years, had macular involvement. Symptoms included visual impairment, dislike of bright light, night blindness, black dots in front of the eyes and blurring of vision. Visual acuity was reduced in 9 subjects. Macular degeneration was characterised by areas of perifoveal depigmentation, dull foveal reflex, and bilaterial lesions. Clinical evaluation did not reveal any known cause for this high-frequency of macular degeneration, and the macular toxicity of the pesticides is suspected as the cause.
Lancet, 30 Jan. 1982, Vol.1, No.8266, p.288. 6 ref.
Arsine; arseenivety [en finlandés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: TLV = 0.2mg/m3. Toxicity: long-term exposure can lead to red blood cell destruction, serious damage to the central nervous system and death. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R25, S1, S2, S20, S21, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, July 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Contents: recommendations for further research; physical and chemical properties of arsenic and compounds, and analytical procedures; sources of arsenic in the environment; environmental transport and distribution; environmental levels and exposure; metabolism of inorganic arsenic and of organic arsenic compounds; experimental studies of effects on animals and man; epidemiological and clinical studies; evaluation of health risks to man of exposure to arsenic and compounds. Where applicable, chapters contain sections on occupational exposure.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1981. 174p. 463 ref. Price: SF.20.00.
Pershagen G., Wall S., Taube A., Linnman L.
On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer
Arsenic (As) exposure was assessed from detailed company records, and smoking habits determined from interviews next of kin, for a sample of 228 deceased male copper smelter workers. Cases consisted of 76 who had died from cancer of the trachea, bronchus or lung, and each was aged-matched with 2 referents. The age-standardised rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for As-exposed non-smokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational As exposure compared to non-exposed non-smokers. For As-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect for the 2 exposures. 85% of all deaths from lung cancer among smelter workers could be explained by As exposure or smoking. A decrease in one or both exposures is suggested as a prevention measure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.302-309. 35 ref.
Nordenson I., Sweins A., Beckman L.
Chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to trivalent and pentavalent arsenic
Cultured human lymphocytes from healthy individuals were exposed to sodium arsenic (trivalent) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent) at concentrations comparable to the arsenic (As) levels found in the urine of copper smelter workers. Significantly increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were found after exposure to trivalent but not pentavalent As. This effect was not found when non-stimulated lymphocytes were exposed to trivalent As and then cultured. The rate of sister chromatid exchanges was also increased after exposure to trivalent As. Trivalent As is more genotoxic than pentavalent As and exerts its effect mainly during cell division.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.277-281. 18 ref.
Lubin J.H., Pottern L.M., Blot W.J., Tokudome S., Stone B.J., Fraumeni J.F.
Respiratory cancer among copper smelter workers: Recent mortality statistics
Mortality study in 5,400 workers employed for at least one year in the same copper smelting plant between 1938 and 1956. Respiratory cancer mortality excess was linked to work in plant areas having high workplace air concentrations of arsenic. Work in areas with high sulfur dioxide concentrations did have an influence on cancer risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1981, Vol.2, No.11, p.779-784. 21 ref.
Carelli G., Bernardini P.L., La Bua R., Rimatori V., Iannaccone A.
Occupational exposure to arsenic in a chemical plant: Health hazard evaluation after elimination of arsenic from the process
Esposizione professionale ad arsenico in un impianto chimico: Valutazione del rischio dopo eliminazione dell'arsenico dal ciclo tecnologico [en italiano]
In 1978 an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite was used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas in a chemical plant. Arsenic (As) was eliminated from the desulfurisation process in 1979 and environmental contamination by As was determined in 1981. Air concentrations were in the range 0.0005 - 0.125µg/m3, well below recommended safety levels. Concentrations of <2540mg/m2 were found in ground samples extracted with 2% sodium carbonate solution. In a soil core sample the As value was 0.55±0.09mg/kg at 0.6-1.8m depth but decreased from floor level to 0.6m depth.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.72, No.6, p.473-479. Illus. 17 ref.
Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R., Roels H.
Urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites after repeated ingestion of sodium metaarsenite by volunteers
Study of the quantitative relation between exposure to inorganic arsenic (Asi) (e.g. in the timber industry) and urinary elimination of Asi, and its metabolites (monomethylarsonate MMA, dimethylarsinate DMA), in volunteers (repeated single dose of sodium arsenite 125-1000µg As). In each case, the sum of Asi, MMA and DMA was very close to the urinary concentration of total arsenic as determined after mineralisation of the urine sample. These arsenicals are the only metabolic forms of arsenic following absorption of Asi. Determination of these 3 arsenicals in urine appears to be the method of choice for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to Asi since these measurements are not influenced by organoarsenicals of marine origine. The linear relation between arsenic administered and that excreted in urine showed that the time-weighted average exposure of 50µg As/m3 would lead to an average urinary excretion of 220µg As (sum of Asi, MMA and DMA) per gram creatinine.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.2, p.111-118. Illus. 13 ref.
Nordic Group of Experts for TLV Documentation - 24. Inorganic arsenic except arsine
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 24. Oorganisk arsenik utom arsenikväte [en sueco]
Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) may result in hyperkeratosis, skin cancer, lung cancer, liver disturbances, peripheral vascular disorders, mental disability and peripheral neurological damage. Exposure to airborne As at concentrations of ≥50µg/m3 for > 25 years results in a threefold increase in mortality in groups over 65 years old. The metabolism and toxicity of As are dependent on the chemical form but it is not known if carcinogenic potential differs between the trivalent and pentavalent forms. As exposure can be monitored by determining inorganic As and the methylarsonic and methylarsic acid metabolites in urine. Appended: TLVs adopted in 19 countries; sampling and analysis methods.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1981. 51p. 11 réf.
Renwick J.H., Harrington J.M., Waldron H.A., Dissanaike D.S., Lenihan J.M.A.
Long-term effects of acute arsenical poisoning
A questionnaire survey was used to determine the effects of acute exposure to arsenious oxide in a group of 62 persons after 35 years. No long-term effects were convincingly demonstrated. 3 of the group had rodent ulcers (basal-cell carcinomas) after > 36 months exposure to tropical sunshine. Of those remaining, 25 others were also exposed to tropical sunshine for 1-5 years with no occurence of ulcers. Inorganic arsenic can increase the susceptibility of the skin to UV light but the rodent ulcers which occured could also be due to UV exposure alone.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 4 Oct. 1981, Vol.31, No.4, p.144-147. 5 ref.
Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R., Roels H.
Comparison of the urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites after a single oral dose of sodium arsenite, monomethylarsonate, or dimethylarsinate in man
The urinary elimination of the metabolites of arsenic was followed up as a function of time in volunteers who ingested a single oral dose of arsenic (500µg) either as sodium arsenite (Asi), monomethylarsonate (MMA), or dimethylarsinate (DMA). The excretion rate increased in the order Asii, MMA, and DMA, respectively. With regard to the in vivo biotransformation, DMA is excreted unchanged; MMA is slightly (13%) methylated into DMA while roughly 75% of the arsenic excreted after ingestion of ASi is methylated arsenic (about 1/3 as MMA and about 2/3 as DMA). The results have direct implications for the monitoring of workers exposed to arsenic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1981, Vol.48, No.1, p.71-79. Illus. 24 ref.
Norin H., Vahter M.
A rapid method for the selective analysis of total urinary metabolites of inorganic arsenic
A commercially available mercury/hydride system (MHS-10 Perkin-Elmer) attached to a Perkin-Elmer 360 atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the combined amount of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid. Aliquots of 0.5-5ml of urine were analysed directly without pretreatment. Water was added to give a volume of approximately 5ml in the reaction chamber. Hydrochloric acid was added to reduce the pH and sodium borohydride to generate the arsines which passed to the spectrophotometer for detection and determination based on peak area measurements. This method provides a more accurate assessment of occupational exposure to As than the determination of total As in urine, which is raised by dietary intake, particularly from seafood.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.38-44. 33 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents: definitons, names, formula and physical properties; occupational exposures; hazards (routes of entry, general hazards, toxicity, fire and explosion, emergency action information); exposure limits (ACGIH TLV is 0.05ppm); preventive measures (precautions; process control; disposal; personal protective equipment); storage and handling; transportation; training and supervision; glossary; references; 2-page summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1981. 10p. 9 ref.
Bencko V., Symon K., Štálnik L., Bátora J., Vančo E., Švandová E.
Rate of malignant tumor mortality among coal burning power plant workers occupationally exposed to arsenic
Retrospective study of mortality patterns among 88 male workers in a power station firing high-arsenic coal and 159 in 3 power stations firing coal with arsenic concentrations of an order of magnitude lower, who had died up to 18 years prior to the study. Among those who died before the age of 60 years, 38% of the exposed group died of cancer against 23% in the control group; in those who died after the age of 60 years the malignancy rates were 51% and 43% respectively. The absolute increase in tumor mortality rates was not significant; however, the higher incidence of malignant deaths in younger age groups and the shorter exposure times were statistically significant (p<0.05 in both cases). Coal combustion products contain micro-quantities of numerous biologically active elements, but the arsenic content of coal (950-1500g/t) justifies the suspicion of a link between specific tumour mortality and exposure to high levels of arsenic.
Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology, 1980, Vol.24, No.3, p.278-284. Illus. 18 ref.
Acute arsine poisoning during metal bronzing in small-scale workshops
Intoxications aigües par l'hydrogčne arsénié survenues dans des entreprises artisanales au cours d'opérations de bronzage des métaux. [en francés]
MD Thesis. A general introduction and review of arsine toxicology (physical and chemical properties, toxic mechanisms and doses, lesions producted by arsine, dectection in air and in biological materials) are followed by clinical reports on 3 cases which are compared with the findings of other authors. Conclusions are drawn for group and personal safety and health measures. French legislation on safety and health in work with arsine and compensation practice for arsine poisoning in France are reviewed.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Laborisičre - Saint-Louis, France, 1980. 53p. 27 ref.
Mabuchi K., Lilienfeld A.M., Snell L.M.
Cancer and occupational exposure to arsenic: A study of pesticide workers.
Mortality and morbidity were studied in 1393 workers engaged in pesticide manufacture and packaging. There were 23 deaths from lung cancer and 2 from anaemias, a statistically significant excess. Lung cancer mortality was especially high in male production workers with presumed high arsenicals exposure. A dose-response effect was suggested. Exposed workers also had increased frequencies of keratoses and perforation of the nasal septum. Analysis of the lung cancer deaths and matched controls suggested a relationship between lung cancer and antecedent keratoses.
Preventive Medicine, 1980, Vol.9, p.51-77. 30 ref.
Gomboš B., Murínová O., Ondrejčák L., Moščovičova E., Volský E.
Arsenic exposure hazard during copper ore reduction
Riziko arzénu pri výrobe medi [en eslovaco]
Of 150 workers undergoing medical supervision from 1967 to 1976, 6 (4%) developed lung cancer (compared with 0.43% in a neighbouring population and 0.17% in a rural area). The arsenic content of the concentrated ore before the introduction of selective flotation in 1965 was 6-7%. While a role by other pollutants cannot be completely ruled out, arsenic is considered responsible for the lung cancer.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1980, Vol.32, No.8, p.272-275. Illus. 20 ref.
Data for establishing a TLV for concentrations of gallium arsenide in workplace air
Materialy po obosnovaniju PDK arsenida gallija v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Report on animal experiments with gallium arsenide (GaAs) dust. The acute effect thresholds were 152.5mg/m3 (inhalation), and 7,000mg/m3 (intragastric administration). No irritant effect on skin was observed. Retention coefficient: 5.2. A 4-month exposure to 12mg/m3 induced significant changes in rectal temnperature and physiological thresholds, and an increase in body weight. Erythrocyte count increased after 2-month exposure, but decreased progressively after 3 months. Recommended TLV for GaAs dust: 2mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.45.
Kuz'mičeva M.N., Gil'denskiol'd R.S.
Monitoring of arsenic concentration in air
Ob opredelenii myšjaka v atmosfernom vozduhe [en ruso]
Presentation of a modified photometric method in which paper filters are replaced by ash-free filters. This enables air sampling speed to be considerably increased (50-100l/min; previously 5l/min), and to limit sampling time to 20min. Furthermore, arsenic extraction takes only 35-40 min, compared to 5-6h previously. Pyridine in the absorption solution is replaced by a solution of 1% ethanolamine in chloroform. These modifications do not affect determination limits because relative error is 19.6% for 2µg As in the sample (5.8% for 10µg). Sensitivity of the method is around 0.003mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.70-71. 3 ref.
Le Cloarec S.
Present use of mineral arsenic for plant protection - An occupational hazard
Utilisation actuelle de l'arsenic minéral dans la protection des végétaux - Risque professionnel. [en francés]
MD thesis. Discussion of the use of arsenic derivatives (especially sodium arsenate) in agriculture for plant and vegetable protection, and on the frequency of occupational diseases due to arsenic among agricultural workers over the last 8 years. Brief review of the historical background; toxicological and pathological aspects of arsenic and its derivatives; past and present-day uses of arsenic in agriculture; 21 case studies (1 of nervous disorder, 3 of digestive disorders, 17 cases in which the skin and mucosae were affected). Preventive measures and occupational hygiene mainly rely on the enforcement of legislation concerning the sale, use, labelling and storage of these products, information for users and persons handling them, personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. Considerations on the role of the occupational physician in medical prevention; compensation aspects of arsenic poisoning in agricultural workers.
Université VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpętričre, Paris, France, 1980. 82p. 73 ref.
Carelli G., Rimatori V., Bernardini P., Iannaccone A.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, sulfur and sulfur dioxide at a natural gas desulfurisation plant
Esposizione professionale ad arsenico, zolfo ed anidride solforosa in un impianto di desolforazione di gas naturale [en italiano]
A method for evaluation of the arsenic exposure is proposed: an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite and arsenate was used to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from the gas before treatment. Arsenic was analysed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry after reduction to arsine. Arsenic exposure was excessive at some workplaces. Methods for determining sulfur dioxide and sulfur are also described.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.328-333. 14 ref.
Keech D.J., West N.G.
The determination of arsine in workplace air by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.
A personal sampling method is presented: the gas is trapped on silver-nitrate-impregnated filter paper, then analysed for arsenic by x-ray fluorescence. The method can be used for routine monitoring of workers' exposure down to one-tenth of the TLV (TLV=0.05ppm) on a 15l sample. It is simple, safe, and non destructive, and with automatic equipment a large number of samples can be analysed rapidly.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1980, Vol.23, No.3, p.273-282. Illus. 14 ref.
Some metals and metallic compounds.
Data in 4 monographs: arsenic and compounds; beryllium and compounds; chromium and compounds; lead and compounds.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, Vol.23, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, July 1980. 438p. 1133 ref. Price: SF.50.00.
Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R., Roels H.
Comparison of several methods for the determination of arsenic compounds in water and urine.
Evaluation of methods proposed for determining the total (inorganic and organic) arsenic content of urine and of their application for the study of arsenic metabolism and for monitoring workers exposed to arsenic. Methodical aspects were first studied with aqueous solutions of arsenic compounds using electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry and a modified atomic absorption spectrometry (preceded by arsine generation). The application of these procedures for the determination of arsenicals in the urine of exposed workers is reported. The determination of urinary arsenic by the modified procedures appears to be the most suitable method for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic arsenic. The ratio of the inorganic to the dimethylated form enables conclusions to be reached concerning the lapse between exposure and urine sampling.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1980, Vol.46, No.1, p.11-29. 17 ref.
Arsenic and its inorganic compounds
1979 revision: properties of arsenic and important inorganic compounds; uses, containers and shipping regulations, labelling, storage, handling, hazards and precautions, toxicity, preplacement and periodic medical examinations, personal protective equipment (table of concentrations of inorganic arsenic with required respirator protection), local exhaust ventilation, poisoning symptoms, first aid, waste disposal, employee training.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1979. 8p. Illus. 18 ref.
Donaldson H.M., Cassady M.
Environmental exposure to airborne contaminants in the antimony industry - 1975-1976.
In 3 plants studied, antimony exposures were above the OSHA standard of 0.5mg/m3 and arsenic exposures, although below the 1975-1976 standard of 0.5mg/m3, exceeded the current (1979) standard of 0.01mg/m3. The plants monitored were 3 major antimony producers, two of which roast imported antimony sulfur ore to produce antimony oxide while the other produces antimony metal and antimony oxide. General area samples and breathing zone samples were collected. The operations of charging ore into a furnace and of bagging antimony oxide were the greatest sources of air contamination. Levels of antimony and arsenic as high as 8.7mg/m3 and 0.056mg/m3, respectively, were found. No sulfur dioxide was found.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1979. 19p. Illus. 3 ref.
Lemeševskaja E.M., Silaev A.A.
Experimental studies on the embryotropic effects of inhaled cesium arsenate
Ėksperimental'nye issledovanija ėmbriotropnogo dejstvija myš'jakovokislogo cezija pri ingaljacionnom vozdejstvii [en ruso]
Rats inhaled 4.6, 0.43 and 0.003mg/m3 throughout gestation. The 2 higher concentrations caused functional disturbances in the mother animals and affected embryogenesis and foetal development. A concentration of 0.003mg/m3 had no toxic effects and did not impair embryogenesis. An exposure limit of 0.03mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1979, No.9, p.56.
Geist T., Bencko V.
Problems of toxicology and hygiene arising from combined exposure to antimony and arsenic, and damage to health observed in exposed subjects
Príspevok k hygienicko-toxikologickej problematike kombinovanej expozície antimónu a arzénu a prejavy poškodenia zdravia u exponovaných osôb [en eslovaco]
Occupational health survey of 130 antimony foundry workers, covering a period of 10 years. Sb and As concentrations were found to be greatly in excess of Czechoslovak TLVs. The observed groups of foundry workers exhibited pathological changes of the skin and gingivae, peripheral nerve disorders with hyporeflexia, paresthesia and myalgia, and changes in nasal septum including septal perforation. In comparison with the control group there was a higher rate of absenteeism among the foundry workers, a relatively higher frequency rate of premature invalidity, and mean life-span was shorter.
Československá hygiena, Feb. 1979, Vol.24, No.1, p.20-26. Illus. 15 ref.
Di Ferrante E.
Commission of the European Communities
Trace metals: Exposure and health effects.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Guildford, United Kingdom, on 10-13 July 1978. Subjects dealt with: biochemistry of trace metals; research on trace metals in member states of the European Community; lead; cadmium; mercury; arsenic; nickel; chromium; interaction of metals; food contamination by metals; behaviour as a sentry of metal toxicity; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of As, Cd, Hg, Ni; research needs and Community priorities.
Published by Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, United Kingdom, 1979. 262p. Illus. 966 ref. Price: Ł15.00.
Gollop B.R., Glass W.I.
Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.
Urine samples were collected on Monday and Thursday from 32 treatment operators at 6 timber preservation plants, and 9 controls. The mean arsenic level for the operators was 222µg/l (controls 5-40µg/l). It is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing. Clinical exminations of timber treatment operators should be done for early signs of chronic exposure (warts, skin pigmentation).
New Zealand Medical Journal, 10 Jan. 1979, Vol 89, p.10-11. 9 ref.
Corsi G., Rossi A., Maestrelli P., Bartolucci G.B., Picotti G.
An episode of subacute poisoning by inorganic arsenical compounds
Rilievi su un episodio di intossicazione subacuta da composti arsenicali inorganici [en italiano]
23 workers were briefly exposed to high levels of potassium arsenite when the gas washing tower at an ammonia plant collapsed. The urinary arsenic concentration was initially high but returned to normal in a few days. Most symptoms were non-specific and had disappeared at the 2nd follow-up. Electroencephalographic, electromyographic, and hearing function tests showed a number of pathological results. There was involvement of central vestibular pathways and neuropathy of the lower limbs.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1979, Vol.70, No.4, p.282-291. 18 ref.
Grekova Ė.N., Duhovnaja Ė.D., Šved E.M.
Determination of toxic gases produced during storage of ferrous alloys
Opredelenie toksičnyh gazoobraznyh soedinenij, vydeljajuščihsja pri hranenii ferrosplavov [en ruso]
Ferrosilicon and silicocalcium contain phosphorus and arsenic as impurities, which produce phosphine and arsine in the air of storage depots. A colorimetric method for determination of arsenic in ferrous alloys and 2 methods for determination of the gases are described. The concentration of toxic gases falls as the duration of storage increases.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.50-51.
Tartakovskaja L.Ja., Bykov N.A., Gridin N.M.
Accumulation and elimination of arsenic and simultaneous action of vibration in miners
Nakoplenie i vyvedenie myš'jaka v uslovijah odnovremennogo vozdejstvija vibracii u gornorabočih [en ruso]
Extraction of ores containing arsenates can increase accumulation of arsenic in hair and urinary excretion of arsenic, especially in miners using vibrating tools. The highest capillary concentrations were found in drillers and miners with vibration disease. The incidence of vibration disease was greater in drillers with high accumulated arsenic levels than in other miners with similar exposure to vibration.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.41-42.
Blackwell M., Robbins A.
Arsine (arsenic hydride) poisoning in the workplace.
Published as NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 32, this warning notice refers to reports of severe toxic effects or death due to exposure to arsine accidentally generated in an industrial process. Producers and distributors of arsenic and arsenic-containing materials are requested to transmit information to their customers and employees. Toxicity is reviewed and the NIOSH recommendation is reproduced: whenever there is the possibility of arsine or stibine being generated, care should be taken to assure that arsenic and antimony do not react with fresh hydrogen sources; in work with arsenical compounds, inadvertant generation of hydrogen gas should be avoided. Immediate measures in the event of arsine and/or stibine generation are set out in brief.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1979. Vol.40, No.10, p.A-56 to A-61. 25 ref.
Axelson O., Sjöberg A.
Cancer incidence and exposure to iron oxide dust.
This is a report on a case-control study at a sulfuric acid production plant in Sweden. There was a high exposure to iron oxide dust, particularly hematite, with impurities of pentavalent arsenic and other metals. No excess of cancer was observed in the respiratory system or at other sites in the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1979, Vol.21, No.6, p.419-422. 22 ref.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic: Final standard.
This permanent standard dated 26 Apr. 1978 (effective: 1 Aug. 1978) establishes a permissible exposure limit of 10µg/m3 averaged over an 8h period, with an "action level" of 5µg/m3 averaged over 8h, for inorganic arsenic and its compounds (calcium arsenate, lead arsenate). It contains provisions concerning: notification of use; exposure monitoring; regulated areas, demarcation and access; provision of respirators and respirator selection; employers' compliance programme; protective work clothing and equipment, hygiene facilities and practices; medical surveillance, examinations, tests, reports and record-keeping; warning signs and labels; worker information and training. Appendices: information sheet; physical and chemical properties; monitoring and measurement procedures; medical surveillance guidelines. The text of the standard is preceded by background and explanatory material.
Federal Register, 5 May 1978, Part IV, Vol.43, No.88, p.19584-19630.
OSHA issues new arsenic standard.
This article summarises the new regulation: exposure limit (10µg/m3 over an 8h period); action level (5µg/m3) for implementing the standard; exposure monitoring; regulated areas where TLV may be exceeded; notification of intent to use inorganic arsenic; methods of compliance (controls, plans); respiratory protection; hygiene facilities and practices; medical surveillance and examinations; respiratory cancer (table of exposed cohorts, duration of exposure, respiratory cancer mortality); warning signs and labels; recordkeeping; mandatory dates for initiating preventive measures; literature survey of arsenic toxicity; industrial uses of arsenic (copper smelting in particular); feasability of compliance by industry; major smelting companies are appelants requesting legal review of the standard.
Job Safety and Health, Nov. 1978, Vol.6, No.7, p.15-23. Illus.
Curatola C.J., Grunder F.I., Moffitt A.E.
Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determination of arsenic in hair.
In this method, hair samples are cleaned by a multi-step procedure to remove external arsenic contamination and digested in a nitric-sulfuric acid mixture. The resulting solution is diluted with distilled water and analysed by arsine generation and atomic absorption spectrophotometry using an argon-hydrogen entrained air flame. The method is quantitative, with recovery of 90% and a detection limit of 0.02µg.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.933-938. Illus. 16 ref.
Mundt W., Angerer J., Maassen J.
Determination of arsenic in urine by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry
Bestimmung von Arsen im Harn mit Hilfe der flammenlosen Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie [en alemán]
Description of a method of determination particularly well suited for early screening for arsenic poisoning. The method is based on the conversion of arsenic in urine into arsine by reduction, using sodium borohydride, and on the thermal decomposition of arsine into elemental arsenic, which appears in the atomic absorption spectrometer. Description of preparation of the sample, method of determination, set-up required, reagents and results of recovery tests. Reliability criteria of the method are shown in a table. The limit of detection is 14µgAs/l urine; the recovery percentage is 90-100%.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1978, Vol.13, No.3, p.62-64. Illus. 25 ref.
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