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  • Arsenic and compounds

1987

CIS 88-1990 Harper M.
Possible toxic metal exposure of prehistoric bronze workers
An attempt was made to assess the possible occupational exposure to arsenic, lead, and mercury during the Bronze Age. Archaeological, metallurgical, and historical evidence is combined to form a picture of the potential toxic hazards. In the case of arsenic, a definite picture emerges of the effect of toxicity as a useful material is abandoned for health reasons on discovery of an acceptable alternative.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.44, No.10, p.652-656. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 88-1198 Enterline P.E., Marsh G.M., Esmen N.A., Henderson V.L., Callahan C.M., Paik M.
Some effects of cigarette smoking, arsenic, and SO2 on mortality among US copper smelter workers
This is a report on the 1949-1980 mortality experience of 6,078 white male workers who worked for at least 3yrs between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1976 at 1 or more of 8 copper smelters. The completeness of the cohort was verified statistically, and worker exposures to arsenic, SO2, dust, nickel, cadmium, and lead were estimated from retrospective surveys. By using internal controls, a dose-response relationship for lung cancer was observed with exposure to arsenic and SO2. When cigarette smoking data were included with arsenic and SO2 exposure data in a nested case-control analysis, only smoking and arsenic were statistically significant factors. The arsenic-lung cancer relationship was confined to a single smelter where the raw materials had a high arsenic content. In the remaining smelters, mortality for all causes of death and for all cancer was not high based on comparisons with national, state, and local rates.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.831-838. 19 ref.

CIS 88-249 Bolla-Wilson K., Bleecker M.L.
Neuropsychological impairment following inorganic arsenic exposure
A 50 year-old chemical engineer, routinely screened for occupational arsenic exposure, was admitted with a delirium for which no known aetiology was found. Elevated levels of arsenic were found in the urine and hair. The patient received chelation treatment with British anti-Lewisite; substantial amounts of arsenic were excreted and the toxic encephalopathy improved gradually over an 8-month follow-up period. The patient was tested at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 8 months postdelirium with a battery of neuropsychological tasks. The pattern of results showed verbal learning and memory to be severely impaired while tests of general intellectual abilities and language remained unaffected. Follow-up examinations with no subsequent re-exposure revealed improvements on specific cognitive tasks. It is unclear whether recovery of cortical functions occurred or if compensatory strategies were developed. It is proposed that a subacute exposure to arsenic may have contributed to the neuropsychological deficits.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1987, Vol.29, No.6, p.500-503. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 88-187 Pershagen G., Bergman F., Klominek J., Damber L., Wall S.
Histological types of lung cancer among smelter workers exposed to arsenic
The histological distribution of lung cancer was investigated in 93 men who had worked at a Swedish smelter with high atmospheric levels of arsenic. A comparison was made with a group of 136 patients with lung cancer from the county where the smelter was located. No pronounced differences in the histological types of lung carcinomas between smelter workers and the reference group could be seen for smokers. Some analyses indicated an increased proportion of adenocarcinomas among the smelter workers, which confirmed earlier data, but these findings were difficult to interpret. Cases among smelter workers who had never smoked showed a histological distribution resembling that in smokers, indicating that the work environment at the smelter and smoking had a similar influence on the risk for different types of lung cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1987, Vol.44, No.7, p.454-458. 22 ref.

1986

CIS 91-926
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP)
Review of potentially harmful substances - Arsenic, mercury and selenium
Review of the human health aspects of marine pollution by arsenic, mercury and selenium. Inadequate data on the toxicology of the organic arsenic compounds found in seafood do not allow a reasonably accurate assessment of the possible health risks to man following long-term high intake. Seafood may occasionally contribute considerably to the daily intake of the more toxic inorganic arsenic. Seafood is the main source of methylmercury intake by man and groups with a high fish intake can easily exceed the WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake level. Marine food products contain substantial amounts of selenium, but even a high daily consumption is unlikely to cause undesirable exposure levels.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 172p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-526 Cherrie J., Dodgson J.
Past exposures to airborne fibers and other potential risk factors in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry
A historical environmental investigation was undertaken in European man-made mineral fibre factories (MMMF) to assess past exposures to MMMF and other environmental risk factors (asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, formaldehyde, and arsenic). A self-administered questionnaire completed by each plant management and an interview of the respondents were used. Addition of oil to the MMMF, change in the nominal fibre size of the bulk MMMF, and elimination of early discontinuous production techniques were identified as principal changes. The absence of oil, small nominal size, and labour-intensive production have been judged to be associated with higher airborne fibre levels.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12. suppl.1, p.26-33. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 88-1290 Javelaud B.
Study of urinary arsenic: Method of determination without preliminary ashing for the monitoring of workers exposed to arsenic anhydride
Etude de l'arsenic urinaire: interêt d'une méthode de dosage de l'arsenic urinaire sans minéralisation préalable pour la surveillance des salariés exposés à l'anhydride arsenieux [en francés]
This article describes a determination method, as tested on miners of mispickel (a mineral containing arsenic trioxide) and on workers who recuperate arsenic anhydride from the mineral. Results of the urinary arsenic levels are compared to those of controls. The difficulties of establishing the relationship between atmospheric arsenic and urinary arsenic are discussed, as is the place of the method among the various existing biological determination methods. Future prospects of the method, in particular by testing for uroporphyrines and coproporphyrines, are explored.
Centre d'information des services médicaux d'entreprises et interentreprises (CISME), 31 rue Médéric, 75832 Paris Cedex 17, France, Document 6/1986. 125p. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 88-791
USSR Commission for UNEP
Calcium+ compounds
Chemical safety information sheet. The metabolic and environmental fates of calcium carbonate and several calcium arsenates are evaluated. Exposure limits: MAC for limestone = 6mg/m3; MAC for calcium arsenate = 0.3mg/m3.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1986. 55p. 149 ref.

CIS 88-385 Arsenic
Arsenikk [en noruego]
Chemical safety information sheet. Irritates skin and mucous membranes and causes severe damage to several organs (kidney, liver). Inhalation may lead to lung cancer, and skin contact to the appearance of wounds. Exposure limit: Administrative standard (Norway, 1984) = 0.01mg/m3.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Rev.ed., Feb. 1986. 4p.

CIS 87-1420 Aaseth J., Thomassen Y.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 73. Arsine
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 73. Arsin (AsH3) [en noruego]
A survey is given of literature on arsine (AsH3), to be used as background for discussion of occupational exposure limits. Arsine is a non-irritating gas which is easily absorbed from the lungs of exposed individuals. The metal compound is rapidly concentrated in red blood cells, while the distribution into liver, kidneys and other organs appears to occur more slowly. The main excretory route is into the urine. The mechanism of the toxic actions of arsine is not fully understood. Several studies suggest that the toxicity somehow is linked to a biotransformation of AsH3 to As3+ species. It is recommended that the biological effect to be used in the discussion of exposure limits should be the haemolytic tendency (increased osmotic fragility) of red blood cells. Further studies of the toxicology of arsine are necessary, particularly in order to elucidate a possible carcinogenic effect of the compound.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 33p. 72 ref. Appendices.

CIS 87-1385 Fielder R.J., Dale E.A., Williams S.D.
Health and Safety Executive
Inorganic arsenic compounds
This review covers: identity; metabolism (studies in animals and man); animal toxicity (acute toxicity, irritancy, effects of repeated exposure, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity); toxicity to man (acute toxicity, skin and eye irritancy and skin sensitisation, effects of repeated exposure, carcinogenicity, cytogenic studies, effects on the reproductive system).
HM Stationery Office Publications Centre, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1986. 95p. 368 ref. Price:£12.50.

CIS 87-783 Arsenic pentoxide
Arsenipentoksidi [en finlandés]
Arsenic pentoxide is a toxic, carcinogenic agent that is absorbed through the skin and accumulates in the body. Inhalation can cause coughing, fever, neurological disorders and lung cancer. Skin contact causes irritation, eczema and skin cancer. Ingestion causes vomiting, intestinal spasms and severe diarrhoea. Mandatory European labelling: T, R21, R23, R25, R103, SI, S2, S20, S21, S28, S44, S103.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, July 1986. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 87-782 Arsenic and its compounds (except arsine)
Chemical safety information sheet. May be absorbed through the skin. Acute toxicity: massive ingestion of arsenic will cause severe fluid loss leading to shock and death; skin burns, eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. Cases of skin, liver and lymphatic cancers, as well as paralysis of the lower limbs have been recorded. Exposure limits (Ontario Regulation 176/86): 8h TWA = 10µg/m3; 15min ceiling limit = 50µg/m3).
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1986. 2p.

CIS 87-590 Vahter M., Friberg L., Rahnster B., Nygren A., Nolinder P.
Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of metabolites of inorganic arsenic among smelter workers
The relationship between airborne concentrations of arsenic and the urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic metabolites (inorganic arsenic + methylarsonic acid + dimethylarsinic acid) was studied among smelter workers exposed to arsenic trioxide. The urinary concentrations of arsenic metabolites increased steadily during the first day of the working week (after 2-3 days off from work), after which they reached a steady state. The concentration in the late evening after a day of exposure was very similar to that in the early morning of the following day. Both were well correlated with the total daily excretion. In a second part of the study the first-void morning urine was collected for 2-3 days during the steady-state phase. Arsenic in the breathing zones was measured by personal air samplers. On a group basis, there was a good correlation between the concentration of metabolites of inorganic arsenic in urine and the concentration of airborne arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.2, p.79-91. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 87-399 Arseniato cálcico
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: increases permeability of the walls of small blood vessels and capillaries leading to the formation of ¿demas. Chronic exposure: dermatitis and skin ulcers; conjunctivitis; perforation of the nasal septum. Exposure limits: ACGIH (USA, 1986), TWA limit = 0.2mg arsenic/m3; FRG, MAK = 0mg arsenic/m3; Sweden, PEL = 0.05mg arsenic/m3; USSR, MAC = 0.3mg arsenic/m3.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna, No.73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 8p. Bibl.

CIS 87-589 Nomura Y., Nojiri A., Kudo S., Hotta N.
Two cases of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary tract in patients with chronic arsenic poisoning
Mansei hiso-chūdokushō kanja ni hassei shita nyōro akusei-shuyō [en japonés]
Malignant neoplasm of the urinary tract was observed in 2 patients with chronic arsenic poisoning in Toroku district, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, where arsenious acid had been produced from 1920 to 1962. Each patient had a history of environmental and occupational exposure to arsenic for a long period and presented clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning. A 67-year old woman developed a skin lesion of Bowen's disease in the left scapular part and a bladder tumour, respectively 53 years and 57 years after her first exposure to arsenic. A 55-year old man developed Bowen's disease in the left lower abdomen and tumour in the left ureter, respectively 53 years and 54 years after his first exposure. In both cases surgical treatment was performed. However, excision of the tumours was impossible because of tight adhesion and infiltration into the surrounding tissues. A histological examination of the biopsy specimens of the tumours revealed transitional cell carcinoma with squamous cell metaplasia and a high degree of malignancy in each case. Some recent epidemiological data on arsenic-related cancer support the conclusion that the four malignant epitheliomas observed in these cases are due to late effects of chronic arsenic poisoning.
Journal of the Kumamoto Medical Society, Mar. 1986, Vol.60, No.1, p.13-24. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 87-197 Javelaud B.
Study of urinary arsenic - Determination method without ashing for the monitoring of workers exposed to arsenic anhydride
Etude de l'arsenic urinaire - Méthode de dosage sans minéralisation préalable pour la surveillance des salariés exposés à l'anhydride arsénieux [en francés]
Historical survey of biological monitoring measures practiced in a foundry producing arsenic anhydride. Discussion of normal arsenic content in urine (total arsenic) and of the influence of nutrition on it. The determination method used (without ashing) permits a better way to distinguish between exposed workers and the general population. The method was tested on mispickel (arsenical pyrites) miners and on workers in arsenic anhydride recovery. The value of this method in epidemiology is discussed.
Centre d'information des services médicaux d'entreprises et interentreprises, 21 rue Médéric, 75832 Paris Cedex 17, France, document No.8/1986. 125p. Illus. 67 réf.

CIS 86-1957 Abdelghani A.A., Anderson A.C., Jaghabir M., Mather F.
Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)
Study of the uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methaneasonate insecticide applied by workers during the spraying season. Arsenic concentrations in breathing zone air samples ranged from 0.001 to 1.086µg/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0 to 0.2mg/L and 0.002 to 1.725mg/L respectively. The geometric mean concentration in urine increased during the week and returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 358mg/kg, increased during the spraying season and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Of the 3 workers with higher than normal pre-exposure hair values, only one had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1986, Vol41, No.3, p.163-169. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 86-1860 Griffin R.M.
Biological monitoring for heavy metals: Practical concerns
Some of the practical concerns associated with performing routine analyses of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic) in various biological matrices are the selection of the biological matrix for monitoring, the sample collection, sample storage and shipment, and sample preparation and analysis. Other factors that affect the quality of the analytical values include contamination of sampling materials, blood drawing procedures, methods of obtaining urine samples, sample homogeneity, instrument calibration and performance, and laboratory quality control programmes. A total system quality control approach is necessary to obtain accurate analyses of metals in biological samples, just as it is in all analytical situations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.615-618. 2 ref.

CIS 86-1859 Bloch P., Shapiro I.M.
An x-ray fluorescence technique to measure in situ the heavy metal burdens of persons exposed to these elements in the workplace
The use of an x-ray fluorescence technique (XRF) enables measurement of the long-term retention of various heavy metals in select tissues in vivo. XRF was used to measure the mercury content of head and bone tissue in 298 dentists with long-term exposure to mercury-containing amalgams. It was also used to evaluate the lead burden of persons suspected of having elevated lead exposure at the workplace, and to assay the lead levels in urban and rural children. These studies indicated that the x-ray fluorescence method of assaying heavy metals in vivo is noninvasive, safe, rapid, and sensitive to levels of many heavy metals that accumulate in human tissues.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.609-614. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 86-1661 Feldstein-Lee A.
Cumulative exposure to arsenic and its relationship to respiratory cancer among copper smelter employees
Study covering the respiratory cancer mortality experience (1938-1977) of 8,045 white male smelter employees in Montana, USA. When exposure was estimated with arithmetic means of measured concentrations of arsenic trioxide among men first employed prior to 1925, respiratory cancer mortality increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group, ranging from 2 to 9 times expected; among those first employed in the period 1925 to 1947 it also increased linearly with cumulative exposure group.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1986, Vol.28, No.4, p.296-302. 16 ref.

CIS 86-761 Beckett W.S., Moore J.L., Keogh J.P., Bleecker M.L.
Acute encephalopathy due to occupational exposure to arsenic
Case study of a chemical engineer who developed severe psychiatric symptoms after prolonged exposure to arsenic in an antimony smelter. Though urinary and hair arsenic content were higher than normal for exposed workers, the major reason for suspecting acute arsenic intoxication was the presence of psychiatric symptoms: hallucinations, disorientation, delirium and memory loss. Because the patient had a history of psychiatric illness 28 years previously, it is suggested that he had an abnormal susceptibility to the central nervous effects of arsenic.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1986, Vol.43, No.1, p.66-67. 6 ref.

1985

CIS 88-764 Potassium arsenite
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (1978) = 10µg As/m3; ACGIH TLV (1983) = 0.2mg/m3. Toxicity: allergen; skin irritant; liver damage; probable human oral lethal dose = 50-500mg/kg.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 88-414 Sodium arsenite
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (1985) = 10µg As/m3; ACGIH TLV (1985) = 0.2mg As/m3. Is absorbed through the skin. Extremely toxic. Suspected human carcinogen.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 88-413 Sodium arsenate
Chemical safety information sheet. Insecticide. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (1983) = 10µg As/m3; ACGIH (1983) TLV = 200µg As/m3. High mortality rate due to acute poisoning, usually within 48h.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 88-389 Calcium arsenate
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (1983) = 10µg As/m3; ACGIH (1980) TLV = 0.2mg As/m3; IDLH (NIOSH/OSHA, 1978) = 100mg/m3. Toxicity: irritates eyes, respiratory tract, mouth and stomach; damage to kidneys, liver, nervous system and bone marrow; aplastic anaemia; predisposition to skin cancer.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 88-386 Arsenous trichloride
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (1983) = 10µg As/m3; ACGIH TLV (1983) = 0.2mg As/m3. Is absorbed through the skin. Toxicity: extremely toxic and caustic (release of HCl in the presence of water); irritant; haemorrhagic gastroenteritis; peripheral nerve damage; liver damage; possibly involved in the induction of skin and lung cancer.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-1196 Arsenous oxide
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: arsenic trioxide. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (TWA) = 10µg arsenic/m3; ACGIH (USA, 1980) = A2 designation indicating a suspected carcinogen. Extremely toxic. Acute toxicity: gastrointestinal, central nervous system, renal and hepatic damage; symptoms may be delayed. Chronic toxicity: nasal septum perforation, lesions and necrosis of the skin; lung and lymphatic cancer.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-850 Phenyl dichloroarsine
Chemical safety information sheet. No established exposure limit. Absorbed through the skin. Poisonous by all routes of exposure. Contact may cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes and tissues. Strong lacrimating agent (used as tear gas for military purposes).
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-784 Arsenic pentoxide
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (TWA) = 0.01mg arsenic/m3; ACGIH (1983) TLV = 0.2mg/m3. Extremely toxic (probable human oral lethal dose = 5-50mg/kg. Is absorbed through the skin. Acute toxicity: irritation of eyes, nose and throat. Chronic toxicity: peripheral nerve damage, alteration of the cellular composition of blood, structural changes in blood components. Inorganic arsenic compounds are skin and lung carcinogens.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-68 Arsine
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1901 Lewisite
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1330 Phenoxarsine, 10,10'-oxydi-
Aspects covered in this data sheet: identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; handling of spills or releases. This product is used primarily for fungicidal and bactericidal protection of plastics.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1053 He Y. et al.
Rapid and specific method for the detection of trivalent arsenic
A rapid and specific method has been developed for the detection of trivalent arsenic (As). In sulphuric acid solution, As catalyses the reaction of osmium tetroxide with pyrocatechol to give a blue colour at room temperature. Many anions and cations do not interfere with the detection of As in water and gastric juice. The sensitivities were 0.25µg and 0.5µg/mL, respectively.
Occupational Medicine, 1985, Vol.12, No.4, p.33-34.

CIS 86-88 Blom S., Lagerkvist B., Linderholm H.
Arsenic exposure to smelter workers - clinical and neuro-physiological studies
Comparative study of 47 copper smelter workers exposed to arsenic for 8-40 years against a non-exposed group. The level of arsenic in workplace air was below 500µg/m3 before 1975 and about 50µg/m3 thereafter. Urine analysis showed a mean value of 71µg/L in the exposed group. Clinical studies and neurophysiological measurements showed signs of slight subclinical neuropathy. Keeping arsenic exposure below 50µg/m3 should therefore reduce the risk of neuropathy. The subclinical findings may be valuable as early indicators of exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1985, Vol.11, No.4, p.265-269. 23 ref.

CIS 85-1968 Wingren G., Axelson O.
Mortality pattern in a glass producing area in SE Sweden
Report on a mortality study that involved workers in a Swedish glass factory. There was a significant excess number of deaths from stomach cancer (especially in glassblowers), lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic is suggested as the most likely agent causing excess mortality.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.411-414. 13 ref.

CIS 85-1905 Ungers L.J., Jones J.H., McIntyre A.J., McHenry C.R.
Release of arsenic from semiconductor wafers
The production of integrated circuits and other semiconductor devices requires the introduction of impurities or dopants into the crystal lattice of a silicon substrate. Inorganic arsenic, which is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen, is frequently used as a dopant material. Silicon wafers were found to emit arsenic over a 3-5h period following ion implantation. Total amounts emitted approached 6.0µg/100 wafers processed within 4h after implantation. The implication of the potential hazard to workers is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1985, Vol.46, No.8, p.416-420. Illus. 4 ref.

1984

CIS 85-1616
Health and Safety Executive
Arsenic and inorganic compounds of arsenic in air - Laboratory method using atomic absorption spectrometry
Occurrence, uses, toxicity and first aid information are given for arsenic and its inorganic compounds. Determination method: Arsenic trioxide (in its vapour form) is collected on a paper filter treated with a sodium hydroxide solution; particulate arsenic dust and fume are collected together with arsenic trioxide or separately on a mixed cellulose ester filter; the filters are then treated with aqua regia to oxidise and dissolve the arsenic compounds; the resulting solution is analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry using the hydride evolution technique either directly or combined with the method of standard additions. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods of 10min-8h. Lower analytical limit: 0.005mg As/m3 for samples of 20L of air. Precision:<10%. The presence of many metals will cause interference, which can be eliminated by using the method of standard additions.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QZ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1984. 6p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: £1.00.

CIS 85-1328 Doignon J., Parant C., Larche-Mochel M., Rafi M.C., Lazarini H.J., L'Epée P.
Epidemiologic survey of urinary arsenic levels in wine-growers handling sodium arsenite
Enquête épidémiologique sur l'arsenicisme urinaire chez des viticulteurs manipulant de l'arsénite de sodium [en francés]
Study of urinary arsenic excretion in vinyard workers who use sodium arsenite as a fungicide. The general toxicity of sodium arsenite is reviewed, especially its ability to cause cancers of the skin and internal organs. Determination of urinary arsenic does not seem to be a reliable monitoring method, because it does not reflect the extent of exposure. The risk of sodium arsenite exposure could not be clearly defined; larger-scale studies are needed. Means of preventing exposure are reviewed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.138-141.

CIS 85-1318 Dally S.
Arsenic. Arsine. Silver. Antimony
Arsenic. Hydrogène arsénié. Argent. Antimoine [en francés]
This encyclopaedia article provides information on each of the 4 substances: occurrence and manufacture; uses; metabolism; experimental toxicity; symptoms and results of acute and chronic poisoning; treatment and prevention. Emphasis on the carcinogenic nature of arsenic (shown recently) and on pneumoconiosis due to antimony exposure.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1984, 12p. 143 ref.

CIS 84-430 Arsine
A data sheet outlining the hazards of arsine: hazardous chemical reactions, fire and explosion hazards, high toxicity. Sources of exposure are given, the exposure limit of 0.05ppm (0.2mg/m3) is explained, safety precautions and first-aid procedures are described.
Safety Practitioner, Jan. 1984, Vol.2, No.1, p.12-13. 13 ref.

1983

CIS 88-1438 Arsenic
O arsénio [en portugués]
Chemical safety information sheet. Based on Fiche toxicologique No.192-1983 published by the Institut national de recherches en sécurité (see CIS 83-1939).
Prevenção no trabalho, Feb. 1987, No.102, p.16.

CIS 87-785 Arsenic trioxide
Arseenitrioksidia [en finlandés]
Arsenic trioxide is a very toxic, carcinogenic liquid that accumulates in the body. Inhalation can cause irritation, neurological disorders and lung cancer. Skin contact causes irritation, wounds, eczema and skin cancer. Ingestion causes vomiting, severe diarrhoea and injuries to the peripheral nerve system, heart and liver. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R25, R103, S1, S2, S20, S21, S28, S44.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Dec. 1983. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 85-1630 Facchetti S.
Analytical techniques for heavy metals in biological fluids
Lectures given during a course held at the Ispra Establishment of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities (Italy, 22-26 June 1981) within the framework of programmes relating to OSH and to environmental protection, and with the cooperation of the Health and Safety Directorate (Luxembourg) and the WHO. The main toxic metals considered are lead, arsenic, nickel and cadmium. The techniques described include the monitoring of biological indicators (internal sampling), analysis of trace elements, atomic absorption spectrometry and various applications of voltammetry.
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Molenwerf 1, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1983. 288p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 85-1047 Roy M.
Arsenic and medical surveillance
The relative worth of assessing arsenic in blood, urine, hair and nails as a measure of occupational exposure is examined. Blood levels of arsenic decline too rapidly to be useful for monitoring workers. Hair arsenic analysis may be useful on a group basis as screening device for arsenic in the environment; nail analysis has not proven useful for this type of screening. If recent seafood intake is excluded, urine is the most appropriate body fluid for evaluating worker exposure to arsenic. Because epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic should be treated as a carcinogen; medical surveillance programmes should be developed accordingly.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Jan. 1983, Vol.4, No.1, p.17-29. 44 ref.

CIS 85-1013
Health and Safety Executive
Arsine in air - Colorimetric field method using silver diethyldithiocarbamate in the presence of excess silver nitrate
Occurrence, toxicity and first-aid information are given for arsine. Determination method: sampling through a midget impinger containing a solution of silver diethyldithiocarbamate, with an excess of silver nitrate, in pyridine. The magenta-coloured complex produced is compared with coloured standards. A lead acetate-impregnated cotton-wool filter traps hydrogen sulfide, preventing its interference. Scope: suitable for field use in all circumstances where the release of arsine is suspected. Analytical limits: 0.025-0.1ppm (with sampling at 1L/min over 10min), greater sensitivity for longer sampling times. Accuracy: ±0.025ppm. Some substances react with the reagent, but the colours produced are different from that of the arsine complex.
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QZ, United Kingdom, Dec. 1983. 4p. 6 ref. Price: £0.50.

CIS 85-704 Mazur I.A., Pazynič V.M., Mandričenko B.E., Činčevič V.I.
Spectrophotometric determination of arsine in air
Spektrofotometričeskoe opredelenie arsina v atmosfernom vozduhe [en ruso]
Airborne arsine is collected by drawing 20L of air at 1L/min through traps containing dilute sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate. Excess permanganate is neutralised with hydrogen peroxide, and the solution from the traps is evaporated to dryness. Arsenic present in the residue is converted to arsenic chloride and separated by liquid-liquid extraction. The extract is evaporated and treated with a reagent mixture including ammonium molybdate. The resulting blue arsenomolybdate complex is taken up in butanol, and the intensity of the colour is measured at 800nm. Colour is converted to concentration with a standard curve. The minimum measurable concentration is 0.2µg/mL in a 5mL sample, which is equivalent to 1µg of As in 20L of air.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1983, No.5, p.52-53. 2 ref.

CIS 84-1330 Carmignani M., Boscolo P., Iannaccone A.
Effects of chronic exposure to arsenate on the cardiovascular function of rats
Rats were given 50µ/ml arsenic (as sodium arsenate) in their drinking water for 320 days. After treatment there was high urinary excretion of As and considerable accumulation in the kidneys and liver, which presented slight changes. Exposed animals showed potentiation of the effects of vascular β-adrenoceptor stimulation and a reduction in vascular response to angiotensin I. The cardiovascular response suggest sympathetic hyperreactivity or hypersensitivity, or both.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.280-284. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 84-1031 Takahashi W., Pfenninger K., Wong L.
Urinary arsenic, chromium, and copper levels in workers exposed to arsenic-based wood preservatives
Spot urine samples were collected from 89 wood treaters and 232 control subjects. Wood treaters averaged 103µg/l arsenic compared with 74µg/l in controls; respective figures for chromium were 41 and 63µg/l and for copper 191 and 221µg/l. Mean urinary arsenic levels of the wood treaters were within published normal limits. Urinary arsenic values can provide a useful index of occupational exposure to chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives when statistical adjustments are made for the effects of dietary arsenic.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1983, Vol.38, No.4, p.209-214. 18 ref.

CIS 84-47 Javelaud B., Michal G., Lauze J.
External arsenic poisoning: effects of external contamination by arsenic dust on the skin and mucosae: 496 occupational diseases observed between 1943 and 1979 in a mispickel smelter and a review of the literature
De l'arsenicisme externe: effets de la contamination externe par les poussières arsenicales sur la peau et les muqueuses: à propos de 496 maladies professionnelles observées de 1943 à 1979 dans une fonderie de mispickel et d'une revue de littérature [en francés]
Of 631 occupational diseases compensated between 1943 and 1979 in a smelter, 600 involved external arsenic poisoning due to arsenical contamination of the skin (dermatitis, sores) and the mucosae (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, perforation of the nasal septum, bronchitis). As 104 of the occupational diseases were reported imprecisely, the remaining 496 were studied with respect to the location of the lesion and the occurrence in time of 375 dermatitis cases and 95 sores. Technical and medical preventive measures are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.183-192. 45 ref.

CIS 84-100 Costello R.J., Eller P.M., Delon Hull R.
Measurement of multiple inorganic arsenic species
Traditional sampling methods and atomic absorption analysis quantify only total inorganic arsenic. Samples collected by NIOSH during a field study at a lead-acid battery manufacuring plant were used to develop a technique capable of separating mixtures of particulate inorganic arsenic compounds and arsine and of detecting and quantifying arsenic trioxide vapour. The collection device consists of a 13mm cassette containing a cellulose-ester membrane filter without support pad and a 150mg charcoal tube connected in series. Sampling flow is 0.2l/min. It seems that, in the presence of heated arsenic sources, monitoring solely with conventional filters will underestimate arsenic exposure because of inefficient collection of arsenic trioxide vapour.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.21-28. Illus. 12 ref.

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