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A review of agricultural pesticide incidents in man in England and Wales, 1952-1971.
Analysis of the cases of poisoning attributed to pesticides in England and Wales during the period 1952-1971. There were 9 fatal cases, of which only 3 were occupational in origin. There were 222 non-fatal incidents affecting 296 persons. The main problems in the use of pesticides in England and Wales today are: illicit decanting of concentrate from the manufacturers' labelled containers; hoarding of incompletely used containers; disposal of empty containers; importation of pesticides in indadequately labelled containers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.253-258. Illus. 6 ref.
Grigorowa R., Binnewies S., Gohlke R.
Combined action of organophosphorus pesticides and increased environmental temperature in short-term inhalation studies in the rat
Über die kombinierte Wirkung von phosphororganischen Pestiziden und erhöhter Umgebungstemperatur in inhalatorischen Kurzversuchen an Ratten [en alemán]
The combined action of 3 different organophosphate pesticides and increased environmental temperature (35°C, 50% relative humidity) was investigated in subacute (8 days) inhalation experiments with male rats. In the first part of the study, toxicological aspects are discussed in relation to the following parameters: relative weight of organs, cholinesterase activity, total protein and protein fractions in serum, cell respiration in homogenised liver tissue, ACTH activity of the pituitary gland, body weight and body temperature. Most of the parameters examined revealed an increase in toxicity due to combined exposure. In the second part of the study, the results of histological, histochemical and morphologic studies are described: histology in lung, liver and thyroid, enzyme histochemistry in the liver, morphometry and storage of 131I in the thyroid. The results confirmed in general the increased effect of these pesticides at high environmental temperature.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Aug. 1973, Vol.31, No.4, p.295-327. Illus. 39 ref.
Petrova-Vergieva T., Ivanova-Chemishanska L.
The effect of maneb on intrauterine development of rats.
A single dose of the fungicide maneb (manganese diethyldithiocarbamate) administered to pregnant female rats during the phase of organogenesis induces nervous-system and skeleton malformations in the foetus (exencephalia, encephalocele, cheilognathopalatoschisis, phocomelia, amelia, ectrodactylism, microcaudia, acaudia, etc.). Doses corresponding to 2/3, 1/3 and 1/6 of the lethal dose 50 (6g/kg for adult rats) proved to be teratogenic. A dose corresponding to 1/12 LD50, both single and repeated, did not affect gestation.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.65-70. 5 ref.
Ivanova-Chemishanska L., Kaloyanova F., Izmirova N., Zlateva M., Valcheva V.
Experimental inhalatory toxicity and substantiation of the maximum allowable concentration for some dithiocarbamates in the air of the working area.
Results of animal experiments carried out with a view to assessing the inhalation toxicity of zineb, maneb and mancozeb, and to establishing threshold limit values for long-term exposure. Toxic effects consisted of inflammatory, and sometimes ulcerative, changes in the trachea, inflammatory vascular damage to the lung which sometimes degenerated into emphysematous and atelectatic changes, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic changes (severity according to concentration). Maneb and mancozeb, which contain manganese, have a more severe toxic action on the respiratory tract and other parenchymatous organs than zineb. The following threshold limit values are recommended: 1mg/m3 for zineb; 0.4mg/m3 for maneb; 0.5mg/m3 for mancozeb.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.55-64. Illus. 14 ref.
Safe use of pesticides in agriculture and horticulture
Veilig werken met bestrijdingsmiddelen in de land- en tuinbouw [en holandés]
Advice on the safe use of pesticides and the prevention of health damage. Sections are devoted to: approval requirements; causes of poisoning and skin lesions; personal protective equipment (respiratory protective equipment and its maintenance, protective clothing, etc.); rules for pesticide use; intoxication signs and symptoms, and first aid (including details on organophosphorus compounds, dinitro compounds, organomercury compounds, dithiocarbamates, sodium arsenite, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc.); storage of pesticides on the user's premises; miscellaneous regulations; list of relevant Netherlands regulations.
Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat Generaal van de Arbeid, Voorburg, Netherlands, 4th ed., 1972. 12p. Illus.
Toxicology of DDT and related chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides
The results of studies extending over a period of approximately 30 years and relating to the toxicological action of DDT and certain related compounds are reviewed. Reference is made to synergistic effects. The importance of the role played by DDT in the control of various diseases is emphasized.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1972, Vol.14, No.4, p.285-292. Illus. 11 ref.
Plaguicidas agrícolas - Algunas recomendaciones de protección y seguridad - Especial referencia de los empleados en el naranjo
Individual sections are devoted to: introduction; classification of pesticides (by pest and by health hazard for personnel); hazards; toxicity; allergies; pesticides used in orange growing (two tables showing the pesticides used broken down by parasites and plant diseases and a third table devoted to herbicides); portals of entry into the body; safety measures in storage and use; medical safety measures; first aid.
National Occupational Health and Safety Programme, Provincial Technical Service (Plan nacional de higiene y seguridad del trabajo, Gabinete técnico provincial), Valencia, Spain, Feb. 1972. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
Exposure of spraymen to pesticides
Potential dermal and respiratory exposures, and the total exposure in terms of fraction of the toxic dose, were determined for 11 pesticides during orchard spraying with air-blast equipment. The highest total average exposure was just over 1% of the hourly toxic dose for workers applying the most toxic compound (carbophenothion). There was considerable variation in exposure to a specific pesticide depending on certain technical and environmental factors. Potential dermal exposure to each compound was much greater than potential respiratory exposure. There does not in normal circumstances appear to exist any serious risk of occupational poisoning.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1972, Vol.25, No.1, p.29-31. 5 ref.
Damage to health and protective measures when applying pesticides and herbicides
Yrkesskader og vernetiltak ved bruk av plantevernmidler [en noruego]
Following a classification of pesticides and herbicides into danger classes, and after reviewing the various toxic effects (including allergic reactions), the author briefly deals with herbicides (sodium, chlorate, DNOC, etc.), insecticides (pyridine derivatives, nitro compounds, nicotine preparations, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organo-phosphorous compounds) and fungicides (organo-mercury compounds). He sets out rules for the preparation of spray liquids and for their applications, and gives advice on the use of personal protective equipment, personal hygiene and good housekeeping. Other subjects dealt with are the storage of toxic substances, first aid in the case of poisoning, and the protection of the environment when applying pesticides and herbicides.
Vern og velferd, 1972, Vol.22, No.3, p.54-59. Illus.
Herzel F., Lahmann E.
Determining atmospheric insecticide concentration by the filter method
Insektizid-Bestimmungen in atmosphärischer Luft mittels der Filtermethode [en alemán]
The advantages of the filter method for the quantitative determination of insecticides in air are presented. The results of studies with glassfibre filters are discussed. Gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector is used for analysis purposes. One must expect a high loss of material due to the amount of air passing through the filter. Although this loss is probably lower in practice, great care should be taken in the interpretation of results obtained with this method.
Gesundheits-Ingenieur, July 1972, Vol.93, No.7, p.202-205. Illus. 8 ref.
The value of enzyme activity changes in assessing chlorinated cyclodiene pesticide toxicity
Dynamika zmien enzýmovej aktivity pri hodnotení toxicity pesticídov na báze chlórovaných cyklodienových zlúčenín [en checo]
Dieldrin and aldrin in an oil solution were administered per os, at a rate of 7 and 12mg/kg body weight per day for 4 weeks, to 2 groups of rats and at a rate of 40mg/kg (2/3 of the LD50) in a single dose to a third group. In each case there was an increase in glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum aldolase. Maximum activity was observed 72h following administration of the single dose and the 7th day following administration of repeated doses. After 28 days, enzyme activity had returned to normal. On the basis of these results, the author considers that glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum aldolase activity may be employed as a useful criterion for evaluating the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the substances in question.
Pracovní lékařství, Jan. 1972, Vol.24, No.1, p.3-7. 18 ref.
(Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie, Paris)
Dichlorvos-based insecticides not subject to statutory regulation [France]
Les insecticides à base de dichlorvos non soumis à la réglementation [France] [en francés]
These recommendations indicate various precautions to be taken in the use of dichlorvos-based insecticides in solid or aerosol-container form.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1972, No.69, Note No.819-69-72 (Recommendation No.99), p.419.
A method for decontaminating protective equipment used in agricultural control
Metodă de denocivizare a echipamentului de protectie utilizat la combaterea dăunătorilor din agricultură [en rumano]
Description of a chemical hydrolysis decontamination technique for the personal protective equipment used by pesticide applicators (malathion and parathion). The technique for malathion contamination (all considerations) is in 3 parts: (a) washing in water at room temperature or at 45°C; (b) immersion in a 0.2-0.5% NaOH solution for 24h at room temperature; (c) rinsing for 2h in clean water. After treatment there remains a residual malathion concentrtion of 2µg/cm2 of equipment surface area. For a 0.08-0.1% parathion solution: (a) washing in water at room temperature or at 45°C; (b) immersion in a 0.5% NaHSO3 solution for 30min at room temperature; (c) rinsing for 2h in clean water. After treatment, the parathion concentration is 2µg/cm2 of equipment surface area. For a 50% parathion solution: (a) washing in hot water (50°C); (b) washing in a 2% NaOH and 0.5% Na2Cr2O7 solution at 50°C; (c) immersion in the solution mentioned in (b) raised to boiling point for 30min; (d) rinsing in water for 2h. The residual concentration is 5µg/cm2.
Revista de chimie, May 1972, Vol.23, No.5, p.308-310. Bibl.
Kagan Ju.S., Sasinovič L.M., Ovseenko G.I.
Computer analysis of toxicity and accumulation indices, and their correlation with the determination of maximum permissible atmospheric concentrations of pesticides
Ispol'zovanie korreljacionnogo analiza pokazatelej toksičnosti i kumuljacii dlja gigienečeskogo normirovanija pesticidov v vozduhe rabočej zony (s primeneniem ėlektronno-vyčislitelnyh mašin) [en ruso]
Results of investigations into the correlations between indices of toxicity and accumulation of pesticides, on the one hand, and their atmospheric threshold limit values (TLV), on the other. In the case of close correlations, regression equations were used; 6 equations are suggested for a closer determination of TL for different degrees of toxicity. Normograms are given for reading off approximate TLV values without calculation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1972, Vol.16, No.8, p.21-25. Illus. 11 ref.
Hexachlorobenzene and other organochloride pesticides in human blood
The concentration of organochlorine compounds with pesticidal activity was determined in the whole blood from 237 subjects in a study to determine normal background levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). 185 of the group had some occupational exposure to these compounds (pesticide sprayers, greenkeepers, pesticide production or packaging workers), and 52 people had no known exposure. None of the subjects showed any apparent signs of intoxication. Nearly all blood specimens examined contained DDT, HCB and other commonly found pesticides in amounts comparable to the levels reported in studies in other countries. However, the majority of specimens contained the fungicide hexachlorobenzene, the presence of which in blood had not been reported previously.
Medical Journal of Australia, 4 Nov. 1972, Vol.59/2, No.19, p.1063-1066. 13 ref.
Heilbronn E., Mikiver M., Thorsell W.
Electrometric cholinesterase methodology in the monitoring of biocide workers
A group of 12 men working daily or weekly with a mixture of pesticides (benzene hexachloride, lindane, chlordane, malathion, pyrethrum and occasionally dimpylate) were monitored as regards cholinesterase activity in blood by using 2 different methods. A rapid electrometric method was used for the determination of butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase in small capillary blood samples, and a semi-quantitative method (Merckotest) was selected for comparison. The procedures are described, and the results presented and interpreted.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1972, Vol.25, No.5, p.370-373. 36 ref.
Decreto de 1971 sobre seguridad en el trabajo (monocrotophos) [Nueva Guinea-Papúa]
Industrial Safety (Monocrotophos) Order 1971 [Papua New Guinea] [en inglés]
Reglamento relativo a la seguridad de utilización (principalmente durante la pulverización) del pesticida monocrotophos, también denominado azodrin, de conformidad con lo establecido en la ley de 1961 sobre seguridad, salud y bienestar en el trabajo (ver CIS 92-4)
Internet copy, Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute, School of Law, PMB 072, University of the South Pacific, Port Vila, Vanuatu, 1971. 5p.
http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/iso1971415/ [en inglés]
Ordenanza de 1971 sobre los plaguicidas [Pakistán]
The Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance, 1971 [Pakistan] [en inglés]
Ordenanza referida a un Reglamento que trata del mismo asunto (CIS 00-327). Temas tratados: aprobación; agricultura; autorización de productos nuevos; etiquetado; inspección del trabajo; instituciones públicas de prevención; ley; organización de la prevención; Pakistán; plaguicidas; sustancias tóxicas.
Fotocopias, 11p. Con CIS.
Schubel F., Linss G.
Inhalation allergy to "Zineb 80" fungicide
Inhalationsallergie durch Fungizid "Zineb 80" [en alemán]
Report of a case of pronounced allergic mucosal irritation with oedema following work in a field which had 1h previously been sprayed with Zineb 80 (zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate). Medical history, clinical and laboratory findings and therapy are described. Workers should not be allowed to enter fields immediately after they have been treated with agricultural chemicals, even if these chemicals are claimed to be non-toxic for man.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, June 1971, Vol.26, No.25, p.1187-1189. 6 ref.
Ministry of Forestry and Water Supply (Ministerstvo lesního a vodního hospodářství ČSR)
Safe working instructions No.12.766/ORLH/71 of 22 July 1971 for the use of chemicals in forestry
Metodické pokyny pro používání chemických přípravků a práci s nimi v lesním hospodářství [en checo]
These working instructions are applicable until the establishment of a code of safe practice for forestry chemicals. They contain an alphabetical list of approved forestry chemicals, a list of protective equipment for chemical application, the principles of first aid for accidents due to these chemicals, and a list of Czechoslovak regulations and technical standards covering forest and plant protection operations.
Věstník ministerstva lesního a vodního hospodářství ČSR, 20 Aug. 1971, No.7, p.9-24.
Ley de 1968 relativa a los insecticidas [India]
The Insecticides Act, 1968 [India] [en inglés]
Temas tratados: aprobación; autorización de explotación; declaración de las sustancias peligrosas; India; insecticidas; inspección; prohibición de utilización; lista de las sustancias químicas; ley; notas de advertencia; productos químicos agrícolas.
En: Acts of Parliament, The General Manager, Government of India Press, New Delhi, India, 1970, p.319-347.
Reglamento sobre importación, distribución y uso de productos químicos y químico biológicos para la industria agropecuaria [Nicaragua]
Temas tratados: aprobación; autorización de productos nuevos; insecticidas; inspección del trabajo; instituciones públicas de prevención; ley; Nicaragua; organización de la prevención; plaguicidas; productos químicos agrícolas.
En: Compendio de Leyes, Reglamentos y Normativas para el Registro de los Agroquímicos y Sustancias Afines, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Gobierno de Nicaragua, 1998, 5p.
Decreto N°45 sobre el reglamento de seguridad en la manipulación y uso de los insecticidas [Nicaragua]
Temas tratados: etiquetado; información del personal; insecticidas; ley; Nicaragua; organización de la prevención.
En: Compendio de Leyes, Reglamentos y Normativas para el Registro de los Agroquímicos y Sustancias Afines, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Gobierno de Nicaragua, Nicaragua, feb. 1998. Anexo 11, p.34-36.
Agriculture (Poisonous Substances) Act, 1952 [United Kingdom]
Law establishing the framework for the issuing of regulations concerning poisonous substances used in agriculture. Contents: protection of employees against risks of poisoning; duties of employees; inspectors; offences and penalties; provisions of samples. Substances to which this Law applies are: dinitrophenols and their salts; dinitro-substituted phenols and their salts; organophosphorus compounds; other substances judged dangerous by the authorities.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1952. 10p. Price: GBP 1.25.
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