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  • Agricultural chemicals

1975

CIS 76-768 Camphechlor.
Camphechlore. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.20, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 11p. 5 ref.

CIS 76-767 Heptachlor.
Heptachlore. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and unintended effects on fish and birds; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.19, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 11p. 7 ref.

CIS 76-766 Endosulfan.
Endosulfan. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and unintended effects on crops and livestock; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.15, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 12p. 7 ref.

CIS 76-765 Dieldrin.
Dieldrine. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and unintended effects on wildlife birds (egg production); inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.17, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 13p. 12 ref.

CIS 76-762 Davidson P.P.
Dietary fat alteration of plasma cholinesterase response to malathion.
Male rats were fed fat-free, normal-fat, and high-fat test diets. Sub-acute doses of malathion were given subcutaneously and cholinesterase levels were determined. Malathion was chosen because it is the least toxic of the organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. Statistical analysis of the data showed that malathion inhibits blood cholinesterase to the greatest degree in normal-fat diet animals, with the least effect on high-fat groups, and fat-free subjects fall in between the two groups. An impressive increase in plasma cholinesterase activity was induced by the fat-free diet prior to malathion dosing, an unexpected effect.
Toxicology, Sep. 1975, Vol.5, No.1, p.113-115. 4 ref.

CIS 76-727 Reischl P., Van Gelder G.A., Karas G.G.
Auditory detection behavior in parathion-treated squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus).
4 male squirrel monkeys were systematically exposed to daily oral doses (0.1mg/kg) of technical parathion. There were 4 monkeys in the control group. The exposure period was 148 days. The monkeys had been previously adapted to the laboratory and trained to bar-press in response to 0.1-s tone for hearing threshold testing. Daily threshold testing employed the method of constant stimuli. Hearing thresholds were determined at 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000 and 16,000Hz. An analysis of variance was performed on hearing thresholds and standard deviations of hearing thresholds. The parathion-exposed group showed a significant (p<0.025) increase in the standard deviation of hearing thresholds after 40 days of parathion exposure. The magnitude of the standard deviation continued to grow for 54 additional days and thereafter declined. Mean hearing thresholds between the control and exposed groups did not vary significantly. Daily oral doses of parathion at 0.1mg/kg caused a decrement in the squirrel monkey's tone-reporting behaviour.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Oct. 1975, Vol.34, No.1, p.88-101. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 76-503 Proctor N.H., Casida J.E.
Organophosphorus and methylcarbamate insecticide teratogenesis: Diminished NAD in chicken embryos.
Studies with 36 organophosphorus and 12 methylcarbamate compounds establish a correlation between reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels and severity of teratogenic signs in chicken embryos, a relation supported by reversal of these effects by nicotinamide derivatives. Diminished NAD occurring at organophosphorus and methylcarbamate concentrations as low as 0.6 to 2.0ppm in the egg constitutes a newly recognised biochemical lesion induced by the two most important classes of insecticide chemicals.
Science, 7 Nov. 1975, Vol.190, No.4214, p.580-582. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 76-467 Sodium fluoroacetate.
Fluoracétate de sodium. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as rodenticide and insecticide, and unintended effects on domestic animals and wildlife; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional regulations recommended if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit value, closed systems, forced ventilation, personal protective equipment for mixers and applicators); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.16, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1975. 10p. 5 ref.

CIS 76-466 Chlorpyrifos.
Chlorpyrifos. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: chemical and physical properties, agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and acaricide, and unintended effects; uses in public health programmes and in household; toxicology in mammals and non-mammals; recommendations: restrictions on availability, transportation and storage, handling, disposal and/or decontamination of containers, selection, training and medical supervision of workers, distribution by aircraft, labelling; food residue limits; precautions in use (threshold limit value; closed systems, forced ventilation; personal protective equipment for mixers and applicators); first aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.18, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, July 1975. 12p. 5 ref.

CIS 76-465 Lindane.
Lindane. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and pesticide, and unintended effects on crops and animals; household use; mammalian, human, and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional regulations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, vapour and dust control by mechanical means, personal protective equipment for mixers and applicators); decontamination of spillage and containers; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; and laboratory methods for detection and analysis.
Data sheets on pesticides No.12, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1975. 11p. 3 ref.

CIS 76-464 Thallium sulfate.
Sulfate de thallium. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as rodenticide and insecticide, and unintended effects on domestic animals, wildlife and seed germination; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human, and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, personal protective equipment for mixers and applicators); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance methods; laboratory methods for detection and analysis.
Data sheets on pesticides No.10, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1975. 10p. 7 ref.

CIS 76-463 Mevinphos.
Mevinphos. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and pesticide, and unintended effects on domestic animals and wildlife; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional regulations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit value, closed systems, forced ventilation, personal protective equipment of mixers and applicators); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data Sheets on pesticides No.14, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1975. 11p. 10 ref.

CIS 76-462 Captan.
Captane. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as fungicide and unintended effects on fruit; mammalian, human, and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; labelling; precautions in use (avoid mouth and eye contact, personal protective equipment of mixers and applicators); decontamination of spillage and containers; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; and laboratory methods for detection and analysis.
Data sheets on pesticides No.9, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1975. 9p. 5 ref.

CIS 76-422 Hladká A., Krampl V.
Effect of S-methylfenitrothion on the activity of cholinesterase and on the excretion of its metabolites in rats.
The effect of S-methylfenitrothion, the active component of a series of insecticides, on erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity and ChE reactivation time was studied. Degradation of S-methylfenitrothion in rats was evaluated from urinary excretion of its metabolite p-nitro-m-cresol. The S-methyl isomer was a more potent ChE inhibitor than fenitrothion. Activity was signficantly reduced even by administration of 1/100 of the LD50. Reactivation of ChE after administration of 2/3 of the LD50 took 6 weeks. Excretion of p-nitro-m-cresol was faster and significantly higher than after fenitrothion administration.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4 Nov. 1975, Vol.36, No.1, p.67-73. 10 ref.

CIS 76-478 Bisby J.A., Simpson G.R.
An unusual presentation of systemic organophosphate poisoning.
A pest control operator was exposed to leakage of a 1% solution of dichlorvos in mineral spirit from a knapsack sprayer. Extensive erythema and bullae developed; the whole blood cholinesterase level was 36% of normal. On conservative treatment recovery was uneventful and the cholinesterase levels were normal within one month. It is suggested that any patient with a local skin reaction to pesticides be tested routinely for systemic poisoning, and that further exposure be forbidden until cholinesterase levels are normal.
Medical Journal of Australia, 6 Sep. 1975, Vol.2, No.10, p.394-395. Illus.

CIS 76-182 Burchfiel J.L., Duffy F.H., Sim V.M.
Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland.
Persistent effects of sarin and dieldrin upon the primate electroencephalogram.
Rhesus monkeys were administered sarin or dieldrin in either a single large dose (5µg/kg sarin or 4mg/kg dieldrin i.v.) or multiple smaller doses (a series of 10 intramuscular injections of 1µg/kg sarin or 1mg/kg dieldrin at intervals 1 week apart). Animals receiving the single, large doses showed symptoms of acute poisoning including prolonged electrical seizure activity. Animals receiving the multiple doses did not show these signs of acute toxicity. Electroencephalograms were recorded before exposure and at 24 hours and 1 year after exposure. EEG data were computer-processed to yield frequency spectra, and statistical analyses were performed over standard EEG frequency bands. For both drugs and both dose schedules, there was a significant increase in the relative amount of beta energy in the frontal-central and occipital-temporal cortical EEG which persisted for a year.
AD-AOO9 494/6WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161, USA, Apr. 1975. 23p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$3.25/Microfiche US-$2.25.

CIS 76-217 Richardson J.A., Keil J.E., Sandifer S.H.
Catecholamine metabolism in humans exposed to pesticides.
Plasma levels of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) and 24-h urinary excretion rates of E, NE, total metanephrines (M), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA) were compared in 23 pesticide formulators exposed instensively to a mixture of DDT, parathion, and carbaryl and in 20 control subjects. In the exposed group, total plasma DDT was 38,900ppm and red cell cholinesterase was 11.99µM/min/ml as compared, respectively with 6,700ppm and 13.65µM/min/ml in the controls. Plasma levels and excretion rates of E were significantly lower in exposed than in control subjects. Excretion rates of NE, M, and VMA, as well as plasma levels of NE, were similar in the 2 groups. Systolic blood pressure correlated with total plasma DDT. Systolic and diastolic pressures were negatively correlated with red cell cholinesterase. These results in humans are not consistent with published data in animals, possibly because of species differences, but more likely because of difference in dosage between the animal studies and human exposure and the possibility that a tolerance to insecticides may be developed in man.
Environmental Research, June 1975, Vol.9, No.3, p.290-294. 13 ref.

CIS 76-167 Morel C., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
Dichlorvos
Dichlorvos. [en francés]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protectin and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Fiche toxicologique No.116, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14. Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1975, No.80, Note No.978-80-75, p.407-410. 13 ref.

CIS 75-1942 Rider J.A., Puletti E.J., Swader J.I.
The minimal oral toxicity level for mevinphos in man.
To determine the safe exposure level for organophosphate insecticide, mevinphos (2-carbomethoxy-1-methylvinyl dimethyl phosphate) was fed to human volunteers for 30 days. The depression of cholinesterase activity was used as the criterion. None of the 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5mg daily doses affected plasma cholinesterase. The 1.0mg had no effect; 1.5 and 2.0mg produced a 20% or greater decrease in erythrocyte cholinesterase on one occasion, whilst 2.5mg produced a steady decrease. It appears that this amount is the level of minimal incipient toxicity.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Apr. 1975, Vol.32, No.1, p.97-100. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1715 Spear R.C., Jenkins D.L., Milby T.H.
Pesticide residues and field workers.
An overview of residue intoxication of workers picking fruit crops treated with parathion, paraoxon, malathion, ethion, phosalone, azinphosmethyl, dioxathion, dioxone, monoxone, or naled. The relevant U.S. regulations, foliage residues, environmental factors, exposure mechanisms, exposure evaluation and prospects are discussed.
Environmental Science and Technology, Apr. 1975, Vol.9, No.4, p.308-313. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 75-1429 Takahashi M., Inokuchi K., Kasakawa H., Wakai S., Kimura M.
Experimental studies on the effects of zineb and captan sprayed on rabbits in PVC-covered greenhouses.
Animal experiments were conducted in rabbits to study the toxicity of the pesticides zineb (zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate) and captan ((N-trichloromethylthio)cyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxyimide) over a period of 3 months. 4 groups of 7 rabbits were kept in PVC-covered greenhouses in which one of these compounds was sprayed for 30min once or twice a week. At the time of spraying, the zineb and captan concentrations in the greenhouse air were 0.35mg/m3 and 0.20mg/m3 respectively. Although no distinct abnormalities were found in the blood and urine of the animals exposed to captan, histopathological examinations showed significant infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and histiocytes in the lung interalveolar tissue, and eye and skin inflammation also occurred. No such abnormalities were seen in the group exposed to zineb.
Japanese Journal of Agricultural Medicine, Dec. 1974, Vol.23, No.4, p.522-528. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 75-1426 Rodnitzky R.L., Levin H.S., Mick D.L.
Occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides.
23 subjects chronically exposed to organophosphate pesticides were subjected to a battery of highly sensitive tests to evaluate central nervous function. The exposed subjects, who had no neurological or behavioural complaints, performed as well as controls in each instance. Plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase levels were within the normal range in both groups, but plasma levels were lower in exposed subjects than the controls. The results suggest a relative resistance of higher nervous system function to mild chronic organophosphate exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1975, Vol.30,, No.2, p.98-103. 28 ref.

CIS 75-1069 Beatty P.W., Lembach K.J., Holscher M.A., Neal R.A.
Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on mammalian cells in tissue cultures.
A study was made of this substance, a contaminant of the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5 T), to ascertain whether its toxic effect in mammals is due to inhibition of mitosis. In contrast with the results using plant endosperm cells, statistical analysis of growth rates and morphological studies using electron microscopy revealed no significant difference in growth patterns and no ultrastructural changes in the control or TCDD-treated cell lines studied.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb.1975, Vol.131, No.2, p.309-312. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1103 Tane S., Muromoto M., Eiko K., Ushigome S.
Ocular injury by paraquat (herbicide) - Report of a case
Kyoroyoku-setsushyoku-gata joso-zai Paraquat no tobiiri ni yoru me-shyogai no chiryo-rei [en japonés]
Report of a case of eye injury in a 66-year-old man due to accidental splashing of a herbicide solution containing 24% paraquat. The lesions produced were chemosis, corneal erosion and extensive formation of a conjunctival pseudomembrane. These corneal and conjunctival lesions persisted for about 16 weeks. Since the solution was almost neutral (pH 6.7), the mechanism of this harmful effect is somewhat unclear. Histological examination showed the conjunctiva to be composed of a totally eroded and partly ulcerated epithelial layer and subepithelial tissue with marked oedema and inflammatory cell reaction predominantly of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Foci of dense lymphoid infiltration were prominent. The surface was covered by a thick fibrin and inflammatory exudate. Blood capillaries were proliferated and dilated. The inflammation appeared to be of toxic and/or possibly of allergic origin.
St. Marianna Medical Journal, Sep. 1974, Vol.2, No.3, p.274-278. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-807 Nagata H., Izumiyama T., Kamata K., Kono S.
A health control study in farmers engaged in agrochemicals spraying, especially speed sprayor operation - Three years' data gathered in a fruit plantation area
Nōyaku-sampu-nōmin, tokuni "speed-sprayor-operator" no kenkō-kanri-hōshiki ni kansuru kenkyū - Kajuchitai ni okeru saikin 3 nenkan no jitsutai-chōsa deeta kara [en japonés]
The authors analysed periodical health data from 70 farmers who had been engaged in spraying pesticides from tractors for 3 years. The occurrence of acute intoxications and of low serum cholinesterase levels during the spraying seasons were significantly less than during the period before 1970, when the Government suspended the use of the highly toxic compound parathion. A significant increasing trend in the incidence of dermatitis due to pesticides was however noted.
Japanese Journal of Agricultural Medicine, 1 Dec. 1974, Vol.23, No.4, p.507-517. Illus. 56 ref.

1974

CIS 01-14 Ley núm. 149 de 1974 relativa a los plaguicidas [Malasia]
Pesticides Act, 1974 [Malaysia] [en inglés]
Esta Ley define algunas nociones y establece un Consejo encargado de registrar los nuevos plaguicidas. Describe el procedimiento de registro y prevé que cualquier decisión de venta de plaguicidas tiene que ser objeto de una solicitud ante los agentes habilitados para la concesión de licencias de puesta en el mercado (Pesticides Licensing Officers). Los productos comestibles tienen que ser objeto de una inspección con toma de muestras. La Orden describe la encuesta que sigue la declaración de accidente, de defunción o de perjuicio individual relacionados a las plaguicidas. En esta Ley se especifican las funciones de los analistas. En un anexo se facilita una lista de plaguicidas.
Government Gazette (Malaysia), 1974, Laws of Malaysia, n°18, p.7-64.

CIS 76-816 Occupational exposure to pesticides - Report to the Federal Working Group on Best Management from the Task Group on Occupational Exposure to Pesticides.
This report covers the extent and severity of the organophosphorus residue problem in the USA, identifies areas in which information is unavailable, and recommends guidelines for research required to obtain the data. The chapters in Part A (Overview of organophosphates and farm worker health) are: organophosphorus pesticide usage, population at risk, recognised reentry related pesticide illnesses, pesticide legislation and administrative regulations, approaches to reducing organophosphorus residues, basic strategies for protecting farm workers from pesticide residues, alternative methods for establishing worker reentry periods, and worker reentry studies conducted to date. Part B (Standardised worker reentry research) includes: general methodological considerations, experimental design, and medico-ethical considerations in pesticide reentry studies. Appendices include cholinesterase-inhibiting organophosphorus pesticides, absorption of pesticides through the skin of man, removal of dislodgeable residues from citrus by washing, statistical procedures and details, and recommended methods for cholinesterase assay.
University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA, 1974. 155p. Illus. 176 ref.

CIS 76-425 Girenko D.B., Klisenko M.A.
Gas chromatography determination of carboxanilides in herbicides
Gazohromatografičeskij analiz gerbicidov gruppy anilidov karbonovyh kislot [en ruso]
Description of a method for monitoring residual Stam F34, Solan and Dicryl in air and water. Analysis of typical chromatograms of these anilides shows that Dicryl gives a symmetrical peak in the non-polar phase, whereas Stam and Solan give disymmetrical peaks, which could be due to partial adsorption of these substances on the column. Simultaneous determination of these anilides (particularly Dicryl and Stam) is rendered difficult by the closeness of their retention time. The article defines the optimal conditions for chromatographic determination and recommends the use of ether or n-hexane as solvents.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.59-61. 4 ref.

CIS 76-181 Spear R.C.
Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio.
Organophosphate pesticides: The residue intoxication problem.
2 studies (of a series of 7) of parathion residue hazards to orange grove harvesters are reported. The sampling techniques included personal air samplers and patches attached externally on the clothing and to the skin; variables were foliar residues, heat stress indices, work rates, and airborne pesticide levels. Cholinesterase response was used to determine residue levels in blood. It appeared that paraoxon is the principal toxic constituant of the residue and the principal exposure is dermal.
AD-AO11 854/7WP, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161, USA, Dec. 1974. 12p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$3.25/Microfiche US-$2.25.

CIS 76-216
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460, USA.
Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning by pesticides.
This publication, which was produced as part of an intensive short-term educational programme, Project Safeguard, designed to train farmers in the safe use of replacement chemicals for DDT, outlines the characteristics of organophosphorus pesticides (the signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning are tabulated), carbamates, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, with sections devoted to diagnosis and treatment (including a table on determination of exposure from biological samples), modes of poisoning, and prevention. 7 case histories of poisoning are presented from the literature. Sources of information about pesticides. A classification of organophosphate poisoning into latent, mild, moderate and severe cases is given in a table, based principally on parathion and methyl parathion poisoning.
PB-227 053/6WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield,, Virginia 22151, USA, 1974. 15p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$4.00/Microfiche US-$1.45.

CIS 75-2010 Opekar B., Hruška J., Kociánová M.
Evaluation of the exposure of workers to organochlorinated insecticides during use in agriculture
Zjišt'ování expozice pracovníků při aplikaci insekticidních preparátů typu chlorovaných uhlovodíků v zemědělství [en checo]
The authors measured dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) atmospheric concentrations during potato crop spraying operations in the open with these insecticides. TLVs (Soviet values: 0.1mg/m3 for DDT and 0.05mg/m3 for HCH) were only exceeded while the sprayer tank was being filled, an operation which required only a few minutes. On the other hand, during the spraying of cowsheds values of 1.8 times the TLV (for DDT) and 1.4 times (HCH) were determined occasionally, whereas average concentrations were below the TLV. Chlorinated hydrocarbon blood plasma levels doubled after exposure to hot aerosols, and these levels were significantly higher among subjects normally occupationally exposed, even when at rest, than among controls. The question of absorption of these insecticides in food is considered.
Pracovní lékařství, Oct. 1974, Vol.26, No.9, p.339-343. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 75-2007 Zweig G., Walker K.C., Haller H., Krausche K.K., Flanagan J., Woolford M.H., Wolfe H.R., Andresen W.V., Hyman J., Benson W.R., Moore J.B., Appleby A.P., Freed V., Burchfield H.P., Spencer E.Y., Schroader C.H., Willard J.R., Abrahams A.E., Gertsch M.E., Niggel W.T.
Industrial production and formulation of pesticides in developing countries.
Production industrielle et formulation des pesticides dans les pays en voie de développement. [en francés]
These books are based on lectures in 3 in-plant training programmes sponsored by the U.N. Industrial Development Organization. Volume I covers the importance of pesticides in developing countries, international aspects and history of pesticides, pesticide analysis, establishment of a pesticide laboratory, principles of pesticide formulation, quality control, safety problems related to exposure of workers, safety problems related to transportation and storage, safety in the handling of organophosphate pesticides, and the role of the Food and Drug Administration in the regulation of pesticides in the U.S. Annexes include members of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and Codex Standards. Volume II, Chemistry and Production of Pesticides, covers the chemistry of chlorinated, phosphorus, and carbamate pesticides, pyrethrins, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides. Other chapters include development of a pesticide chemical, economic factors for the site selection of a pesticide plant, marketing of pesticides in developing countries and setting up a production plant.
United Nations, Sales Section, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 1972, Vol.I. 183p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00; July 1974, Vol.II. 108p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$4.00.

CIS 75-1714 Villar T.G.
Vineyard sprayer's lung - Clinical aspects.
All known cases of vineyard sprayer's lung, first described in 1969, have been caused by the inhalation of "Bordeaux mixture", a pesticide containing copper sulfate. A review of the pathological features of the disease is followed by an account of 15 cases diagnosed at the Lisbon University Hospital. These cases are analysed from the clinical, radiographic and laboratory points of view in an attempt to define the various clinicopathological forms of the disease and methods of diagnosis. The high incidence of lung cancer found in those with vineyard sprayer's lung may be related to the copper found in their lesions.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Nov. 1974, Vol.110, No.5, p.545-555. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 75-1617 Smith L.L., Wright A., Wyatt I., Rose M.S.
Effective treatment for paraquat poisoning in rats and its relevance to treatment of paraquat poisoning in man.
The relationships between gastrointestinal paraquat content and plasma and lung concentrations after oral administration of paraquat were studied in rats. On the basis of the findings a treatment was devised to prevent absorption of paraquat from the gut into the plasma and its accumulation in the lung. It consists of a stomach wash followed by 4 administrations of bentonite and purgatives. The relevance of this treatment to paraquat poisoning in man is discussed in view of the finding that slices of human lung accumulate paraquat in the same way as those of rat lung.
British Medical Journal, 7 Dec. 1974, p.569-571. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-1713 Simon N., Siklósi C.
The influence of environmental factors on porphyrin metabolism
Beeinflussung des Porphyrinstoffwechsels durch Umweltfaktoren [en alemán]
The effect of several pesticide compounds on the porphyrin metabolism in rats is examined. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to induce porphyrin disorders. Other organo-chlorine compounds such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) cause temporary coproporphyria, but no porphyrinogenic influence could be demonstrated. It appears that apolar chlorinated hydrocarbons (HCB, HCH, PCB) destroy the phospholipid structure of the cell membrane. As a result permeability to water-soluble precursors increases, causing the characteristic symptoms of porphyria cutanea tarda. Water-soluble poisons (2,4-D and PCB), which can be attacked by protohaem-containing oxydase enzymes, exert their effect through induction of the latter. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by the results of investigations on combined HCB and 2,4-D poisoning. Supposed membrane-damaging effects of HCB have also been confirmed by liposomal membrane permeability tests.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Nov.-Dec. 1974, No.6, p.237-259. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 75-1417 Gervais P., Langevin M.T., Gaultier M., Housset M., Boucker M., Mazurkiewicz S.
Maintaining normal cholinesterase activity, by means of modern preventive methods, in workers using insecticides - Possible consequences as regards compensation legislation
Normalisation des cholinestérases chez des ouvriers désinsectiseurs par les méthodes modernes de prévention - Conséquences réglementaires possibles. [en francés]
Several of a group of 26 workers using organophosphorus insecticides for treating trees, wooden beams and insect control in dwelling premises showed a falling-off in globular and plasma cholinesterase activity, without accompanying clinical signs. On the advice of the industrial physician the following preventive measures were adopted: fully protective work clothing (hood, mask, impermeable work suit closely fitting at wrists and ankles, special footwear); separate cloakrooms or vehicles for work clothes and off-duty clothes; etc. As a result of these measures cholinesterase levels returned to normal. Where the occupational health conditions are unsatisfactory, the authors recommend tests to determine cholinesterase levels once a month. Some comments are made on the desirability of amending the French legislation concerning compensation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 1974, Vol.35, No.9, p.789-796. 5 ref.

CIS 75-1431 Kazen C., Bloomer A., Welch R., Oudbier A., Price H.
Persistence of pesticides on the hands of some occupationally exposed people.
Analysis of hexane hand rinsings of a pest control operator established that chlordane and dieldrin persisted on the skin for at least 2 months after exposure. Subsequent studies of exposed persons showed that methoxychlor, captan and malathion remained on the hands for at least 7 days. Other organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted on the skin of exposed workers for considerable lengths of time. Thorough washing with water and cleansers, or the wearing of protective clothing, or the combination of both, is necessary for adequate dermal protection.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1974, Vol.29, No.6, p.315-318. 14 ref.

CIS 75-1430 Ščickova A.P.
Evaluation of the specific action of pesticides on the human body
Nekotorye aspekty ocenki specifičeskogo dejstvija na organizm pesticidov [en ruso]
Account of animal and in vitro experiments to study allergic reactions to pesticides and certain other toxic substances by electrophoresis, antibody determination and an imprint technique enabling changes in the skin microflora to be studied. Some results of investigations into the genetic effects of pesticides and of tissue culture studies are given.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.76-78.

CIS 75-1394 Ott M.G., Holder B.B., Gordon H.L.
Respiratory cancer and occupational exposure to arsenicals.
The proportionate mortality experience of 173 deceased workers exposed primarily to lead arsenate and calcium arsenate was compared with that of 1,809 deceased controls not exposed to these compounds. An overall increase in respiratory cancer and a positive dose-response relationship was found in the exposed employees. No common factor other than exposure to the compounds was found among the employees to explain these observations. Arsenic therefore deserves further investigation as a cause of respiratory cancer.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1974, Vol.29, No.5, p.250-255. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 75-1120 Demidenko N.M., Mirgijazova M.G.
The combined biological effect of high air temperature and the pesticide anthio
Sočetannoe vlijanie na organizm vysokoj temperatury vozduha i pesticida antio [en ruso]
Results of exposure evaluations in cotton farming workers applying a new insecticide and acaricide - anthio, a phosphorodithioate preparation. The evaluations were carried out under both laboratory and field conditions, i.e. during the hot season. It was found that high air temperatures (36-40°C) potentiate the toxic effects of anthio. Animal experiments have shown that the application of heat enhances the toxicity of the pesticide by a factor of 1.5 to 2.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1974, No.7, p.18-21. 3 ref.

CIS 75-1119 Wagner R., Hoyer J.
The determination of pesticide concentrations in the work environment in agriculture
Zur Bestimmung der Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen von Pflanzenschutzmitteln (PSM) in der Landwirtschaft [en alemán]
Detailed description of the sampling and analysing techniques for the determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides: absorption efficiency of different sampling solvents, stability of samples, extraction of pesticides and concentration, determination of active agents of pesticides by thin layer chromatography in the case of methyl parathion, dimethoate, butonate (dimethyl-trichlorobutyryloxy ethylphosphate), trichlorphon, DDVP (dimethyl-dichlorovinyl phosphate), demephion (tinox 50) DDT, HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane) and dicofol; and by photometry in the case of DNOC (4,6-dinitro-o-cresol) and DNBP (2,4-dinitro-6-butylphenol).
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1974, Vol.20, No.3, p.146-150. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 75-1117 Ensberg I.F.G., De Bruin A., Zielhuis R.L.
Health of workers exposed to a cocktail of pesticides.
Several groups of workers in agriculture, horticulture and industry exposed for over 4 years to a variety of insecticides, fungicides and rodenticides were examined. The subjective symptoms, physical examination findings and laboratory parameters are tabulated and compared with data from literature. The exposed workers showed more subjective symptoms, more skin diseases and greater variability in laboratory data than matched controls; intensively exposed workers tended to show a higher prevalence of slight neurotoxic symptoms. It is concluded that a toxic overload of biological systems was probably present, which should be regarded as unacceptable from the viewpoint of occupational health.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 4 Jan. 1974, Vol.32, No.3, p.191-201. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 75-1038 Stuneeva G.I.
Toxic effects of the mixture of kelthane, chlorophos and copper oxychloride
O toksičeskih svojstvah smesi kel'tana, hlorofosa i hlorokisi medi [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments designed to establish the toxic effects of this mixture, which has acaricidal, insecticidal and fungicidal properties. The mixture had much greater pathological effects than its different constituents given separately.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.102-103. 1 ref.

CIS 75-1026 Matohnjuk L.A., Karpenko V.N., Olefir A.I., Anina I.A.
Experimental data for the establishment of the maximum permissible concentration for the fungicide polymarcine in the workplace air
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii polimarcina v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Results of research in animals designed to determine the biological effects of the fungicide polymarcine (a complex of zinc ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate), manganese ethylene-bis(dithiocarbamate) and ethylene thiuram disulfide) administered by the oral or percutaneous route or by inhalation. Acute and toxic poisoning is characterised by changes in the blood picture, enzyme disturbances (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldolase and alkaline phosphatase), and a reduction in immunobiological activity. A threshold limit value of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended for work with this fungicide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.17-20. 8 ref.

CIS 75-808 Popendorf W.J., Spear R.C.
Preliminary survey of factors affecting the exposure of harvesters to pesticide residues.
Investigation into exposure of grape, orange and peach harvesters to pesticides. A diagram illustrates the various environmental, toxicological and other factors influencing exposure to and absorption of pesticide residues by agricultural workers. Work procedures are described in detail for each crop, with observations on clothing, hours of work, work rates, etc. Details of air sampling procedures used and results of airborne dust analyses (concentration and particle size) are given. The high values for airborne particulates suggest that contaminated dust is the primary vehicle for residue exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1974, Vol.35, No.6, p.374-380. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-732 Kredl F., Breyl I.
Methods for detecting and determining pentachlorophenol
Metody průkazu a stanovení pentachlórfenolu [en checo]
Extensive survey of the methods for determining and detecting pentachlorophenol, followed by a detailed description of the modified colorimetric, thin-layer and gas-chromatography techniques used by the authors.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1974, Vol.26, No.3, p.97-101. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 75-803 Use of pesticides - Protection of respiratory tract
Emploi des pesticides - Protection des voies respiratoires. [en francés]
This note warns against the risks inherent in the use of pesticides and the inefficacy or limited service life of certain protective masks. Equipment fitted with filters against specific substances offers effective protection against toxic mists caused by spraying of pesticides. Selection of respiratory protective equipment according to the product employed, the way it is applied, and the conditions of use (protective filters for products used for gassing and for fine powders, self-contained equipment such as masks with fresh air supply or compressed air pipe for work in confined spaces).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1974, No.76, Note No.916-76-74, p.413-417. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 75-802 Líška D., Tildyová K.
Study of the changes of the activity of certain enzymes in the blood of pilots and mechanics exposed to organophosphorus pesticides
Štúdium zmien aktivity niektorých enzýmov v krvi pilotov a mechanikov, exponovaných organofosforovým pesticídom [en eslovaco]
The authors examined the changes in cholinesterase activity, and blood levels of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and their isoenzymes in pilots and mechanics engaged in crop-dusting operations with organophosphorus pesticides. Exposure to these pesticides resulted in erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterase inhibition and increased GPT and LDH isoenzyme activity (particularly that of LDH5). The effect of exposure on GOT and alkaline phosphatase was not confirmed. Occupational exposure had lasted for 3 to 19 years (average 7.6 years). These results show the urgent need for preventive measures in this field.
Československá hygiena, July 1974, Vol.19, No.6-7, p.289-295. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 75-801 Vargová M., Kovalčík V., Rosíval L., Kapeller K.
Concerning the toxicological evaluation of chlorinated insecticides
K otázke toxikologického hodnotenia chlórovaných insekticídov [en eslovaco]
Using heptachlor as an example, the authors studied the problem of the quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of chlorinated insecticides. They established that LT50, defined as the time required for the dose administered to cause the death of 50% of the experimental animals, can be used as a criterion for determining the toxicity of substances administered in repeated doses. Log LT50 is a linear function of the dose in accordance with the relation log LT50 = log C-n log D (where D is the repeated dose, C and n being constants). The value of n is particularly important for assessing safe limits, because it depends not only on the nature of the substance, but also on the frequency and mode of administration, and the variety, species and sex of the animal. Part of the article is devoted to the influence of prior administration of heptachlor on the efficacy and toxicity of analgesics and barbiturates.
Folia Facultatis Medicae Universitatis Comenianae Bratislaviensis, 1974, Vol.12, No.1, p.5-53. Illus. 101 ref.

CIS 75-800 Gärtig W.
Safe work in spreading fertilisers
Arbeitsschutz beim Düngen [en alemán]
Brochure dealing with the hazards involved and safe working methods in handling and spreading solid and liquid inorganic fertilisers. Special attention is devoted to the agricultural machinery and aircraft used in fertiliser spreading. The last chapter deals with safe working methods when employing manure or organic fertilisers, particularly as regards dung channel cleaning systems and the storing of liquid manure.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1974. 79p. Illus. Price: M.1.20.

CIS 75-504 Kostanecka I., Mańkowska W., Sawicka A.
Study of the protective efficiency of sorbent-filter respirators and combined sorbent-particulate filter respirators against liquid organophosphorus insecticides
Badania przydatności pochłaniaczy i filtropochłaniaczy jako ochron stosowanych przy pracach z płynnymi insektycydami fosforoorganicznymi [en polonés]
Study of the relative merits, as means of protection against liquid organophosphorus insecticides, of 4 sorbent filter respirators and 6 combined sorbent-particulate filter respirators manufactured in East Germany, West Germany, Italy and Poland. The parameters compared were: weight of respirator; weight and volume of sorbent material; breathing resistance; relative filtration efficiency of the respirators for different insecticides. The comparative analysis of the results indicates that the combined sorbent-particulate filter respirator is superior to the plain sorbent filter respirator. Numerous comparative tables are given.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1974, Vol.24, No.80, p.21-37. Illus. 12 ref.

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