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  • Agricultural chemicals

1976

CIS 77-51 El Ghawabi S.H., Ibrahim S.M.
Pneumoconiosis in the superphosphate industry.
Radiographic and spirometric study of 35 phosphate crushers. Dust levels at various worksites were considerably in excess of the TLV. Pneumoconiosis was present in 8 (23%) of the phosphate crushers. Vital capacity and FEV1 were reduced when the lesion reached the micronodular stage and category 3 of the ILO/UC Classification, 1971.
Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1975, Vol.3, No.1, p.55-62. 12 ref.

CIS 76-1974 Levin H.S., Rodnitzky R.L.
Behavioral effects of organophosphate pesticides in man.
This literature survey discusses: cognitive impairment in organophosphate toxicity (vigilance, information processing and psychomotor speed, memory), effects on language, psychopathology (depression, schizophrenic syndrome, anxiety and irritability), electroencephalographic changes and epidemiologic evidence. The few studies of asymptomatic workers at risk from repeated exposure to the pesticides have produced only equivocal findings concerning the presence of less severe or latent forms of these behavioural abnormalities.
Clinical Toxicology, 1976, Vol.9, No.3, p.391-405. 32 ref.

CIS 76-1947
National Institutes of Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C.
Carcinogenesis bioassay of technical grade chlordecone (Kepone).
Chlordecone (Kepone) was administered to rats and mice for 80 weeks beginning with doses that were not well tolerated and decreasing to doses that averaged 8 and 24ppm for male rats, 18 and 26ppm for female rats, 20 and 23ppm for male mice and 20 and 40ppm for female mice. Generalised tremors and dermatologic changes were noted and there was a significant increase in hepatocellular carcinomas of high dose level rats and of mice at both levels. Extensive hyperplasia of the liver was also found. (Single copies of the report are available from the Office of Cancer Communications, National Cancer Institute, Building 31, Room 10A21, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20014).
Federal Register, 8 Apr. 1976, Vol.41, No.69, p.14914-14915.

CIS 76-1933 Király J., Szentesi I., Ruzicska P., Czeizel E.
Investigations of chromosomes in workers producing organophosphate insecticides
Kromoszóma-vizsgálatok szerves foszforsav-inszekticideket gyártó munkásokban [en húngaro]
Data was compared of workers producing or formulating trichlorphon (Ditrifon 50, chlorophos), diazinon (Basudin E), and Prolate (Safidone 40 WP, phosmet) with those of an unexposed control group, a prolonged indirect-exposure group ("factory control") and a "positive control" group producing tetrachlorobenzene. The frequency of chromatide-type aberrations and acentric fragments increased considerably in the factory control group in relation to the normal controls. Diazinon and Prolate caused an increase in the 3 types of structure deformations, while trichlorophon provoked a slight increase in chromosome-type deformities compared to the factory control group. The mutagenicity of tetrachlorobenzene was confirmed.
Munkavédelem, 1976, Vol.22, No.7-9, p.27-33. 19 ref.

CIS 76-1927 Levin J.O., Rappe C., Nilsson C.A.
Use of chlorophenols as fungicides in sawmills.
Occupational hygiene studies at the trimming, grading and packaging positions of 2 sawmills, with results of chromatographic analysis of 3 commercial chlorophenol formulations and of wood dust. Chemistry and toxicology of chlorophenols. The most frequent impurities of the commercial chlorophenols, which are applied by dipping or spraying, were chlorinated phenoxyphenols, diphenyl ethers, dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. Analysis of wood dust showed the impurities to be enriched in relation to the chlorophenols themselves, probably because of their low volatility and high stability. Contaminant concentrations were much higher at the plant employing spraying as method of application; the dipping method is therefore preferable, provided that the highly contaminated sludge from the dipping tank is adequately disposed of.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.71-81. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 76-1901 Carrera G., Mitjavila S., Lacombe C., Derache R.
Toxicokinetics of a thioquinoxaline pesticide: oxythioquinox.
Toxicocinétique d'un pesticide du groupe des thioquinoxalines: l'oxythioquinox [en francés]
The absorption and distribution of 35S-labelled oxythioquinox (Morestan) in the rat were studied after administration by stomach tube. Most of the oxythioquinox transported in the body formed complexes with plasma proteins, especially albumins. After intravenous administration, the substance is eliminated very slowly. There is an equilibrium between the plasma and the peripheral compartments. After intragastric administration, there was an increase of radioactivity in epididymal adipose tissue, indicating that the peripheral compartment should include the adipose tissue.
Toxicology, Aug.-Sep. 1976, Vol.6, No.2, p.161-171. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 76-1891 Ruzicska P., Péter S., Laczi J., Czeizel E.
Study on chromosomal mutagenicity of Fundazol 50 WP
A Fundazol 50 WP kromoszóma mutagenitásának vizsgálata [en húngaro]
The mutagenic effects of Fundazol 50 WP (methyl 1-butylcarbamoyl-2-benzimidazolecarbamate) were studied in vivo and in vitro. The peripheral blood of workers producing the fungicide was analysed to determine exposure; there was no mutagenesis. While there was no effect on mature rats, doses of 200 and 500mg/kg/day had considerable mutagenic effects on foetal rat tissue.
Egészségtudomány, 1976, Vol.20, No.1, p.74-83. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 76-1661 Kolmodin-Hedman B., Hĺkansson M., Randma E., Sjögren B., Swensson Ĺ.
Occupational health control of workers handling and planting pine and fir seedlings treated with lindane
Yrkesmedicinsk kontroll vid behandling och plantering av lindanbesprutade tall- och granplantor [en sueco]
6 persons treated pine and fir seedlings with an emulsion containing 1% lindane. 10 persons packed these plants for 2 days indoors. The plasma levels of lindane after treatment were 1.9-5.6ng/ml and after packing for 2 days 1.2-25.7ng/ml. Plasma levels of lindane, followed after exposure, decreased to half the initial values in 3-5 days. Planting resulted in plasma levels of lindane less than 0.2-22.3ng/ml at the end of the first week. Despite further planting, the lindane levels decreased to less than 0.2-3.5ng/ml at the end of the second week. Symptoms were not more frequent in a group of exposed planters compared to planters of untreated seedlings. Symptoms were not correlated to high lindane plasma levels.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1976:4, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. 31p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: Swe-cr.12.00.

CIS 76-1648 Muranyi-Kovas I., Rudali G., Imbert J.
Bioassay of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid for carcinogenicity in mice.
2,4,5-T herbicide containing less than 0.05ppm dioxins was administered to mice. Tumours of the lung, liver and some rare forms of tumours were attributed to the 2,4,5-T and not to any impurities. Results in different mouse species indiate that mice may not be ideal models for 2,4,5-T carcinogenicity tests.
British Journal of Cancer, June 1976, Vol.33, No.6, p.626-633. 18 ref.

CIS 76-1624 Kuz'minskaya U.A., Alekhina S.M.
Effect of chlorocamphene on the isoenzyme spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase in rat serum and liver.
Total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreases in the liver of rats after ingestion of a single dose of half the LD50 (120mg/kg) of toxaphene (polychlorocamphene, chlorocamphene). The isoenzyme spectrum of LDH is characterised by an increase in LDH1, LDH2, and LDH3, and by a decrease in LDH4. The overall LDH activity does not change in blood serum. The isoform ratio changes insignificantly and LDH1 falls, but normalises 15 days after the administration of the compound. Ingestion of toxaphene at levels 1/100 the LD50 daily over 1, 3 and 6 months causes a reduction in the overall LDH activity in the liver and serum. LDH1 and LDH4 decrease and LDH2 and LDH3 increase in blood serum. Beginning with the 3rd month of administration, LDH1 tends to return to normal levels. LDH2, LDH3 and LDH4 do return to normal levels, while LDH5 increases regularly. It can be considered that the ingestion of toxaphene does not result in an increase in the permeability of the cell membranes of the liver for LDH isoenzymes, while the isoenzyme spectrum shifts in serum are either the result of the biosynthesis of the isoforms of this enzyme changed by the compound or the result of the permeability for them of the cells of other tissues.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Research Triangle Park, USA, Feb. 1976, Vol.13, p.127-132. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 76-1616 Revzin A.M.
Effects of organophosphate pesticides and other drugs on subcortical mechanisms of visual integration.
Atropine, scopolamine, mevinphos, and eserine selectively block directional sensitivity of visual integrative neurones in the thalamus. Cholinergic drugs that do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier are without effect. The neurones studied are important links in reflex brain systems controlling visual attention and eye movements. The results suggest that any cholinergic drug that can reach the brain will disturb visual functions. Since the changes are qualitative and the system is reflex, the affected individual may be unaware of dysfunction. The resultant dangers to aerial applicators are discussed, particularly with respect to atropine, which is necessary in the therapy of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning but is potentially harmful if self-administered for either prophylaxis or treatment.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1976, Vol.47, No.6, p.627-629. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 76-1615 Revzin A.M.
Effects of mevinphos (Phosdrin) on unit discharge patterns in avian hippocampus.
Recent experiments have shown that low doses of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, mevinphos and physostigmine, reduce hippocampal inhibitory phenomena, measured in terms of the duration of the poststimulus inhibitory pause seen in individual hippocampal neurones in the pigeon. The cholinergic antagonist, atropine, increased hippocampal inhibition. At near threshold dose mevinphos could, in part, reverse atropine effects. At higher doses, mevinphos synergized with atropine. Any organophosphate or carbamate pesticide and its antidote, atropine, may alter "attention" or "short-term memory" through effects on hippocampus at doses too low to induce grossly detectable peripheral symptomatology. Extreme caution is urged in the use or handling of these compounds by aerial applicators crop dusting with pesticides of this kind. Since the effects of atropine and mevinphos can synergize, the use of atropine to permit poisoned applicators to resume activity is questioned.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1976, Vol.47, No.6, p.608-611. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 76-1612 Schlatter I.
Poisoning due to the herbicide Paraquat
Vergiftungen mit dem Unkrautvertilgungsmittel Paraquat [en alemán]
Since 1966, over 200 deaths have been reported in the world following ingestion of small quantities of this compound. The cause of death was generally progressive lung fibrosis. Of the 11 cases of paraquat poisoning reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zurich between 1966 and 1975, 6 were fatal. They are described - with the most important therapeutic measures - in detail. The 5 survivors showed no signs of lung damage. The effects of splashes onto the eyes or skin are also briefly described.
Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin - Revue suisse de médecine - Praxis, 6 July 1976, Vol.65, No.27, p.837-843. 40 ref.

CIS 76-1395 DeBaun J.R., Menn J.J.
Sulfoxide reduction in relation to organophosphorus insecticide detoxification.
Carbophenothion sulfoxide, an oxidative metabolite of carbophenothion (Trithion), is reduced in the living rat by an in vitro system containing rat liver enzyme, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and flavine adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This reduction of the sulfoxide, which is a more potent cholinesterase inhibitor than the parent sulfide, may represent a general detoxification pathway in animals, plants and other environmental systems.
Science, 16 Jan. 1976, Vol.191, No.4223, p.187-188. 7 ref.

CIS 76-1392
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Guidance note: fumigation using methyl bromide (bromomethane).
This guidance note contains sections devoted to: hazards of methyl bromide (skin burns; massive accumulation of fluid in lungs following inhalation of high concentrations; damage to brain and nervous system and possibly to kidneys); employers' and workers' responsibilities; qualifications and duties of operators; compliance of fumigant with British Standards (cylinders; cans; storage and transport; warning agents); detecting equipment; precautions (halide detector lamp; gas detector tubes); fumigation of buildings, of stacks of commodities, of ships, freight containers, soil and compost in greenhouses, etc. Data on properties of methyl bromide, methods of protection, protective clothing, first aid and medical treatment, legislation and documentation are appended.
General Series/1, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, June 1976. 12p. 16 ref.

CIS 76-1416 Furie B., Trubowitz S.
Insecticides and blood dyscrasias - Chlordane exposure and self-limited refractory megaloblastic anemia.
Detailed history, with histological data, of a case of bone marrow failure following prolonged exposure to chlordane solution and fumes. A causal relation was highly probable. Protected from further exposure to the insecticide, the patient had a spontaneous remission.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 19 April 1976, Vol.235, No.16, p.1720-1722. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 76-1332 Yager J., McLean H., Hudes M., Spear C.
Components of variability in blood cholinesterase assay results.
Use of blood cholinesterase as an index of organophosphate pesticide exposure presents the problem of variability among individuals and from day to day. This article describes attempts to use commercially available lyophilised control sera as laboratory standard. However, results showed that the control sera used cannot serve as laboratory controls for red blood cell enzyme essays, and that they are unsatisfactory for determining day-to-day variability. It appears that different factors account for daily variability in plasma and red blood cell assay results.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1976, Vol.18, No.4, p.242-244. 3 ref.

1975

CIS 77-1698 Carbaryl.
Carbaryl. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as insecticide in agriculture and forestry, and unintended effects; public health programmes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit value, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; safety disposal and decontamination of containers and removal of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.3, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Jan. 1975. 13p. 6 ref.

CIS 77-1129 2,4,5-T.
2,4,5-T. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as herbicide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; recommendations (transportation, storage and handling); disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection and medical supervision of workers; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit value, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; safe disposal and decontamination of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
Data sheets on pesticides No.13, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1975. 12p. 5 ref.

CIS 77-1128 Parathion-methyl.
Parathion-méthyl. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as insecticide and acaricide in agriculture and horticulture; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit value, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; safe disposal and decontamination of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance methods; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.7, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1975. 12p. 10 ref.

CIS 77-1127 Endrin.
Endrine. [en francés]
Synonym; physical properties; agriculture and forestry uses as insecticide, acaricide and rodenticide; unintended effects on domestic animals; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, personal protective equipment for mixers, applicators and other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; safe disposal of containers and removal of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance methods; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.1, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Jan. 1975. 11p. 6 ref.

CIS 77-1126 Methyl bromide.
Bromure de méthyle. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as insecticide, acaricide, fungicide, nematocide and rodenticide in agriculture and for fumigation of stored dry foodstuffs; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); safe disposal of containers and removal of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
Data sheets on pesticides No.5, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Jan. 1975. 12p. 4 ref.

CIS 77-1125 Parathion.
Parathion. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as insecticide, acaricide and avicide in agriculture and forestry; public health programmes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated area; safe disposal and decontamination of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.6, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1975. 13p. 10 ref.

CIS 77-1124 Paraquat.
Paraquat. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as herbicide; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision for workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
Data sheets on pesticides No.4, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Jan. 1975. 13p. 5 ref.

CIS 77-1123 Dichlorvos.
Dichlorvos. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as insecticide, acaricide and nematocide in agriculture and forestry; public health programmes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; safe disposal of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.2, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Mar. 1975. 14p. 3 ref.

CIS 77-1122 Pyrethrins.
Pyréthrines. [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and insect repellant; public health programmes; domestic uses; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection and training of workers; precautions in use (threshold limit value, mixers and applicators, other associated workers); safe disposal of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
Data sheets on pesticides No.11, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1975. 12p. 6 ref.

CIS 77-1121 Temephos.
Téméphos [en francés]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as insecticide in agriculture and as mosquito larvicide in ponds, marshes and swamps; public health programmes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); safe disposal of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, tests in case of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.8, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1975. 11p. 4 ref.

CIS 77-508 Liquid manure
Flytgödsel [en sueco]
These directives entered into force on 1 Jan. 1976. Contents: emanations of flammable (methane, hydrogen sulfide) and toxic (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide) gases; design and construction of installations for liquid manure storage (drainage systems in stables, pumping pits, ventilation systems, tanks, etc.); execution of work in such installations (monitoring of toxic gases, forced ventilation, safe methods of work in confined spaces); trailer tanks (construction, precautions); first aid. The text of Swedish regulations concerning power take-off guards is appended.
Anvisningar nr.72, Swedish National Occupational Safety and Health Board (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, June 1975 (revision). 20p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: Swe-cr.6.40.

CIS 77-206 Hayes W.J.
Toxicology of pesticides.
This book deals with the principles, general conditions of exposure, observed effects on man, problems of diagnosis and treatment, means of preventing injury and brief outlines of the impact of pesticides on animals. Chapters include introduction (definitions, scope, production, use, standard reference works); general principles: dosage and other factors influencing toxicity, metabolism (qualitative and quantitative aspects), and nature of injuries and tests for them (mode of action, effects on cells and tissues, techniques for measuring injury); studies in man; recognised and possible exposure to pesticides and effects in man (residues, incidence of poisoning, safety criteria); diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; prevention of injury; etc. An alphabetical list of chemical names, with CAS Registry numbers, of the compounds mentioned and a subject index are appended.
The Williams and Wilkins Company, 428 E. Preston Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA, 1975. 580p. Illus. 2,500 ref. Price: US-$39.50.

CIS 77-205 Research on spruce and fir seedlings treated with lindane in autumn 1974 - Occupational safety and health aspects
Försöksverksamhet med lindanbehandling av tall- och granplantor hösten 1974 - yrkeshygieniska aspekter [en sueco]
Results of an occupational safety and health survey carried out in Sweden to evaluate the effects of exposure to lindane in various conditions and to compare these effects with those of DDT (the use of which is now prohibited). Determination of lindane concentration in air and in the blood showed that lindane spraying in greenhouses resulted in severe exposure, whereas exposure was moderate during the semi-enclosed process of tunnel spraying and was insignificant during dipping treatment and planting out of treated seedlings. Short-term exposure to dry lindane powder gave rise to high blood lindane levels; suitable preventive meaures are recommended (local exhaust ventilation, personal protective equipment, etc.).
Arbete och hälsa 1975:5, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1975. 22p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 76-1942 Gurova A.I., Alekseeva N.P., Gorlova O.E., Černyšova R.A.
Toxicity of dimethylcyanamide
O toksičnosti dimetilcianamida [en ruso]
Report on animal experiments, with the following results: the mechanism of action of dimethylcyanamide (DMC) in the body is identical to that of inorganic cyanamides; the methyl groups in the DMC molecule affect its physical properties but not its toxicity; in spite of the great toxicity of DMC the risk of inhalation poisoning is minimal in industrial conditions; DMC is absorbed by the skin and is irritatant to the conjunctiva; it shows little cumulation. Recommended TLV for blending with other cyanamides: 0.5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1975, No.11, p.23-27. 14 ref.

CIS 76-1937 Bročinskij K.K., Soboleva L.P., Buslenko A.I., Alehina S.M., Sokur A.I.
Some occupational health problems in polychlorocamphene to sugar beet crops
Nekotorye voprosy gigieny truda pri primenenii polihlorkamfena v sveklovodstve [en ruso]
Results of analysis of 48 sugar beet plant samples, 46 soil and 112 air samples collected during application of toxaphene; results of medical examinations carried out in 95 workers engaged in this type of pesticide application for 3 seasons. Short-term exposure to toxaphene results in disturbance of the electrolytic blood picture and affects serum lactate-dehydrogenase activity. Residual toxaphene accumulating in soil, plants and in the human body potentiate certain adrenergic effects on the heart by dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. The authors emphasise that toxaphene should be replaced by other pesticides with less cumulative effects.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1975, No.6, p.8-11. 10 ref.

CIS 76-2035 Gribauval G.
Nitrogen fertilisers
Les engrais azotés. [en francés]
Communication to the Regional Technical Committee for the Chemical Industries (Comité technique régional des industries chimiques), Lille, France. A brief review of the various production stages of ammonium nitrate (taken as an example) and citation of the French regulations applicable are followed by a study of the hazards involved and how to prevent them: equipment and controls (transmission systems, electricity); slips and falls; accidents due to being caught or dragged along by belt conveyors; bucket elevators and skips; pumps, valves, etc.; fires and explosions (typical accidents); splashes and overflow of corrosive liquids; inhalation of toxic fumes; dust. In conclusion, the communication stresses the necessity for adequate information and awareness at all levels, proper personnel training and improvement of working conditions (practical suggestions).
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 13 May 1975. 11p. Gratis.

CIS 76-1895 Reznik Ja.B., Sprinčan G.K.
Experimental data on the gonadotoxic effect of Nemagon
Ėksperimental'nye dannye o gonadotoksičeskom dejstvii nemagona [en ruso]
Nemagon (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) is used as a nematocide for soil dressing in market gardening. Tests on white rats show that one-time doses of 100mg/kg and repeated doses of 10mg/kg have gonadotoxic effects. Damage to the genital organs involves their hormonal functions and causes dysfunction of spermatogenesis and of the oestrous cycle.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1975, No.6, p.101-102.

CIS 76-1666 Mirkova E.
Effects of the herbicide Ramrod on embryogenesis in white rats
Văzdejstvie na herbicida ramrod vărhu embriogenezata na beli plăhove [en búlgaro]
The acetamide Ramrod (1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/40 of the LD50) was administered to 100 female rats during gestation. Embryonic mortality was increased, while foetal bodyweight and head-tail length were reduced. 1/40 of the LD50 had no effect on embryogenesis, while 1/5 and 1/10 had slight teratogenic effects.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.57-60. 7 ref.

CIS 76-1706 Izmirova N., Benčev I., Kalojanova F., Kostova S., Angelova R.
Determination of the minimum time required for safe work after spraying of tobacco with Sayfos
Opredeljane na minimalni srokove za bezopasna rabota sled prăskane na tjutjun săs sajfos [en búlgaro]
Report on experiments to determine the time of decomposition of different concentrations of Sayfos (menazon), a pesticide used in tobacco growing. A table with the results shows the minimum number of days during which no contact with the treated tobacco leaves should be had. Sayfos decomposes very slowly after penetrating the soil, and it is therefore best applied only once after planting the crop.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.49-52. 14 ref.

CIS 76-1665 Hinkova L., Kalojanova F., Dimov S., Acev E.
Comparative study of EEG and cholinesterase activity changes in experimental intoxication with dipterex
Sravnitelno izsledvane na promenite v EEG i holinesteraznata aktivnost pri eksperimentalna intoksikacija s diptereks [en búlgaro]
Dipterex (chlorophos) administered intraperitoneally (3 and 6mg/kg) and intramuscularly (10 and 20mg/kg) in cats inhibited cholinesterase activity in all the experiments, while EEG changes were mild and irregular. Desynchronisation of the spontaneous EEG prevailed after a single dose of dipterex; on activation by photic stimulation, on the other hand, an increase in late negative potentials was predominant. Repeated administration of dipterex gave rise to theta rhythms and activation of pre-existing seizure patterns. Discussion of the correlation between EEG changes and cholinesterase activity.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.39-44. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 76-1664 Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Vălčeva V., Čakărov E., Načev Č., Takeva C.
Gonadal and reproductive changes in white rats after oral intoxication with maneb
Promeni v gonadite i v sposobnostta za reprodukcija na beli plăhove sled oralna intoksikacija s maneb [en búlgaro]
Administration of 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 and 1/500 of the DL50 twice weekly to rats produced biochemical and histological changes in the gonads and loss of reproductive power (fertility, gestation, survival of offspring, lactation). These effects were also seen in the 2 next generations.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.25-30. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 76-1705
ČSN 47-4411, Bureau of Standards (Úřad pro normalizaci) Praha.
Basic safety and health principles for the design of machines and instruments for the application of pesticides.
Stroje a nářadí na ochranu rostlin - Zásady pro konstrukci z hlediska bezpecnosti a ochrany zdraví při práci [en checo]
This standard, approved on 1 Aug. 1974, entered into force on 1 Sep. 1975. It applies to new models of tractor-drawn and powered machines, and to manually-operated equipment for applying pesticides. The standard, which is intended to protect personnel against the pesticides used, covers the following aspects: general comments; chassis; pesticide containers and accessories; tubes, cocks, filters; pumps, compressors, ventilators; spraying equipment.
Vydavatelství ÚNM, Hostivař, Praha 10, Czechoslovakia, 1975. 4p. Price: Kcs.1.00.

CIS 76-1379 Krauthacker B.
Methods for the determination of 0,0-dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethylphosphonate (DMTHF)
Metode određivanja 0,0-dimetil 2,2,2-trikloro-1-hidroksietil fosfonata (DMTHF) [en serbocroata]
Literature survey of methods for separation and determination of the title insecticide and drug (also called chlorophos). Samples of different origin were studied. The methods are broken down into extraction, qualitative and quantitative methods, and sensitivities are given when in the original papers.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1975, Vol.26, No.2, p.157-169. 82 ref.

CIS 76-1402 Kostanecka I., Mańkowska W., Sawicka A.
Research on the choice of a substance to test the efficacity of filter cartridges for organophosphorus insecticides
Badania związane z doborem substancji do testowania filtropochłaniaczy insektycydów fosforoorganicznych [en polonés]
The usefulness of methyl bromide, hydrogen cyanide and carbon tetrachloride for in-plant checking of the filter cartridges of respiratory protection equipment against organophosphorus insecticides was tested. The sensitivity of the organism Tenebrio molitor to the filtered air was used as criterion. Only methyl bromide satisfied the requirements for testing the efficacity of filter cartridges against dimethoate, chlorophos, dichlorvos, Birlane, Sapecron and Lebaycid (fenthion).
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1975, Vol.25, No.85, p.129-138. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 76-1110 Chemical and biochemical methodology for the assessment of hazards of pesticides for man - Report of a WHO Scientific Group.
Dangers des pesticides pour l'homme: Méthodes chimiques et biochimiques d'évaluation - Rapport d'un Groupe scientifique de l'OMS. [en francés]
This is the report of a meeting held in Geneva on 17-23 Sep. 1974. The Group studied the recommendations made by the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides and discussed the following subjects: use of pesticides in public health vector control, hazards to man from exposure to pesticides, importance of chemical and biochemical methods in public health programmes; determination of exposure and absorption of pesticides in man (measurement of inhalation and dermal exposure, chemical analysis of biological materials for pesticides and metabolites, specific compounds, biochemical analysis, determination of cholinesterase activity in human blood, etc.); determination of pesticides and degradation products in environment materials; and analytical methods. The recommendations covered environment samples, mechanism of pesticide action, cholinesterase determination, simple analytical techniques, field trials and new application techniques, and information exchange.
Technical Report Series No.560, World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1975. 48 ref. Price: SF.6.00.

CIS 76-1108 Filipan J., Sjerobabski Đ., Mušec I.
Research on the concentration of pesticide aerosols in crop-dusting
Istraživanje koncentracije aerosola pesticida za vrijeme zapraživanja poljoprivrednih kultura [en serbocroata]
Results of investigations to determine exposure to pesticides in 3 Yugoslav agricultural undertakings. The pesticides used fell into 3 groups: chlorinated hydrocarbons (lindane, DDT, DDD, mirex), organophosphorus compounds (phosphamidon), organomercury compounds (Radosan); the toxicity of these substances is described. Worker exposure was determined by individual sampling devices and by chromatographic analysis of the samples. The results obtained showed that workplace concentrations considerably exceeded TLVs, particularly in the case of DDT and Radosan.
Sigurnost, 1975, Vol.17, No.1, p.5-18. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 76-1057 Nájera R.R., Sánchez de la Fuente E.
Intoxicación por plaguicidas en la comarca lagunera durante el ciclo agrícola de 1974
Report of an investigation of an outbreak of pesticide poisoning in the Comarca Lagunera district of Northern Mexico, where mixed agriculture is carried on (cotton, alfalfa, cereals), involving 847 cases and 4 deaths. The majority of the cases, and the most serious, were due to handling of an organophosphorus pesticide Mevidrin (40% of the cases). Use of other pesticides accounted for 16.5% (methyl parathion), 11% (sevin), 8.9% (azodrin), 6.6% (lannate), 2.3% (methyl gusathion) and all other organophosphorus products 14.8%. Only 1.6% of the cases had handled chlorinated hydrocarbon products such as DDT. Path of entry (inhalation (92.5% of the cases), ingestion (5%), and skin contact (2%)) and occupation of those affected are indicated in diagrams. The 4 deaths were due to gross inobservance of elementary precautions. Pharmacology, diagnosis and treatment of pesticide poisoning are reviewed. A report of a discussion of the outbreak, and conclusions (suggestions and plans to improve control, handling and utilisation of pesticides) follows.
Salud Pública de México, Sep.-Oct. 1975, Vol.17, No.5, p.687-698. Illus.

CIS 76-1107 Maksimova F., Martinova M.
Influence of pesticides on the health of hothouse workers
Vlijanie na pesticidi vărhu organizma na rabotnici pri oranžerijni uslovija [en búlgaro]
Results of an occupational health survey of 20 horticultural workers who treated tomatoes and cucumbers with pesticides in hothouses (determination of insecticide residues on the hands and plants, clinical and laboratory tests). The morbidity of these workers was high (haemopoiesis disorders and liver and kidney functional impairment). The authors noted a correlation between application periods of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides and inhibition periods of serum cholinesterases. Given that hothouse workers are exposed all year round and they work in unfavourable microclimates, their occupational risks are greater than growers who only work in the warm season.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1975, Vol.9, No.2, p.66-73. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 76-1106 Rizov N.
Method for determining chlorinated organic insecticides in blood by gas-liquid chromatography
Metod za opredeljane na hlorsădaržašti insekticidi v krăv posredstvom gazovo-tečna hromatografija [en búlgaro]
Description of a method by which blood concentrations of α- β- γ-benzene hexachloride, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptaclor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor are determined. The sensitivity of the method varies from 5x10-4ppm for the first 3 compounds to 1x10-2ppm for the methoxychlor. The sample is treated with 86% formic acid and extracted with hexane. The Al2O3 column is activated at 450°C for 4-5 hours and partly deactivated by adding 3% water. The carrier gas is nitrogen at 60ml/min.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1975, Vol.9, No.2, p.144-147. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 76-1025 Slavkova N.
Research on the cumulative effect of metathion
Proučvanija vărhu kumulativnija efekt na metationa [en búlgaro]
Results of studies in white rats administered metathion in oral doses of 1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/40 of the DL50 (470mg/kg) for 20 days. The cumulative effect was very marked with the highest dose, and absent with the lowest. Metathion can thus be classed among the classic organophosphorus compounds whose cumulative effect diminishes as the daily dose increases.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1975, Vol.18, No.2, p.149-153. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 76-1009 Barlogová S., Grunt J.
Sensitising properties of some pyridazine compounds
Sensibilizačné vlastnosti niektorých pyridazinónových zlúčenin [en eslovaco]
The sensitising effects of 2-phenyl-4,5-dichloro-3-pyridazinone (PCC) and its analogues 2-methyl-4,5-dichloro-3-pyridazinone (MCP) and 2-methyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3-pyridazinone (MMP) were tested experimentally on guinea pigs. These substances were administered in 3 different ways: repeated applications to the surface of the skin, a single intradermal injection with Freund's adjuvant (complete) in the digital pads. Administration of MMP produced no hypersensitisation, whereas administration of PCC and MCP in primarily non-toxic doses resulted in a delayed-type hypersensitivity, the intensity of which was dose-dependent. The antigenic determinant in PCC seems to be the phenyl radical, and in MCP it would appear to be chlorine.
Československá hygiena, Jan. 1975, Vol.20, No.1, p.5-9. 11 ref.

CIS 76-791 Davies J.E., Barquet A., Freed V.H., Haque R., Morgade C., Sonneborn R.E., Vaclavek C.
Human pesticide poisonings by a fat-soluble organophosphate insecticide.
Unusual features observed in 5 cases of dichlofenthion poisoning (suicidal ingestion) were: delayed or mild onset of symptoms, followed by a deceptively mild latent phase, and the occurrence of severe and life-threatening cholinergic crises after 40-48h, progressing to a protracted period of variable cholinergic symptoms persisting for 5-48 days. Detailed case-reports are given. Insecticide residues were detected in fat after 54 days and in the blood after 75 days. Dichlofenthion was shown to have a partition coefficient of 137,000 (20 times that of parathion), and slow release of the compound from adipose reservoirs is suggested in explanation of the protracted clinical course.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1975, Vol.30, No.12, p.608-613. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 76-775 Benčev I.
Chromatographic separation and spectrographic determination of the rodenticide Ratron in air
Hromatografsko razdeljane i spektrofotometrično opredeljane na rodenticida Ratron văv văzduha [en búlgaro]
Description of a method for the determination of the rodenticide Ratron - 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin - in air. The method is based on thin-layer chromatographic separation of the sample and quantitative determination of the compound in a chloroform solution by ultraviolet spectrophotometry (wavelength 282nm). The sensitivity of the method is 1µg/ml). Reproduction of a calibration curve. The method is simple and can be used for serial determinations.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1975, Vol.18, No.1, p.90-94. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 76-768 Camphechlor.
Camphechlore. [en francés]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.20, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 11p. 5 ref.

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