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Features of the action of pesticides on the eye
Ob osobennostjah dejstvija pesticidov na organ zrenija [en ruso]
None of 4 groups of pesticide workers showed clinical disorders of the eye or reduced acuity of vision. However, physiological tests detected significant deviations from control values in: corneal sensitivity and blood pressure in the central retinal artery of workers treating corn with tetramethylthiuram disulfide; elevated pressure and abnormal haemodynamics in the central retinal artery of workers in hexachlorocyclohexane synthesis; prolonged dark adaptation time, reduced flicker fusion frequency and regional vascular dystonia in hexachlorocyclohexane packagers; and conjunctival irritation, elevated arterial pressure and reduced corneal sensitivity in workers in polychloropinene synthesis.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.32-35. 3 ref.
Little pigs have it easy - but the dust!
Grisar tar livet lugnt - men de dammar [en sueco]
Dust is generated in the large batteries in which pigs are raised; the dust comes from feed, from the concrete floors and from the animals' skins when they scratch themselves. Dust formation is often promoted by the dehumidifiers installed to combat the high humidity produced by the animals' perspiration. These dusts can produce allergic reactions in sensitive persons. Also, the acaricidal powder applied 2-3 times per year to prevent mange is toxic. After trying different dust masks, one allergic breeder found that an air-supplied helmet, with filtered air forming a curtain in front of the face, offered the best protection.
Arbetsmiljö, 1982, No.12, p.14-18. Illus.
Determination of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) in air by microdiffusion method
A simple field technique is described whereby BHC is extracted from a sample in acetic acid, dechlorinated by reaction with zinc and acetic acid and the resultant benzene is volatilised and absorbed in a nitrating mixture by micro-diffusion technique. The m-dinitrobenzene formed is spectrophotometrically determined by the butanone method. The sensitivity and precision of this method is 5µg±5.0%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1982, Vol.43, No.12, p.912-914. Illus. 9 ref.
Shiwaku K., Hirai K., Torii M., Mima Y.
Health hazards by pesticides on farmers in citrus fruit area. Fluctuations in blood enzymes and lipids by spraying work of mecarbam
Serum pseudocholinesterase, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase, serum β-glucuronidase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels were determined in 37 male and 39 female workers in a citrus fruit orchard before and after spraying 25% mecarbam using a conventional nozzle. Serum pseudocholinesterase activity was slightly reduced in the female group after spraying > 2l mecarbam. Other enzymes and lipids did not show significant fluctuation after spraying. Spraying mecarbam for ≤4 hours with protective clothing is recommended as safe.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, 1982, Vol.30, No.6, p.1028-1033. Illus. 27 ref.
Hirai K., Shiwaku K., Torii M.
Effects of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides on the lipid metabolism
The in vitro effects of the insecticides chlorfenvinphos, EPN, fenitrothion, mecarbam, and carbaryl on serum pseudocholinesterase, nonspecific esterase, serum lipoprotein lipase, adipose tissue lipase and epinephrine-induced lipolysis were investigated. A dose-dependent inhibition of serum nonspecific esterase as well as serum pseudocholinesterase was found for these insecticides. Serum lipoprotein lipase, adipose tissue lipase and epinephrine-induced lipolysis were inhibited by 10-3M of carbaryl, fenitrothion and chlorfenvinphos.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, May 1982, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 19 ref.
Bagon D.A., Warwick C.J.
The determination of atmospheric concentrations of the active ingredients of pesticide formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography
Methods of sampling atmospheres contaminated by pesticides in factory and agricultural environments, and subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography, are discussed. Air sampling is carried out using porous polymer or filter collection media; usually a 100dm3 air volume is suitable. Detection limits with UV detection are in the range 0.1-10µg/m3. The methods described are used routinely at the Health and Safety Executive Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratories (United Kingdom).
Chromatographia, 1982, Vol.16, p.290-293. Illus. 9 ref.
Kawai M., Yoshida M., Iyatomi A., Koyama M., Kaneko Y.
Exposure of spray-operators to trichlophon
Exposure levels in workers using a 1000:1 dilution of trichlophon (dimethyl(2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl)phosphonate) in apple orchards were evaluated. Average exposure levels were 177mg per person using speed sprayers and 1,179mg with power sprayers. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity showed no significant differences before and after spraying.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, 15 Apr. 1982, Vol.29, No.4, p.165-171. Illus. 11 ref.
Delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphorus insecticides
This review covers leptophos, tri-o-cresyl phosphate, mipafox and cyanofenphos. Some organophosphorus insecticides produce not only acute toxicity via inhibition of cholinesterase but also characteristic delayed neurotoxicity. Mipafox, leptophos and cyanofenphos have been shown to have such specific toxicity. Hens are the most suitable animal for experiments because of their high sensitivity to the neurotoxicity. Toxicity was markedly intensified in hens by subdividing oral administration of a single dose. This method is highly useful in finding pesticide with delayed neurotoxicity.
Niigata Medical Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.96, No.3, p.159-163. 22 ref.
Cook J., Kaufman C.
Portrait of a poison
This book considers the case against the use of 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) with reference to animal experiments, accidental human exposure, military uses of 2,4,5-T, political issues and case histories of exposed individuals. Part 2 - the campaign against 2,4,5-T -outlines the movement to ban the compound from use in the United Kingdom. Appendices: notes on manufacture and formulation of 2,4,5-T herbicides; brand names of products containing 2,4,5-T; councils, companies and countries that have banned 2,4,5-T.
Pluto Press Limited, Unit 10 Spencer Court, 7 Chalcot Road, London NW1 8LH, United Kingdom, 1982. 100p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: Ł2.95.
Aplastic anaemia after methoxychlor exposure
This letter reports the development of fatigue and bruising several weeks after accidental exposure to a tomato pesticide dust containing methoxychlor and captan, followed by aplastic anaemia after 2 months which proved fatal at 6 months.
Lancet, 1982, Vol.2, No.8311, p.1349.
Toxicology data sheets on chemicals - Fenitrothion
Contents of this data sheet: properties; uses; production; metabolism; toxicity studies; aquatic toxicity; residual toxicity; phytotoxicity; case reports and epidemiological studies; environmental fate; residues; sampling and analysis; legal status (including occupational health standards).
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow-226001, India, July 1982. 15p. 115 ref. Gratis.
p-Dioxin - A highly toxic contaminant of the environment
p-Dioksin kao visoko toksični kontaminant životne sredine [en serbocroata]
A review of the toxicology of dioxin, a by-product of herbicide (2,4,5-T) manufacture, and of cases of human exposure. Occupational risks of dioxin exposure include both massive, acute exposure, as in the explosion at Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and low-level chronic exposure in the course of manufacture and application of herbicides.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1982, Vol.33, No.4, p.343-351. 43 ref.
Bandal S.K., Marco G.J., Golberg L., Leng M.L.
The pesticide chemist and modern toxicology
37 reviews and research papers, read at the American Chemical Society symposium in Downington, USA, in June 1980, report on recent advances in safety evaluation and toxicology of pesticides. Contents: toxicological aspects; biochemical aspects; analytical aspects; regulatory aspects; discussion groups and workshops.
American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1981. 582p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$41.95; elsewhere US-$50.95.
Parker C.M., Coate W.B., Voelker R.W.
Subchronic inhalation toxicity of 1,3-dichloropropene/1,2-dichloropropane (D-D) in mice and rats
Male and female animals were exposed to a mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene and 1,2-dichloropropane vapours in concentrations of 0, 5, 15 and 50ppm for 6 or 12 weeks. The only clinical effects observed were increased liver/body and kidney/body weight ratios at 50ppm. There was slight to moderate diffuse hepatocytic enlargement after 12 weeks' exposure to this dose.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May-June 1982, Vol.9, No.5-6, p.899-910. Illus. 21 ref.
Ashley W.M., Smith R.E., Dalvi R.R.
Hepatotoxicity of orally and intraperitoneally administered folpet in male rats
An intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of 68mg/kg was determined in rats. 50mg/kg i.p. significantly altered the levels of enzymes reflecting liver damage, while up to 10 times this dose produced no such effects or toxic symptoms when given orally. In vitro studies with rat liver microsomes are reported.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May-June 1982, Vol.9, No.5-6, p.867-876. Illus. 15 ref.
Sorenson W.G., Green F.H.Y., Vallyathan V., Ciegler A.
Secalonic acid D toxicity in rat lung
Responses in these studies differed markedly according to the route of administration (intragastric or intratracheal). There were histological lesions in the lungs only when secalonic acid D was administered intratracheally: 24h after treatment, the lungs showed an acute polymorphonuclear reaction in the distal airways and adjacent alveoli with necrosis with airways epithelium, developing into typical bronchiolitic lesions. Granulomas appeared on day 3. All of the pulmonary damage was reversible on termination of therapy after 69 days.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1982, Vol. 9, No.3, p.515-525. Illus. 13 ref.
Skinner, C.S., Kilgore, W.K.
Acute dermal toxicities of various organophosphate insecticides in mice
Dermal LD50 values for parathion, methylparathion, diazinon, azinphos-methyl and mevinphos were determined. Values were generated for the ED50 for cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase. Lethality was greatest with mevinosphos, followed by parathion, methyl parathion, diazinon and azinphos-methyl. Cholinesterase ED50 values were roughly equivalent to the LD50 for all except diazinon.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1982, Vol. 9, No.3, p.491-497. 27 ref.
Larsen K.O., Hanel H.K.
Effect of exposure to organophosphorus compounds on S-cholinesterase in workers removing poisonous depots
Biological monitoring and control of safety precautions against parathion, malathion and methylparathion was performed by measurement of serum cholinesterase (SCh) activity of 62 workers. SCh activity was depressed in the majority compared with preexposure values. Levels returned to baseline when exposure ceased; some workers needed about 6 months for this to occur. Values were never pathological, nor were there symptoms of poisoning. Measurement of SCh activity is an adequate and sensitive method of monitoring exposure to organophosphorus compounds.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.222-226. 9 ref.
Delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphorus insecticides
Organophosphorus compounds bring about characteristic delayed neurotoxicity in exposed animals. Nerve damage begins with ataxia of both feet several days after exposure. In severe cases the symptoms develop to flaccid paralysis and the affected animals often die from respiratory failure. Mipafox, leptophos, and cyanofenphos showed such delayed neurotoxicity. Hens are most suitable for these experiments.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, 15 Feb. 1982, Vol.29, No.2, p.49-56. Illus. 42 ref.
Herbicides, occupation, and cancer
This letter to the Editor gives an update of a NIOSH study on mortality due to soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for men exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. Only farmers (not otherwise specified) have a significant excess of soft tissue sarcomas, but the total proportional mortality rate for the occupations listed is not significantly increased. The mortality patterns reported do not offer convincing support for a link between phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenyl and these cancers.
Lancet, 26 June 1982, Vol.1, No.8287, p.1464-1465. 1 ref.
Plant treatment index - Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides
Index phytosanitaire. Produits insecticides, fongicides, herbicides [en francés]
This index describes 365 active substances used in agriculture and lists more than 2000 commerical products manufactured in accordance with French regulations. Analytical lists of insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, nematocides, rodenticides, etc. Information given for each product: trade names, active concentrations, distributors, toxicity, conditions of use.
Association de coordination technique agricole, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, 1981, 19th edition. 424p.
Pesticide residues and exposure
Report on an American Chemical Society (Division of Pesticide Chemistry) symposium (Las Vegas, USA, 26-27 Aug. 1980). A number of papers deal with the special problems of California. Subjects covered: problems of worker reentry into sprayed orcharrds; monitoring pesticide safety programmes; dermal exposure to carbaryl; exposure to chlorobenzilate; exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; studies with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid; health hazards to orchardists spraying insecticides; protective clothing; testing organophosphates in the field (fowl exposure).
American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1982. 204p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$27.95
Fatal paraquat poisonings after skin absorption
5 cases are reported, of which 3 were occupational accidents, in Papua New Guinea men. All had marked blistering and excoriation, and all died from respiratory failure. The continued use of paraquat in tropical agriculture should be reviewed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 12 June 1982, Vol.1, No.12, p.512-513. 7 ref.
Soliman S.A., Sovocool G.W., Curley A., Ahmed N.S., El-Fiki S., El-Sebae A.K.
Two acute human poisoning cases resulting from exposure to diazinon transformation products in Egypt
Symptoms were similar to those reported for exposure to parathion or other organophophorus insecticides. Cholinesterase activity fell markedly up to 18 days after exposure, and recovered to 90% of normal within 28 and 20 days. Acute toxicity appears to be due to unsuitable storage conditions (tin-plated sheet steel containers) of the emulsifiable concentrate which contained crystalline material identified as Sulfotepp and monothiono-TEPP, both much more toxic than diazinon, and other transformation products.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1982, Vol.37, No.4, p.207-212. Illus. 18 ref.
Smith A.H., Fisher D.O., Pearce N., Chapman C.J.
Congenital defects and miscarriages among New Zealand 2,4,5-T sprayers
The number of births, congenital defects and miscarriages in the wives of 548 2,4,5-T sprayers and 441 controls was established for 1969-1980 by questionnaire. The relative risk estimates of 1.19 for congenital defects, and 0.89 for miscarriages, were not statistically significant. Exposure of the wives from helping with spraying or washing contaminated clothes had no detectable effect on reproduction.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1982, Vol.37, No.4, p.197-200. 15 ref.
Recommended health-limits in occupational exposure to pesticides
Exposition professionnelle aux pesticides: limites recommandées d'exposition professionnelle ŕ visée sanitaire [en francés]
Report of a WHO study group (Geneva, 15-22 June 1981) on health-based limits for occupational exposure to carbaryl, malathion, lindane and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol. For each pesticide, sections cover: properties, uses, health hazards; metabolism; assessment of exposure; relationship between exposure and effects; conclusions regarding exposure limits; recommendations; research possibilities. Tentative limits for airborne concentrations of carbaryl and lindane are proposed but airborne limits are not recommended for malathion and dinitrocresol. Procedures for monitoring these 2 substances in blood are recommended.
World Health Organization, Avenue Appia, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1982. 110p. Illus. 303 ref. Price: SF.8.00.
Effects of pesticide dilutions and of washing solutions on the properties of respiratory protective equipment material
Wpływ działania wodnych roztworów pestycydów oraz kąpieli oczyszczających na właściwości materiałów sprzętu ochrony dróg oddechowych [en polonés]
Different materials used in the manufacture of respiratory protective equipment (metals, plastics, rubber) were tested with pesticides dilutions, aqueous detergent solutions and oxidants used for respiratory equipment maintenance in agriculture. Use of the different elements of equipment is evaluated, as are the products used in cleaning baths (after use of the equipment for crop protection).
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.113, p.143-155. 10 ref.
Hessl S.M., Berman E.
Severe peripheral neuropathy after exposure to monosodium methyl arsonate
Report of a case of a farm worker who had skin contact with this substance contained in a pesticide spray. The clinical manifestations of symmetrical peripheral neuropathy with stocking-glove sensory deficit, decreased position sense, decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes, muscle wasting, anaemia, leukopenia, and bone marrow changes of dyserythropoiesis are attributed to subacute arsenic poisoning. The possible contribution of exposure to other pesticides is discussed.
Clinical Toxicology, 1982, Vol.19, No.3, p.281-287. 10 ref.
Violante F.S., Roberts D.V.
Electromyographic study of neuromuscular function in pesticide workers
Review of the effects of organophosphorus pesticides on health (neurotoxic effects, in particular). Discussion of the problem of simultaneous exposure to a number of products and of the possibility of product interactions. Selection of the exposure monitoring method: periodic electromyography may provide more valuable data than measurement of blood cholinesterase activity.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1982, Vol.73, No.3, p.210-223. 21 ref.
Líška D., Kolesár D., Hladká A., Raiskup J.C.
Results of clinical and laboratory tests in workers in metathion EK-50 production
Klinické a laboratórne nálezy u pracovníkov pri výrobe metatiónu EK-50 [en eslovaco]
Workers employed in the production and packing of metathion, an insecticide derived from fenitrothion, showed signs of parasympathetic stimulation and a tendency to hypotonia. A slight pseudoneurasthenic syndrome was noted in 33% of women and 15% of men. Psychological test revealed a slight loss of memory, a deterioration in oculomotor coordination, in the coordination of movements and in the sense of orientation, a slowing down of the decision-making processes and of complex sensorimotor responses. Biochemical tests revealed blood cholinesterase inhibition, increased GPT and LDH5 iso-enzyme levels, and significant protein fraction changes. Urinary p-nitro-m-cresol levels determined before and after exposure were 1.54 and 5.61mg/l in men and 4.0 and 6.58mg/l in women. Fenitrothion concentrations in the working area varied from 0.028 to 0.118mg/m3.
Pracovní lékařství, May 1982, Vol.34, No.5, p.170-175, 38 ref.
Pesticide lung: A pilot investigation of fruit growers and farmers during the spraying season
This study covering 181 fruit growers was instigated by the finding of large, atypical lung infiltrations and lung fibrosis in one of them. The investigation comprised an interview, peak flow metering and chest x-ray; 41% of the subjects examined had one or other of the symptoms. Of the 132 workers who completed a questionnaire, 60 had worked with biocides and 72 had not. A non-significant higher frequency of symptoms was found among those who used biocides. Biocides (or "pesticides") may give rise to a lung disease, "biocide lung" which comprises pneumonia and chronic progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1982, Vol.39, No.4, p.370-376. Illus. 12 ref.
Galecron and cancer
Galécron et cancer [en francés]
This issue is devoted to an investigation on the pesticide Galecron (chlordimeform). Review of data on the toxicity and peripheral effects of this product, the sale of which is prohibited in Switzerland, but which is still used in developing countries where safety and health requirements are less stringent. Analysis of the findings; reproduction of confidential documents on investigations carried out by the manfacturing company, and of articles that have appeared in the press; measures taken by the manufacturer; position adopted by the Bern Declaration (Swiss Association for Co-operation in Development). Questions are asked as to the responsibility of the manufacturer in exporting this type of product.
Vers un développement solidaire, Dec. 1982, No.64, 48p. Illus.
Szucki B., Majczakowa W., Badach H., Stawińska A., Flattau J., Jabtońska B., Dudek K., Świtkowska J., Zembowicz-Sutkowska E., Bujnowicz T., Lotach H., Liwkowicz J.
Personal protection for work involving chemicals in agriculture - proceedings of a seminar
Ochrony osobiste do prac chemizacyjnych w rolnictwie [en polonés]
Papers presented at this seminar held in Warsaw, Poland, on 8 Dec. 1981: epidemiology of poisoning due to crop protection with pesticides; toxic hazards in agriculture and personal protection; respirators protecting against pesticides; absorption-filter half-mask for agricultural workers; properties and suitability of fabrics and other materials for clothing protecting against gaseous pesticides; clothing made from coated and impregnated fabrics; protective clothing for seed fumigators; laundering of protective clothing; assessment of protective clothing from the points of view of occupational physiology and hygiene; use of gloves and boots by crop protection workers.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Tamka 1, 00 349 Warszawa, Poland, 1981. 95p. Illus. 37 ref.
Bystedt M., Kolmodin-Hedman B.
Nordic Group of Experts for Documentation on Threshold Limit Values - 36. Synthetic pyrethroids: Permethrin
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 36. Syntetiska pyretroider: Permetrin [en sueco]
A literature survey of the health hazards of synthetic pyrethroids and, in particular, permethrin, designed to provide a basis for setting an appropriate TLV in the Scandinavian countries. Chapters are devoted to: toxicology, metabolic model, toxicological mechanisms, organ effects, allergy, genotoxic effects, carcinogenic effects and exposure indicators. Insufficient data are available for establishing a relation between atmospheric concentration and effect or response. In man, the most sensitive exposure indicators seem to be respiratory irritation during dusting and skin irritation when handling conifers treated with permethrin.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 31p. 62 ref.
Williams D.T., Denley H.V., Lane D.A., Quan E.S.K.
Real time monitoring of methomyl air levels during and after spraying in a greenhouse
Methomyl concentration levels were monitored before, during and for 24h after the spraying of aqueous solutions of the insecticide in a commercial greenhouse containing roses. All measurements were made in real-time using a mobile atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometer system. Concentrations detected in the gas phase were in the range <1-7ppb. After spraying, the methomyl concentrations correlated directly with temperature, degree of air circulation and worker activity within the greenhouse. Methomyl was present in the aerosol phase in the greenhouse air for 24h after spraying.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.190-195. Illus. 8 ref.
Davies J.E., Freed V.H., Enos H.F., Duncan R.C., Barquet A., Morgade C., Peters L.J., Danauskas J.X.
Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers
Report of studies to evaluate the protection afforded to pesticide spraying and mixing workers by wearing different types of work and protective clothing over a 4-week period. The degree of protection provided was assessed by measuring the percentage of penetration of ethion through clothing and by measuring the daily urinary excretion of diethyl phosphate (one of the urinary alkyl phosphate metabolites of ethion). Overalls provided significantly greater protection than did regular clothing and the use of respirators.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1982, Vol.22, No.6, p.464-468. Illus. 15 ref.
Van den Oever R., Roosels D., Lahaye D.
Actual hazard of methyl bromide fumigation in soil disinfection
The concentration of methyl bromide in greenhouses was measured during and following soil fumigation (methyl bromide pumped into soil under plastic sheeting); gas concentrations were also measured at the time the soil was first cultivated after fumigation. Methyl bromide fumigation endangered both fumigation workers inside the greenhouse wearing self-contained respirators and workers outside the greenhouse operting the methyl-bromide vaporiser. Atmospheric concentrations during application ranged from 30 to 3000ppm and fell to 4ppm 5 days later. However, workers removing the plastic sheeting may be exposed for a few seconds to peak concentrations of 200ppm. Workers cultivating the soil 9 days aftr application may be exposed to 15ppm; 11 days after application, no methyl bromide could be detected in the air.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1982, Vol.39, No.2, p.140-144. 7 ref.
Dinitrocrésol [en francés]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; uses; pathology (symptoms of acute and chronic poisoning); industrial safety (ventilation of premises, TLV 0.2mg/m3); medical supervision (workers who should not be exposed); French regulations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1982, Vol.22, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.86), p.39. 5 ref.
Oxyde de propylčne [en francés]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; properties; uses; pathology (irritant to skin and eyes); industrial safety (ventilation, TLV 50mg/m3).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1982, Vol.22, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.86), p.35. 4 ref.
Monochlorhydrine du glycol [en francés]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance and properties; uses; pathology (paths of entry, short-term exposure to low concentrations, long-term exposure to higher concentrations); industrial safety (personal protection, hygiene, TLVs), French regulations (medical supervision, labelling).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1982, Vol.22, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.86), p.5. 6 ref.
Gupta S.K., Parikh J.R., Shah M.P., Chatterjee S.K., Kashyap S.K.
Changes in serum hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in malaria spraymen after short-term occupational exposure
The serum hexachloroxcyclohexane (HCH) concentrations were determined in 248 male spraymen between 19 and 49 years of age before and after 16 weeks exposure to HCH during field spraying. 32 of the subjects were working as spraymen for the first time. The remainder had differing exposure histories over 1-4 previous seasons. A significant increase in original serum HCH concentration was observed in subjects on their first occupational exposure compared to those with previous exposure. All workers reached approximately the same serum levels after 16 weeks regardless of their previous history.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1982, Vol.37, No.1, p.41-44. Illus. 15 ref.
Health hazard alert. Pentachlorophenol
This trade union data sheet summarises health data on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and on the major alternative wood preservatives, creosote and the arsenicals. Contents: chemistry, production, use and synonyms; dioxin contamination; cancers; birth deformities; liver effects; skin effects; current studies of health effects and hazards associated with timber treatment and telephone poles; regulations; alternatives (carcinogenic effects of creosote and the arsenicals); reproductive hazards of arsenicals; other alternative products; trade union action; timber preservers statement; recommendations.
ACTU-VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit, Trades Hall, Box 93, Carlton South, 3053 Vic., Australia, Mar. 1982. 16p. 14 ref.
Coggon D., Acheson E.D.
Do phenoxy herbicides cause cancer in man?
Swedish and American studies showing evidence of links between occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols and dioxins, either as a result of their application or production, and the occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are discussed. Evidence for increased risks of sarcoma appears good but it is still unclear if the carcinogen is the herbicide or the dioxin contaminant. Association between exposure to these substances and lymphoma occurrence is weak, and more research is needed.
Lancet, 8 May 1982, Vol.1, No.8280, p.1057-1059. 31 ref.
Chester G., Woollen B.H.
Studies of the occupational exposure of Malaysian plantation workers to paraquat
Report on quantitative estimates of skin and respiratory exposure of knapsack spray operators, carriers and rubber tappers to paraquat under normal working conditions. Spray operators had skin exposure to paraquat by walking through recently sprayed vegetation and into their own spray, during the adjustment and unblocking of spray nozzles, and as the result of leakage and overfilling of spray tanks. Carriers also had skin exposure due to contact with recently sprayed vegetation and accidental spillage. Tappers had only infrequent and negligible skin exposure. Determinations of total airborne paraquat concentrations in the breathing zone showed that spray operators and carriers are exposed to an order of 1% or less of the current TLV for respirable paraquat (100µg/m3). No paraquat was detected in the breathing zone of tappers. Under the conditions studied, there should be no toxicological risk to any of the 3 groups studied.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.39, No.1, p.23-33. 12 ref.
Phenoxy herbicides, trichlorophenols, and soft-tissue sarcomas
This letter comments on existing evidence for the mutagenic or carcinogenic potential of di, tri, and tetra, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, other than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, present as impurities in the herbicide 2,4-D and on a possible link between exposure to 2,4,5-T and soft-tissue sarcomas.
Lancet, 29 May 1982, Vol.1, No.8283, p.1240.
Conri C., Vargue C., Moreau F.
Chronic arsenic poisoning
Arsénicisme chronique [en francés]
Considerations on various clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic (As) poisoning linked to a case study of chronic poisoning due to handling a product containing As used in agriculture: haematological, neurological, digestive and cardiovascular signs. Pitfalls in diagnosis: As monitoring methods; physiopathology; course of this occupational disease and its treatment. Latent development of cancer of the skin or internal organs must be considered.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 1982, Vol.58, No.4, p.242-245. 26 ref.
Imamiya S., Tanaka S., Nakayama E., Takahashi K.
Health effects of methyl bromide in fumigation workers
Urine bromide concentrations were determined in fumigation workers to make certain whether this test can be used as an indicator of chronic methyl bromide-induced lesions. The concentration distribution curve for methyl bromide-exposed workers was lognormal, and its geometric mean was 9mg/1±1.95mg/l. For non-exposed workers the curve was normal, the mean was 6.3mg/l±2.8mg/l, and the 95% confidence limit was 10mg/l. In 122 out of 251 workers (44.6%), the urine bromide concentration exceeded 10mg/l (however, no clinical symptoms were observed).
Occupational Health Journal - Sangyō Igaku Jānaru, Feb. 1982, Vol.5, No.2, p.21-26. Illus. 8 ref.
Toxicology data sheets on chemicals - Dimethoate
This data sheet contains information on: identifiers and properties; uses and production; metabolism; toxicity studies (acute and chronic toxicity; carcinogenicity; mutagenicity; neurotoxicity; aquatic toxicity; phytotoxicity; human poisoning; residual toxicity); environmental fate in water and soil; biodegradation; sampling and analysis; legal status and Indian standards; references.
Industrial Toxicology Research Center, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, India, Mar.1982. 15p. 81 ref.
Misra U.K., Nag D., Misra N.K., Krishna Murti C.R.
Macular degeneration associated with chronic pesticide exposure
64 workers in a malaria control unit sprayed Baytex, Temephos (both organic thiophosphates) and Paris green (copper acetoarsenite) in oil for 5-6h per day without use of protective clothing, face masks or gloves. On examination 14 members of the group, aged 24-42 years with exposure in the range 1-8 years, had macular involvement. Symptoms included visual impairment, dislike of bright light, night blindness, black dots in front of the eyes and blurring of vision. Visual acuity was reduced in 9 subjects. Macular degeneration was characterised by areas of perifoveal depigmentation, dull foveal reflex, and bilaterial lesions. Clinical evaluation did not reveal any known cause for this high-frequency of macular degeneration, and the macular toxicity of the pesticides is suspected as the cause.
Lancet, 30 Jan. 1982, Vol.1, No.8266, p.288. 6 ref.
Senanayake N., Johnson M.K.
Acute polyneuropathy after poisoning by a new organophosphate insecticide
In 3 of 10 cases described, accidental exposure to Tamaron occurred as a result of agricultural spraying operations. Patients had an acute cholinergic crisis soon after exposure and polyneuropathy developed 2-3 weeks later. No prior evidence of polyneuropathy associated with Tamaron, or the active ingredient methamidophos (MP) exists. No evidence of impurity involvement in the polyneuropathy was found and alterations in the pharmacokinetics of MP are implicated as a result of preliminary experiments with hens.
New England Journal of Medicine, 21 Jan. 1982, Vol.306, No.3, p.155-157. 7 ref.
Council Directive of 26 March 1981 amending Directive 78/631/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations (pesticides) [CEC]
Directive du Conseil du 26 mars 1981 modifiant la directive 78/631/CEE concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives ŕ la classification, l'emballage et l'étiquetage des préparations dangereuses (pesticides) [CCE] [en francés]
This modification specifies the date for the entry into force of the necessary laws, regulations and administrative provisions to comply with this Directive.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 2 Apr. 1981, No.L.88, p.29-30.
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