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  • Agricultural chemicals

1983

CIS 84-1361 Lotti M., Becker C.E., Aminoff M.J., Woodrow J.E., Seiber J.N., Talcott R.E., Richardson R.J.
Occupational exposure to the cotton defoliants DEF and merphos - A rational approach to monitoring organophosphorous-induced delayed neurotoxicity
S,S,S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and merphos can produce delayed neurotoxicity in animals. Inhibition of the neurotoxic esterase (NTE) in lymphocytes was measured in 7 workers exposed during aerial and ground application of these defoliants in cotton fields, as was peripheral nerve function. The major route of exposure was via the skin. Lymphocyte NTE was affected in exposed workers, according to both intensity and length of exposure. There were no detectable electrophysiological effects. Measurement of NTE in lymphocytes in workers exposed to organophosphates is a rational biomonitor of delayed neuropathy.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1983, Vol.25, No.7, p.517-522. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 84-1336 Bond G.G., Ott M.G., Brenner F.E., Cook R.R.
Medical and morbidity surveillance findings among employees potentially exposed to TCDD
204 men potentially exposed to TCDD and 61 men who had been involved in a chloracne incident in the area of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) production were compared with matched unexposed controls. There were few significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects. Workers potentially exposed to TCDD during manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid had a significantly higher incidence of ulcer and digestive diseases, but these were absent in TCP production workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.318-324. 15 ref.

CIS 84-1106 Maluf U.M.M.
Ergonomic optimisation of sugar-cane production
Otimização ergonômica nos tratos culturais na lavoura de cana-de-açúcar [en portugués]
An ergonomic analysis of the work involved in the growing of sugar cane in Brazil (fertilisation, seed treatment, seeding, weeding, irrigation) and in its harvesting (burning, cutting, loading). Analysis by type of producer (full-time, part-time, owner, tenant). The major OSH problem is chronic mercury poisoning due to the use of mercury-containing fungicides. Recommendations are given for their better use or substitution. Other problems discussed: lifting of weights, working posture.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 1983, Vol.11, No.44, p.18-28. 27 ref.

CIS 84-1043 Conso F., Gibaud G., Girard-Wallon C., Alix M., Proteau J.
Occupational poisoning by a herbicide contanining ioxynil
Intoxication professionnelle par une préparation herbicide contenant de l'ioxynil [en francés]
Case study of serious ioxynil poisoning in agriculture occurring after spraying with a herbicide. Problems of diagnosis and the recognition of such poisoning as a compensable disease in France are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.585-586. 4 ref.

CIS 84-991 Linnainmaa K.
Genotoxicity of phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA
Academic dissertation. There was no correlation between exposure of sprayers to 2,4-D or MCPA and the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in their blood lymphocytes. Exposure of rats to the compounds likewise gave no increase in lymphocyte SCE. MCPA gave a slight increase in SCE in the bone marrow of Chinese hamsters; 2,4-D and the drug clofibrate (a suspected carcinogen structurally related to 2,4-D and MCPA) did not. Both herbicides gave a slight increase in SCE in hamster ovary cells in culture, but there was no dose-effect correlation and no relation between the frequency of SCE and the purity of the compounds administered. Both 2,4-D and MCPA induced proliferation of peroxysomes in the livers of hamsters and rats, and decreased serum lipid levels in rats; both effects are typical of clofibrate. Thus, any genotoxic effect that the herbicides might have would be due to the same indirect mechanism as that postulated for clofibrate.
Institute of Occupational Health, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 1, Helsinki, Finland, 1983. 140p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-1033 Johnsson M., Buhagen M., Leira H.L., Solvang S.
Fungicide-induced contact dermatitis
An epidemic of contact dermatitis in a wood products factory attributed to tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (TCPN) is related. 14 of 20 workers had work-related skin complaints, half of which were of allergic origin. TCPN appears to have strong irritant and allergenic properties.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.285-288. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-838 Pearn J.H.
Teratogens and the male - An analysis with special reference to herbicide exposure
There are 3 mechanisms by which exposure of the male to toxic substances may cause poor reproductive performance or congenital malformations in his offspring: a direct effect on pituitary-hypothalamic function or male sex hormones; a direct effect on the sperm itself; abnormalities in seminal fluid with secondary abnormalities due to dissolved toxins. Experimental studies with 7 drugs and 5 groups of toxic chemicals are reviewed. Clinical studies reviewed relate to lead, vinyl chloride, the insecticide carbaryl, the pesticides chlordecone and dibromochloropropane, radiation, fathers with epilepsy, and male and female anaesthetists.
Medical Journal of Australia, 9 July 1983, Vol.2, No.1, p.16-20. 44 ref.

CIS 84-836 Angerer J., Maass R., Heinrich R.
Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane. VI. Metabolism of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in man
14 mono-, di-, tri- and tetrachlorophenols were identified in the urine of 21 workers producing γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 7 dihydroxychlorobenzenes of unknown configuration were detected. The main metabolites of γ-HCH, 2,4,6-, 2,3,5-, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, were excreted in nearly equal quantities. Determination of chlorophenols in the urine should be part of a biological monitoring programme in HCH-exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1983, Vol. 52, No.1, p.59-67. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 84-812 Israeli R., Sculsky M., Tiberin P.
Acute intoxication due to exposure to maneb and zineb. A case with behavioral and central nervous system changes
A case is reported of a 42-year-old man who sprayed a cucumber plantation with a mixture of maneb and zineb by tractor twice within a week. Behavioural changes appeared after the first application, and loss of consciousness, convulsions, and right hemiparesis with diffuse slow rhythm in the EEG occurred following admission to hospital after the second, 10 times more concentrated exposure. The behavioural and central nervous symptoms disappeared spontaneously after a few days. The EEG was normal 2 weeks later.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1 Feb. 1983, Vol.9, No.1, p.47-51. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-748 Allen A.L., Koller L.D., Pollock G.A.
Effect of toxaphene exposure on immune responses in mice
10, 100 or 200ppm toxaphene was given orally to mice for 8 weeks. Antibody formation was depressed in animals receiving 100 and 200ppm. Cell-mediated immune responses were not affected. Offspring of female mice receiving 100 and 200ppm toxaphene for 3 weeks before mating and during gestation and lactation showed suppression and enhancement of antibody formation, respectively. Cell-mediated immune response was suppressed in the offspring of those receiving 100ppm. All mice receiving toxaphene showed a significant reduction of phagocytic ability of macrophages.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1983, Vol.11, No.1, p.61-69. 34 ref.

CIS 84-518 Whorton M.D., Obrinsky D.L.
Persistence of symptoms after mild to moderate acute organophosphate poisoning among 19 farm field workers
Exposure to mevinphos and phosphamidon occurred when entry into a cauliflower field was permitted 4h after application. Mild to moderate illness resulted, 3 of the workers were children and one was a pregnant woman. 2-3 months were required for recovery from the main symptoms and return to normal acetylcholinesterase levels. Eye symptoms persisted in most patients 4 months after exposure. The pregnant woman gave birth to a full-term healthy boy.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1983, Vol.11, No.3, p.347-354. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-529 Liebowitz D.P., Kriz J.A.
Collection and determination of Counter (Terbufos) insecticide in air
Insecticide vapour is collected on charcoal tubes at 150cm3/min for 8h. When the insecticide is present in air as a mixture of dust and vapour, a 13mm mixed cellulose ester filter/charcoal tube sampling train is used. The collected material is desorbed with toluene and analysed by gas chromatography using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. Average collection efficiency for both sampling systems is 91.9%. Sample stability was good after 30 days storage at O°C. Average recovery was 91.6%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.567-571. 5 ref.

CIS 84-493 Golding J., Sladden T.
Congenital malformations and agricultural workers
Information collected for all births in Oxfordshire and West Berkshire (United Kingdom) since 1965 shows no evidence of excess congenital malformation in the children of agricultural, horticultural or forestry workers. There is no evidence to suggest that the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenol has a teratogenic effect.
Lancet, 18 June 1983, Vol.1, No.8338, p.1393. 7 ref.

CIS 84-194 Mathias C.G.T.
Persistent contact dermatitis from the insecticide dichlorvos
The case is reported of a truck driver who developed persistent dermatitis of the neck after accidental skin contamination with dichlorvos, which he was carrying in his truck. He also experienced frontal headache, mild rhinorrhoea, burning of the tongue, and a bitter taste in the mouth. Negative patch tests suggested that the dermatitis was due to a primary irritant effect of dichlorvos on the skin. The dermatitis persisted for 2 months after exposure.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.217-218. 2 ref.

CIS 84-231
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Arbeitsgruppe Toxikologie der Kommission für Pflanzenschutz-, Pflanzenbehandlungs- und Vorratsschutzmittel
Collected data on herbicide toxicology
Datensammlung zur Toxikologie der Herbizide [en alemán]
A loose-leaf collection published by the Pesticides Committee of the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). A statement of the criteria involved in toxicological assessment of pesticides is followed by monographs on several herbicides, their applications, their toxicity to animals and man, and their metabolism or transformation in plants, soil and water. Each monograph is completed by a toxicological evaluation and a bibliography. The 4th supplement (see CIS 79-520) offers new or updated information on the following products: buturon, chlorotoluron, nitrofen, paraquat, trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), sodium trichloroacetate (TCA). The publication also contains information on 50 other products. Four compounds described in an appendix lacked sufficient published data for evaluation: bromoxynil, ioxynil, neburon and propyzamide (pronamide). The supplement concludes with an article on the principles of the determination of safety factors to be applied in assessing the harmfulness of herbicides.
Verlag Chemie GmBH, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany, 4th instalment, 1983. Vol.2, 272p. Price: DM.160.00. (Complete publication: 866p.).

CIS 84-174 Bismuth C., Dally S., Pontal P.G., Garnier R., Diamant-Berger O., Elkouly M., Fournier P.E.
Prognostic factors and therapeutic results in paraquat poisoning
Facteurs pronostiques et résultats thérapeutiques de l'intoxication par le paraquat [en francés]
Analysis of 28 cases of acute paraquat poisoning, of which 17 were fatal. Aspects considered: prognostic factors (anamnesis, analytic and pathologic data); results of different methods of treatment (digestive, renal and extra-renal purgation); preventive measures. Conclusions: Fuller's earth (an antidote) must be immediately available for paraquat users; oxygen therapy during the transport of the poisoning victim should be forbidden; the best prevention is understanding of the product and its risks and of first-aid measures by farmers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.38-41.

CIS 84-230 McJilton C.E., Berckman G.E., Deer H.M.
Captan exposure in apple orchards
Determination of dermal and inhalation exposure to captan for commercial apples growers using airblast sprayers by measuring fungicide residues collected on patches attached to various parts of the body and on filters of specially adapted respirators. Calculated average dermal exposure was 2.78mg/h, and average inhalation exposure was 4.5 µg/h. For a 70kg man, this would represent a total daily intake of 0.25mg/kg. The captan LD50 for rats is 9000mg/kg.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.209-210. 8 ref.

CIS 84-229 Shiwaku K., Hirai K., Torii M., Tsuboi T.
Skin injuries caused by pesticides among farmers in a citrus fruit area
About 70% of farmers in a citrus fruit-growing area in the Ehime prefecture (Japan) had experienced contact dermatitis due to pesticides. Dithianone, maneb and manzeb were the pesticides which frequently caused skin lesions. The incidence rate of skin injuries caused by spraying pesticides was 0% in males and 3.8% in females in May, 8.2% in males and 13.0% in females in June, and increased to 26.0% in males and 50% in females in July.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, May 1983, Vol.32, No.1, p.22-28. 11 ref.

CIS 84-147 Hackathorn D.R., Brinkman W.J., Hathaway T.R., Talbott T.D., Thompson L.R.
Validation of a whole blood method for cholinesterase monitoring
Traditional methods for monitoring worker exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, requiring several cm3 of blood, are too invasive for prolonged routine monitoring. The new method requires only 50µl of blood per test. Its sensitivity and reproducibility, evaluated over 1 year and 7073 tests, are excellent. The coefficient of variation for 12 groups tested ranged from 9.4 to 13% with a value of 10% for the control group. Assessment of the significance of cholinesterase by the whole-blood method is similar to the erythrocyte cholinesterase method and should use the following criteria: (1) baseline value is established by 3 separate tests prior to exposure; (2) investigate and correct possible exposure situations for readings at 70% of baseline value; (3) remove employee from exposure when readings are 60% of baseline value.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.547-551 24 ref.

CIS 83-1939
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Arsenic and its inorganic compounds
Arsenic et ses composés minéraux [en francés]
Uses, physical and chemical properties; storage; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology; toxicology: experimental toxicity, metabolism, search for mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic effects in animals and man; acute and chronic toxicity in man (American (ACGIH) TLV: 0.2mg/m3 as As). French regulations on occupational health and safety, neighbourhood protection and uses in agriculture, and French and international regulations on transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, p.605-610.

CIS 83-1937
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Methanethiol; ethanethiol; 1-butanethiol
Méthanethiol; éthanethiol; 1-butanethiol [en francés]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties; storage; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology and toxicology: experimental toxicology, metabolism, toxicity to man (cutaneous and respiratory irritation; American (ACGIH) TLVs: 1mg/m3 for methanethiol and ethanethiol, 1.5mg/m3 for 1-butanethiol). French regulations on occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection, and French and international regulations on transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, p.597-600. 28 ref.

CIS 83-1936
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Dieldrin
Dieldrine [en francés]
Use, physical and chemical properties, storage; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology and toxicology: acute and chronic experimental toxicity, metabolism, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in animals and man; acute and chronic toxicity in man (American (ACGIH) TLV: 0.25mg/m3). French regulations on occupational health and safety and French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, p.593-596. 19 ref.

CIS 83-2023 Order of the 16 May 1983 relating to safety measures to be taken during the preparation and use of antiparasitic products in agriculture
Arrêté du 16 mai 1983 relatif aux mesures de sécurité à prendre lors de la préparation et de l'emploi des produits antiparasitaires destinés à l'agriculture [en francés]
Order based on the general provisions (given in the supplement) concerning safety measures relating to pesticides. They concern: prohibition of certain kinds of work to women and to those under 18; storage and use of the products; personal protection, training and medical supervision of workers; maintenance of equipment; hours of work; measures of personal hygiene. A commentary describes the rules employers must set up for their workers.
Journal officiel de la République française, 2 July 1983, Vol.152 N.C., p.6105-6106.

CIS 83-1644
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Calcium cyanamide
Cyanamide de calcium [en francés]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (irritant action on the skin and mucous membranes; acute and chronic toxicity in animals and man; potential carcinogenicity; American (ACGIH) TLV: 0.5mg/m3). French regulations concerning occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection are mentioned, as are French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommendations are offered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, p.437-440. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1696 Blair A., Granman D.J., Lubin J.H., Fraumeni J.F.
Lung cancer and other causes of death among licensed pesticide applicators
Report on a study of mortality experience of a 3,827-pesticide applicator cohort to investigate health effects of chronic pesticide exposure. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) for these men (employed mainly in the control of pests in premises) was not significantly evaluated but there were excess risks for leukaemia, brain and lung cancers. The lung cancer risk rose with the number of years of exposure. This and the capacity of certain pesticides to produce neoplasms in laboratory animals suggests that some pesticides may be carcinogenic in humans.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, July 1983, Vol.71, No.1, p.31-37. 39 ref.

CIS 83-1706 Gibaud G.
A case of occupational poisoning in an agricultural environment. Use of a herbicide containing Ioxynil. Parallel with other substances acting on cellular respiration.
A propos d'un cas d'intoxication professionnelle en milieu agricole. Utilisation d'une préparation herbicide contenant de l'Ioxynil. Parallèle avec d'autres substances agissant sur la respiration cellulaire. [en francés]
A general review of occupational poisonings, the special features of agricultural poisonings and their prevention and compensation, this medical thesis studies the herbicide presumed responsible for the poisoning ("Belgran" which contains 3 active ingredients - isoproturon, mecoprop and ioxynil - each of which are studied separately); only ioxynil seemed to have been responsible for the toxic action of the product. A detailed clinical account is given of the case and the similarities with other known cases of ioxynil poisoning and of poisoning with nitro- or chloro-derivatives of phenol or cresol which have the same inhibiting action on oxidative phosphorylation. Following a chapter on the physiopathology of the poisoning, a comparison is made with other cases that have occurred during production of the same product. Discussion of various possible aetiologies of the varying symptomatology shown by the patient during the poisoning.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1983. 114p. 45 ref.

CIS 83-1029 Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
Paraquat
Paraquat [en francés]
Synonyms, use, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods for detection and determination in air, fire hazard, pathology and toxicology (experimental toxicology and toxicity to man - American TLV for average exposure to airborne respirable dust: 0.1mg/m3). French regulations concerning occupational hygiene and safety and protection of the neighbourhood. French and international regulations concerning transport.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1983, No.111, p.289-292. 20 ref.

CIS 83-717 Adrien J.
Organic insecticides and acaricides in agriculture. Current risks and their prevention in plant and soil treatment
Insecticides et acaricides organiques en milieu agricole. Risques actuels et prévention lors du traitement des végétaux et des sols [en francés]
Part 1 of this MD thesis deals with the toxicology of insecticides and acaricides widely used in agriculture and approved by French legislation: active ingredients, effect on insects, commercial formulations, treatment equipment and methods. Part 2 considers the occupational hazards (dependent on the product, equipment, working conditions, and the route of entry and mode of action of the substance). Symptoms are described by involved site. Part 3 deals with safety and health measures; these are difficult to apply since most agricultural workers using these substances are unskilled and unaware of the dangers. They relate to the product, the equipment and the workers themselves (health education and personal protective equipment). The agricultural physician is involved in medical prevention and in the clinical and paraclinical supervision of agricultural workers. Compensation for occupational diseases is considered.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris, France, 1983. 84p. 64 ref.

CIS 83-753 Lüchtrath H.
The consequences of chronic arsenic poisoning among Moselle wine growers - Pathoanatomical investigations of post-mortem examinations performed between 1960 and 1977
Post-mortem findings of 163 wine growers with chronic arsenic poisoning resulting from the use of arsenical insecticides in viniculture. Lung cancers were found in 66% of all wine growers affected; however, nearly the same amount of carcinomas or pre-carcinogenic changes in the skin were observed. The use of arsenic for insecticidal purposes in Germany was banned in 1942; however, this did not mean the eradication of arsenic poisoning. Modern theories of the carcinogenic action of arsenic, the question of tumour latency and the relation of specific cancers to arsenic exposure are discussed.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, Feb. 1983, Vol.105, No.2, p.173-182. 69 ref.

1982

CIS 89-94
USSR Commission for UNEP
Parathion
Chemical safety information sheet. Organophosphorus insecticide. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.05mg/m3. Toxicity: is absorbed through skin; inhibits cholinesterase activity; neurotoxic effects.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 20p. 29 ref.

CIS 89-88 Mecarbam
Mekarbaami [en finlandés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: LD50 (oral, rat) = 36mg/kg; is absorbed through skin; acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R24, R25, S1, S13, S28, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, June 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 89-87
USSR Commission for UNEP
Malathion
Chemical safety information sheet. Organophosphorus insecticide. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: is absorbed through skin; inhibits cholinesterase activity; neurotoxic effects.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 20p. 40 ref.

CIS 89-83
USSR Commission for UNEP
Heptachlor
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC (vapour) = 0.01mg/m3. Toxicity: is absorbed through skin; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; liver damage.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 18p. 63 ref.

CIS 89-68
USSR Commission for UNEP
Dimethoate
Chemical safety information sheet. Organophosphorus insecticide. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: is absorbed through skin; inhibits cholinesterase activity; neurotoxic effects.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 12p. 29 ref.

CIS 89-66 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,4-dikloorifenoksietikkahappo [en finlandés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: 2,4-D. Herbicide. Exposure limit: 10mg/m3. Toxicity: irritates the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes; can cause chemical burns; eczema; damage to the eyes and the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract; renal and hepatic damage. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R20, R21, R22, S2, S13.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 89-65
USSR Commission for UNEP
Demetonmethyl
Chemical safety information sheet. Organophosphorus insecticide. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.1mg/m3. Toxicity: is absorbed through skin; inhibits cholinesterase activity; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system).
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 12p. 32 ref.

CIS 89-62
USSR Commission for UNEP
Carbaryl
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 1mg/m3. Toxicity: mild neurotoxic effects.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 13p. 53 ref.

CIS 89-61
USSR Commission for UNEP
Captan
Chemical safety information sheet. Fungicide. Toxicity: LD50 (intragastric, rat) = 2000-7000mg/kg.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moscow, USSR, 1982. 19p. 32 ref.

CIS 84-2014 Castelo Branco N.A.A., Borges Guerra J.M.
Pesticides
Pesticidas [en portugués]
An issue devoted to pesticides: toxic diabetes due to pesticides (comparative study of 148 exposed workers and 30 controls); effects of using pesticides in confined spaces (observations on 15 gardeners working in greenhouses and results of laboratory tests); poisoning by organophosphorus compounds (pharmacology, diagnosis and clinical picture, laboratory tests and cholinesterase inhibition, treatment and prognosis); economic consequences of careless use of pesticides in Portugal; future trends.
Revista portuguesa de medicina militar, 1982, Vol.30, No.4, p.177-224. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 84-1104 Safety instructions for the handling and use of anhydrous ammonia as a fertiliser
Instruções de segurança para o manuseio e aplicação de amônia anidra como fertilizante [en portugués]
This data sheet specifies the safety measures to be taken when dealing with anhydrous ammonia: transportation (in tank trucks, under 12kg/cm2 of pressure); handling and application as a fertiliser; health hazards; personal protective equipment (protection of the head, eyes, respiratory system, hands, whole body, feet); ventilation; fire and explosion hazards; first aid; toxicity; exposure limit (set at 20ppm in Brazil since 1978).
Cooperativa central dos produtores de açucar e alcool, Caixa postal 5691, 01014 São Paulo, Brazil, 1982. 12p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 84-737 Hohol'kova G.A., Belašova I.G.
Chromatographic method of determining fenuron in workplace air
Hromatografičeskij metod opredelenija fenurona v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Air containing suspended fenuron (a herbicide) is drawn through an appropriate filter. Trapped particulates are extracted from the filter with ethyl alcohol and applied to silica gel thin-layer chromatography plates. The plates are developed with a 1:1 mixture of hexane and acetone. Fenuron on the plates is visualised by diazotisation and treatment with α-naphthol or diphenylamine. The amount of fenuron present is determined by comparison of the area of the sample spot with the areas of standard spots. As little as 0.2µg fenuron can be detected; for a typical sample size of 2l air, this represents a concentration of 0.1mg/m3. The range of measurable concentrations is 0.1-1mg/m3, with a precision of 15%. Other industrial phenylureas do not interfere with the determination.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.55-56. 4 ref.

CIS 84-736 Kuz'minov B.P.
Bases for an MAC for polidazol in workplace air
Obosnovanie PDK polidazola v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
The fungicide polidazol was subjected to a standard battery of toxicological tests with rats, mice and guinea pigs. The toxicity of the compound was species-dependent (LD50s for the 3 species were 2432, 6760 and 700mg/kg, respectively), but by any measure the compound falls into the category of moderately toxic substances; the LC50 of airborne polidazol dust could not be determined, as the highest attainable dust concentrations were not lethal. The compound was neurotoxic and gonadotoxic, and produced dystrophic changes in the liver, kidneys and lungs of experimental animals. As the gonadotoxic action of the compound was observed on chronic exposure to as little as 1mg/m3, an MAC of 0.1mg/m3 is recommended for polidazol factories.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.54. 3 ref.

CIS 84-852 Nishiyama K.
Particle size distribution of dust-type pesticides inhaled by farmers
The particle size distribution of a dust-type pesticide was determined in order to estimate the amount of particles which would be inhaled into the lung or deposited on the walls of the respiratory tract of farmers during spraying. The distribution curve showed a peak value in the range <2µm, and particles <10µm diameter accounted for 87% of the whole. Large amounts of dust of this size can be inhaled into the respiratory tract, and a considerable amount would enter the lung during dusting with powered sprayers.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, July 1982, Vol.31, No.2, p.59-63. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 84-697 Alehina S.M., Kuz'minskaja U.A.
State of adaptive processes under different regimes of kelthane administration
Sostojanie adaptacionnyh processov pri različnyh režimah vvedenija kel'tana [en ruso]
The pesticide kelthane (related to DDT) was administered perorally to rats at 1/100 of the LD50 at intervals of a day ("continuously") or a week ("intermittently"), and the metabolic adaptation of the animals was determined by measurement of their hepatic and cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Changes in total LDH activity, isoenzyme spectrum and substrate/product (pyruvate/lactate) equilibrium were more marked in the case of continuous administrtion than under intermittent administration. This dependence of response on pattern of exposure should be taken into account in the formulation of regulations for the handling of pesticides.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.20-22. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 84-530 Ammonium nitrate fertilizer
This data sheet describes explosion hazards which can arise when ammonium nitrate is exposed to extreme heat or fire or becomes contaminated with oil or sensitising materials. Contents: health hazards: properties and effects of heat; bagged and bulk storage and handling; fire protection; transportation; ammonium nitrate melt or liquid.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Il. 60611, USA, 1982. 3p. 16 ref.

CIS 84-509 Saegusa J., Hasegawa H., Kawai K.
Toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) - I. Histopathological examination of male rats exposed to DBCP vapour
Male rats were exposed to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) at 10ppm for 14 days and were sacrified 1, 16 amd 36 days, and 12 months after exposure. Examination revealed that the testicles had completely atrophied with irreversible aspermatogenesis. Renal injury was characterised by proximal tubular necrosis in the outer medulla. In the lung, necrosis and cytomegaly were observed in the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells as well as alveolar emphysema. Examination of the testicles 1 and 15 days after exposure for 14 days to 0, 0.3, 1, 3 and 8ppm DBCP revealed pathological changes in the 3 and 8ppm exposure groups only with recovery and a progressive course, respectively.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.4, p.315-323. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 84-528 Nishiyama K.
Studies on the evaluation method of respiratory exposure to pesticide spray
A measuring system in which filter pads are combined with an individual respirator was used to evaluate exposure to pesticide mists and dusts during crop spraying. The filter had high collection efficiency in the range of simulated air flow, inhalation time, and concentration in air tested. The filter pad system gave results in good agreement with those obtained using an impinger system in both laboratory and field tests.
Journal for Japanese Farm Villages, Mar. 1982, Vol.30, No.6, p.1034-1041. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-487 Cushman J.R., Street J.C.
Allergic hypersensitivity to the herbicide 2,4-D in BALB/c mice
Following several reports of human allergic hypersensitivity, the ability of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to elicit 2,4-D-specific IgE antibodies and delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice was studied. Following the second intraperitoneal immunisation with 1, 10 or 100µg of a 2,4-D conjugate, 2,4-D-specific IgE antibodies were detected in mouse sera. The highest antibody titers and a measurable response in all mice were seen in the group that received 1µg of 2,4-D conjugate. 2,4-D applied epicutaneously on 2 days or over 4 weeks failed to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity, and no 2,4-D-specific IgE antibodies were detected in serum.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Oct.-Nov. 1982, Vol.10, Nos.4-5, p.729-741. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 84-140
Canada Safety Council
Ethylene oxide - C2H4O
Contents of this data sheet: identification and physical properties; industrial uses; hazards (routes of entry, toxic effects, mutagenic potential, fire); emergency action information (fire, spills, first aid); occupational exposure limit (ACGIH TLV: 5ppm); preventive measures (personal protective equipment, disposal); transportation; storage and handling; training and supervision; glossary; 2-page summary for poster displays.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1982. 11p. 24 ref.

CIS 84-201 Hermanowicz A., Nawarska Z., Borys D., Maślankiewicz A.
The neutrophil function and infectious diseases in workers occupationally exposed to organochloride insecticides
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was studied in 33 workers exposed to DDT. There was a severe impairment of chemotaxis, adhesive properties, phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, and an increase in random and stimulated migration. Mechanisms are discussed. At the time of the survey there was a prevalence of infectious diseases - especially tonsillitis, pharyngitis and bronchitis - among the workers (significance compared with a control group of 1000 people: p<0.001); the incidence was significantly higher in workers exposed for 12-30 years than in those exposed for 3-5 years.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.50, No.4, p.329-340. 18 ref.

CIS 84-185 Sivickaja I.I.
Features of the action of pesticides on the eye
Ob osobennostjah dejstvija pesticidov na organ zrenija [en ruso]
None of 4 groups of pesticide workers showed clinical disorders of the eye or reduced acuity of vision. However, physiological tests detected significant deviations from control values in: corneal sensitivity and blood pressure in the central retinal artery of workers treating corn with tetramethylthiuram disulfide; elevated pressure and abnormal haemodynamics in the central retinal artery of workers in hexachlorocyclohexane synthesis; prolonged dark adaptation time, reduced flicker fusion frequency and regional vascular dystonia in hexachlorocyclohexane packagers; and conjunctival irritation, elevated arterial pressure and reduced corneal sensitivity in workers in polychloropinene synthesis.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.32-35. 3 ref.

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