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Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in fumigation operations; Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulation 1988 [United Kingdom] - Approved Code of Practice
This booklet contains the Approved Code of Practice (effective 1 Oct. 1989) and 19 Regulations (applying to all fumigant gases; special duties are also imposed on the users of the more commonly used fumigants - methyl bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ethylene oxide and phosphine). The Code was approved under Section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988. It applies to fumigant operations whether undertaken in the open air, in temporarily created containment or in purpose-built fumigation or sterilisation chambers or enclosures. It does not apply to the use of vapours, fogs, fumes and smokes for the purpose of pest control, the use of which should follow the Approved Code of Practice, "The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health: Control of Exposure to Pesticides at Work" (in preparation).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 42p. Price: GBP 3.00.
Lafortune M., Panisset J.C.
Assessment of the risk of exposure to pesticides by farmers in Quebec
Mesure du risque d'exposition aux pesticides pour les producteurs agricoles du Québec [en francés]
Findings of a questionnaire survey show that the consulted workers safely executed only 42% to 60% of the analysed tasks even though their level of awareness and judgement of safe work methods is approximately 70% to 86%. It seems that agricultural producers have a high risk level of exposure to pesticides, not because of their lack of awareness of the existence of safe work methods but rather because of their lack of motivation to implement them. It is assumed that producers mainly need to be informed of the real toxicity of pesticides in order to accurately gauge the risk associated with the use of these products.
Travail et santé, Summer 1988, Vol.4, No.2, p.S9-S14. Bibl.
Wiklund K., Dich J., Holm L.E.
Soft tissue sarcoma risk in Swedish licensed pesticide applicators
Two Swedish studies have suggested that exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides may cause soft tissue sarcoma. This association has been subsequently investigated in a number of epidemiologic studies. Results are inconsistent. In this study the risk of soft tissue sarcoma in a cohort of 20,245 Swedish pesticide applicators, of whom 72% were estimated to have been exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides, was analysed. The cohort was observed by means of the Swedish Cancer Register from date of license until Dec. 31, 1984, or until death if it occurred prior to that date. The mean follow-up time was 13.9 years. Seven patients with soft tissue sarcoma were observed compared with 7.7 expected on the basis of the incidence in Sweden. The relative risk was found to be 0.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.9). This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure of phenoxy acid herbicides does not increase risk of soft tissue sarcoma.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.30, No.10, p.801-804. 49 ref.
MacMahon B., Monson R.R., Wang H.H., Zheng T.
A second follow-up of mortality in a cohort of pesticide applicators
A cohort of 16,124 male pesticide applicators was matched with Social Security Administration and National Death Index (NDI) files through 31 December 1984. In all, 1,082 deaths were ascertained, and death certificates were obtained for 994 (92%). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 98. Although a number of specific causes of death showed SMRs significantly below 100, one category of cause of death showed a significantly elevated SMR - cancer of the lung, with an SMR of 135. Termite control operators (TCO) - the group with the greatest likelihood of exposure to chlordane and heptachlor - had an SMR for lung cancer of 97, compared with 158 for other pesticide operators. The excess of lung cancer in the non-TCO workers was limited to operators employed as such for less than 5yrs.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1988, Vol.30, No.5, p.429-432. 10 ref.
Regulation concerning pesticides [Sweden]
Förordning om bekämpningsmedel [en sueco]
Regulation SFS 1985:836, as modified by SFS 1988:72. Contents: general provisions; approvals; application of pesticides; authorisations to use; charges and various.
In: Kemiska produkter - Lag och förordningar, Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 3rd ed., 1989, p.63-69.
Chattopadhyay P., Karnik A.B., Thakore K.N., Lakkad B.C., Nigam S.K., Kashyap S.K.
Health effects among workers involved in the manufacture of hexachlorocyclohexane
Forty-five male workers exposed to hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) during its manufacture were studied and compared with 22 matched controls. Twenty-one of the exposed workers worked in packaging and manual transport of HCH. Twenty-four other exposed workers were plant operators. Exposure was mainly through skin. Results indicate that the neurological symptoms reported were due to recent exposure to HCH and were related to the intensity of exposure. An increase in leucine aminopeptidase, ornithine carbamyl transaminase, 5'nucleotides and immunoglobulin M levels among the exposed workers is suggestive of some degree of liver damage. A significant increase in total blood HCH and its α, β and γ isomers was also observed in these workers. In spite of pronounced exposure to the α, β and γ isomers of HCH, signs of severe health impairment were not observed. Further biological monitoring needs to be carried out among such workers exposed to HCH.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1988, Vol.38, No.3, p.77-81. Illus. 17 ref.
Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association
Cancer risk of pesticides in agricultural workers
This report discusses some of the inherent limitations of cancer studies in animals and humans and presents a qualitative carcinogen risk assessment of a number of pesticides based on the judgement of national and international authorities who have reviewed the available experimental and epidemiologic evidence. A large number of pesticidal compounds have shown evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity in animal and in vitro screening tests, but no pesticides - except arsenic and vinyl chloride (once used as an aerosol propellant) - have definitely been proved to be carcinogenic in man. A resolution by the Council on Scientific Affairs calls for the American Medical Association, through its scientific journals and publications, to alert physicians to the potential hazards of agricultural pesticides.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 19 Aug. 1988, Vol.260, No.7, p.959-966. 42 ref.
Smouldering of phosphate fertilisers
Sigaroobraznoe gorenie fosfornyh udobrenij [en ruso]
Twenty-one fertilisers were tested for their ability to support smouldering combustion and the results were tabulated. Most nitrate-containing fertilisers supported slow burning. Those containing manganese and cobalt were more likely to burn than fertilisers of otherwise identical composition that lacked those elements. Iodine, boron, zinc and molybdenum had no effect. The nitrate-free fertilisers tested absorb heat on decomposition and so do not support slow burning.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1988, No.4, p.26-28. 3 ref.
Thiocarbamate pesticides: A general introduction
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary; identity, properties and analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in vitro test systems; effects on man; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 49p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.
Dubrow R., Paulson J.O., Windian R.
Farming and malignant lymphoma in Hancock County, Ohio
A case-control study was conducted using death certificate records of white male Hancock County (Ohio, USA) residents for 1958-83 which revealed raised death rates for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD). There were 61 cases of NHL, 15 cases of HD, and 304 control subjects. Cases and controls were compared with respect to adjustment for age at death and year of death. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. NHL was associated with the occupation of farmer (OR=1.6; CI=0.8, 3.4; observed number of exposed cases (Obs) = 15). The association was restricted to 1958-75 (OR=2.1; CI=0.9, 4.8; Obs=13). The 3 cases of HD among farmers occurred in a cluster in the 15-64 age range during 1958-63 (OR=21.2). This small study adds to the growing body of reports linking farming and malignant lymphoma, particularly NHL.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.45, No.1, p.25-28. 26 ref.
Wiklund K., Lindefors B.M., Holm L.E.
Risk of malignant lymphoma in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers
The risk of malignant lymphoma after exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up between 1961-1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort and showed no time-related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where they were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All 5 cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.45, No.1, p.19-24. 47 ref.
McDuffie H.H., Klaassen D.J., Cockcroft D.W., Dosman J.A.
Farming and exposure to chemicals in male lung cancer patients and their siblings
Retrospective questionnaire study concerning farming and exposure to chemicals of 165 male lung cancer patients (mean age 64.2) and 165 closest in age male siblings (mean age 64.5). The patients were diagnosed as having primary lung cancer between January 1, 1979 and November 1, 1983. Among the lung cancer patients, 38.5% had a same-sex sibling eligible for inclusion and of these, 62.0% responded to the questionnaire. Mean peak years of smoking for patients was 41.0 (n = 135) and among the siblings 36.9 (118) (p<.002). The occupation of farming was present in 47.8% of 163 patients with known occupations as compared to 37.6% of 155 siblings with known occupations (not significant). Patients were consistently exposed more frequently to herbicides (p = .05), grains (p<.015), and diesel fuels (p<.005), and were consistently exposed to greater numbers of chemicals than were siblings (p<.005). These findings raise the possibility that, in addition to smoking, farming and related exposures could be implicated in the aetiology of lung cancer in men.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.30, No.1, p.55-59. Illus. 33 ref.
Malathion [en francés]
One page chemical safety information sheet based on Chemical Hazard Summary No.31 from the CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 1p.
Uso seguro de los plaguicidas - Guía para el trabajador agrícola
Well-illustrated trianing booklet aimed at agricultural workers.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Bandera 84, Santiago, Chile, 1988. 39p. Illus.
Reglamento de 1987 sobre Clasificación, Embalaje y Etiquetado de los Pesticidas (Modificación) [Irlanda]
European Communities (Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Pesticides) (Amendment) Regulations, 1987 [Ireland] [en inglés]
Este Reglamento (en vigor el 10 de agosto de 1987) transpone en la legislación nacional las disposiciones de las Directivas 78/631/CEE (CIS 91-715), 81/187/CEE (CIS 91-713), 84/291/CEE (CIS 84-1290). Temas tratados: aprobación; clasificación; Comunidades Europeas; embalaje y llenado; etiquetado; identificación de peligros; Irlanda; listado; legislación; notas de aviso; pesticidas; riesgos químicos; riesgos para la salud; sanciones; sustancias tóxicas; tratamiento de las muestras.
Government Publications Sales Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Irlanda, 4 ago. 1987, 10p.
Normas para evitar, limitar y destruir los residuos de plaguicidas en las fincas
Guidelines for the avoidance, limitation and disposal of pesticide waste on the farm [en inglés]
Directives sur la façon d'éviter, de limiter et d'éliminer les déchets de produits phytosanitaires à la ferme [en francés]
Estas normas, elaboradas por la asociación internacional de la industria agroquímica, se dirigen a todas aquellas personas involucradas en el trabajo con los residuos de pesticidas en el sector agrícola y se publicaron con motivo del Año Europeo del Medioambiente. En el sumario: cómo evitar los residuos de pesticidas; eliminación de los residuos de pesticidas; medidas de higiene y seguridad.
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, 1988 (ed. inglesa, 1987). 44p. Ilus.
Grand-Ducal Regulation of 19 Jan. 1987 concerning the control of plant protection products; Ministerial Regulation of 26 Jan. 1987 concerning the requirements of packaging and labels of plant protection products [Luxembourg]
Règlement grand-ducal du 19 janv. 1987 concernant le contrôle des produits phytopharmaceutiques; Règlement ministériel du 26 janv. 1987 concernant les caractéristiques auxquelles doivent répondre les emballages et les étiquettes des produits phytopharmaceutiques [Luxembourg] [en francés]
These Regulations were adopted in conformity with Directives 67/548/EEC (CIS 92-23) and 78/631/EEC (CIS 91-715) as amended subsequently. The Grand-Ducal Regulation: conditions for the sale of plant protection products (pesticides, rodenticides, etc.); classification by risk of such products; authorised sellers; authorised users; preservation and safety measures; monitoring; annexes (criteria for classification as very toxic, toxic and harmful; list of ca. 200 plant protection products, with corresponding oral and dermal LD50 values; list of R (Risk) and S (Safety) phrases; list of toxic gases. The Ministerial Regulation provides detailed specifications for the packaging and labelling of plant protection products. In annex: examples of 7 warning signs used on labels.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 9 Feb. 1987, A - No.4, p.26-52. Illus.
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Aldrin and dieldrin, arsenic, cobalt, endrin, vanadium
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: determination of the concentration of dieldrin in blood is the most relevant test for assessing aldrin-dieldrin exposure and dieldrin body burden; determination in urine may be used for monitoring exposure to arsenic and vanadium; occupational exposure to cobalt can be measured by measuring its concentration in ambient air and, for soluble cobalt compounds, also by measuring the concentration of the metal in urine and blood; the concentration of endrin in blood is an indicator of short-term over-exposure to endrin, while urinary concentration of the major endrin metabolite is used for the measurement of normal low occupational exposure.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1987. 93p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Agaev R.A., Kasymov V.H.
Toxicity of carbamide
Toksičnost' karbamida [en ruso]
Contents: physical and chemical characteristics, use (in agriculture as a fertiliser and feed additive; as a starting material for many chemical products), toxicity (intragastric LD50 for mice 11,000mg/kg, for rats 16,300mg/kg). Carbamide does not produce a skin-resorptive effect and its effects are only slightly cumulative; the threshold for chronic action is 160.3±2.12mg/m3. Recommended MAC for carbamide in workplace air: 10mg/m3, hazard class 3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1987, No.12, p.56.
USSR Commission for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: quintozene. Pesticide. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: hepatic disorders.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1987. 11p. 13 ref.
Permission to use class 1 pesticides [Sweden]
Tillstånd att använda bekämpningsmedel klass 1 [en sueco]
Under the Swedish Pesticides Ordinance (SFS 1985:836), class 1 pesticides may only be used occupationally and by holders of special permits. The National Board of Occupational Safety and Health is the supervisory authority for class 1 pesticides used for the treatment of wood. This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1988) defines the conditions for the issuing of permits for the use of the pesticides in question. It also indicates the application procedure and the particulars to be included in the application. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 8 Dec. 1987. 7p.
Mečkov G., Petkova V., Zahariev N.
Bromsulfalein clearance in persons in professional contact with pesticides
Klirăns na bromsulfaleina u lica văv profesionalen kontakt s pesticidi [en búlgaro]
In 46 persons, bromsulfalein clearance was followed during a season of work with pesticides. The mean value of bromsulfalein clearance (8,91%) was lower than that of a referent group of healthy persons (14,5%). In 14 of the exposed group the clearance values were under 10%. The changes in clearance do not correlate closely with other indices of liver function. Bromsulfalein metabolism, like pesticide metabolism, probably involves the glutathione-S-transferase system. This makes the measurement of bromsulfalein clearance useful in assessing the effect of pesticides on persons who work with them.
Problemi na higienata, Aug. 1987, Vol.12, p.99-103. Illus. 2 ref.
Delgado Cobos P., Arias García M., Díaz Ojeda M.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Los plaguicidas y nuestra salud
Illustrated training guide, aimed at workers. Contents: definitions; hazards; exposure; routes of entry into the body; symptoms of poisoning; first aid; labelling of containers; preventive measures; personal hygiene; personal protection; recommendations; application of pesticides; environmental protection; safety programmes. In the appendix: examples of warning labels; R and S phases in Spanish.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1987. 62p. Illus. Price: ESP 100.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to organo-phosphorus pesticides
This is a further revision of Guidance Note MS 17, originally published in 1981 (see CIS 81-798) and revised in 1986. It contains a brief roundup of information on organo-phosphorus pesticides; potential occupational sources of exposure (manufacture and packaging; transport, storage and distribution; application and use; handling used containers e.g. scrap recovery); routes of absorption; biological effects; clinical manifestations of organo-phosphorus poisoning; measurement of cholinesterase activity as an index of organo-phosphorus uptake and effect; biological monitoring; electro-physiological monitoring; emergency treatment.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London, SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Oct. 1987. 4p. 5 ref.
Gurova A.I., Drozzina N.A., Smoljar N.Ja., Zasorina I.N.
Basis for maximum allowable concentration for chrysanthemic acid, chrysanthemic ethyl ester and chrysanthemic chloranhydride in workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju PDK hrizantemovoj kisloty, ėtilovogo ėfira i hlorangidrida v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Chrysanthemic acid, ethyl chrysanthemate and chrysanthemoyl chloride - intermediates in the industial synthesis of the new insecticide neopyamine - were studied in animal experiments. The compouds are of moderate toxicity on intragastric administration, are only slightly absorbed by the skin, produce moderate irritation and do not provoke sensitisation. Of the 3, chrysanthemoyl chloride was the most toxic (LD50 = 160mg/kg, mouse) but was not embryotoxic or teratogenic. Maximum allowable concentrations of 10mg/m3 for chrysanthemic acid and ethyl chrysanthemate and 2mg/m3 for chrysanthemoyl chloride are proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1987, No.7, p.53-54. Illus. 3 ref.
Dinitrophenols: toxicology, therapy and prophylaxis of poisoning (literature review)
Dinitrofenol'nye soedinenija: toksikologija, terapija i profilaktika intoksikacij (obzor literatury) [en ruso]
Literature review which covers different mechanisms of the toxic action of dinitrophenols used in agriculture as universal pesticides. These highly toxic chemicals affect the heart, the lungs and the nervous system. Some cases of fatal poisoning by dinitrophenols have been reported. The substances interfere with oxidative phosphorylation and form reversible complexes with serum proteins. Specific methods of medical treatment have not yet been developed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1987, No.7, p.42-45. 44 ref.
Gas chromatographic determination of isophen (acrex) in workplace air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie izofena(akreksa) v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
This method of gas chromatographic determination of the fungicide isophen in workplace air uses flame ionisation and electron capture detectors. Analysis takes 10 minutes. The method can measure isophen concentration at levels of 0.05mg/m3 (1/4 of the Tentative Safe Exposure Level).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.57-58. Illus. 1 ref.
Gžegockij M.J., Kuz'minov B.P., Kokot V.P., Žuk S.Š.
Toxicological characteristics of pesticide mixtures based on polycarbazine
Toksikologičeskaja harakteristika kombinirovannyh pesticidov na osnove polikarbacina [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological characteristics of pesticides based on polycarbazine (arceride, boricide, polydazol) showed their low toxicity. Their effects were cumulative to varying degrees. Acute intoxication affected mainly the nervous system. The results of this experimental study permitted the recommendation of Tentative Safe Exposure Levels of 0.5, 0.1, and 5mg/m3 for polycarbazine, arceride and boricide, respectively, and a MAC of 0.1mg/m3 for polydazol in workplace air.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.51-52. Illus. 7 ref.
Sasinovic L.M., Pan'sina T.N.
Basis for regulation of synthetic pyrethroid levels in workplace air
Obosnovanie gigieničeskih reglamentov soderžanija sintetičeskih piretroidov v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological characteristics of pyrethroids - broad-spectrum insecticides - enabled Tentative Safe Exposure Levels to be established for preparations containing decamethrin (0.1mg/m3), fenvalerate (0.2mg/m3), cipermethrin (0.3mg/m3) and permethrin (0.5mg/m3); a TSEL of 0.3mg/m3 was set for the permethrin-containing product Anometrin-N. The use of personal protective equipment is necessary to protect the skin and mucosae from contact with cyanide-containing pyrethroids.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.48-50. Illus. 11 ref.
Toxico-allergic dermatitis due to ethylenediamine in herbicide (zineb) production
Toksiko-allergičeskij dermatit ot vozdejstvija ėtilendiamina v proizvodstve gerbicida cineba [en ruso]
Medical examination of a worker with 3 years of exposure to ethylenediamine showed initial signs of allergy after the 1st year. Ethylenediamine possesses irritant and allergenic properties, and contact with it can lead to development of allergic dermatitis and eczema, sometimes in combination with allergic bronchitis and asthma. Delayed diagnosis and continuing contact with ethylenediamine result in spreading of the dermatitis and serious complications.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.45-46. 3 ref.
Manenko A.K., Kravec-Bekker A.K., Ivanova O.P., Sahnovskaja N.N., Drobjaz'ko V.P.
Comparative assessment of the toxicological characteristics of some derivatives of oxazolone (phosalone)
Sravnitel'naja ocenka toksičnosti i haraktera dejstvija na organizm nekotoryh proizvodnyh oksazolona (fozalona) [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological characteristics of phosalone and its precursors showed a decrease in their toxicity in the following order: benzoxazolone, 6-chlorobenzoxazolone, chloromethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolone, hydroxy methyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolinone. A MAC was established for benzoxazolone (1mg/m3). A Tentative Safe Exposure Level of 2mg/m3 was established for 6-chlorobenzoxazolone and chloromethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolone. A MAC of 3mg/m3 was recommended for hydroxymethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolinone.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.36-38. Illus. 3 ref.
Morphocytochemical studies of peripheral blood leukocytes in mechanics exposed to pesticides
Morfocitohimičeskie issledovanija lejkocitov periferičeskoj krovi mehanizatorov rabotavših s pesticidami [en ruso]
Medical examinations of 206 mechanics aged 20-50 years occupationally exposed during 4 years to various groups of pesticides revealed morphocytochemical changes in neutrophilic leukocytes which were characterised by toxic granularity, decreases in glycogen and lipid content, inhibition of redox enzymes (myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase), and increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. A decrease in acid phosphatase and increases in lactate and succinate dehydrogenesis were also identified in lymphocytes. These changes in peripheral leukocytes show the high sensivity of the blood to pesticide exposure and can be used as diagnostic criteria.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.8-11. Illus. 7 ref.
Kolpakov I.E., Soboleva L.P.
Functional changes in the cardiorespiratory system of workers engaged in zinc production
Funkcional'nye izmenenija kardiorespiratornoj sistemy u rabotajuščih s cinebom [en ruso]
Medical examinations of 170 workers aged 24-50 engaged in zineb (zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate) production revealed cholinergic reactions of the cardiovascular system in workers with up to 6 years of exposure to this fungicide. After 6-10 years adrenergic reactions were observed in those working in contact with zineb. Hypertension was much more common among men than among women, whereas hypotonia was rare among men but frequently encountered among women. Repetitive bronchospasm was observed at early and late stages of exposure. Concrete medical prophylactic measures are proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1987, No.6, p.35-38. 8 ref.
Kagan N.A., Aleksašina Z.A., Karaseva A.E., Vojnova I.V., Prismotrov Ju.I., Soroka L.I.
Experimental basis for a maximum allowable concentration for the herbicide dicotex in workplace air
Ėksperimental'noe obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii gerbicida dikoteksa v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Animal experiments with dicotex have shown that its LD50 on intragastric administration is 1085mg/kg for white rats, 450mg/kg for white mice and 700mg/kg for guinea pigs. Its species sensitivity variability coefficient is 2.41. Its toxic effects are weakly cumulative. The threshold value for acute intoxication was 288mg/m3, that for chronic intoxication (4 months of exposure) 10mg/m3. The recommended MAC for the work environment in agriculture is 1mg/m3, form A, hazard class 2, with the note "hazardous on contact with the skin".
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.31-34. 2 ref.
Moraru L.E., Girenko D.B., Klisenko M.A.
Chromatographic methods of determination of nitrogen and phosphorus-containing pesticides in air
Hromatografičeskie metody opredelenija azot-fosforsoderžaščih pesticidov v vozduhe [en ruso]
Conditions were determined for the collection, separation and quantitation of 4 organophosphorus pesticides that may be present in workplace air. 20L of air is drawn through a paper disc backed by polyurethane foam. The disc and foam are extracted with acetone and the extract is concentrated. A sample of the concentrate may be subjected to gas chromatography on a column of 5% Se-30 on Chromaton N-AW at 190 or 210°C (flame photometric or thermal ionisation detector), or to thin-layer chromatography on silica gel with hexane-acetone mixtures; after visualisation of spots with Dragendorff's reagent or silver nitrate, the diameters of the spots are measured. The limit detection in air of actellic, pirimiphos ethyl and pyridafenthion is 0.1mg/m3; for hostaquick, 0.2mg/m3. Error limits are 15.5-19.6%.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.53-54. Illus. 4 ref.
Kuz'minov B.P., Kokot V.R.
Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika metilovogo ėfira 2-benzimidazolil-karbaminovoj kisloty [en ruso]
In animal experiments, methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate (MBC) showed teratogenic and gonadotoxic effects. Its threshold of action was 33.9mg/m3. MBC is not absorbed by the skin. Its effects are strongly cumulative. The results of the studies permitted the establishment of a MAC for MBC in workplace air (0.1mg/m3) on the basis of its gonadotoxic action.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.58-60. Illus. 24 ref.
Vojtenko G.A., Sasinovič L.M.
Toxicology of β-dihydroheptachlor (Dilor) and regulation of safe exposure levels
Toksikologija β-digidrogeptahlora (dilora) i reglamentacija bezopasnyh urovnej ego vozdejstvija [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxic properties of Dilor were carried out. Like other organochlorine pesticides, Dilor affects the nervous system, upsets the protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification functions of the liver, and thus produces disorders of protein carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Dilor is a chemical of low toxicity with moderate cumulative effects. The results obtained were used as a basis for a MAC for Dilor in workplace air: for industrial premises 0,2mg/m3, in agriculture 0,5mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.93-95. 12 ref.
Decree No.87-361 of 27 May 1987 concerning the protection of agricultural workers exposed to agricultural pesticides [France]
Décret n°87-361 du 27 mai 1987 relatif à la protection des travailleurs agricoles exposés aux produits antiparasitaires à usage agricole [France] [en francés]
The provisions of this decree apply to the agricultural enterprises mentioned in Article L.231-1 of the French Labour Code. They cover collective and individual protective measures, training and medical surveillance.
Journal officiel de la République française, 3 June 1987, Vol.119, No.127, p.6003-6004.
Malathion [en francés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Organophosphorus insecticide. Toxicity: is absorbed through the skin; cholinesterase inhibitor; skin sensitiser. Exposure limit: (ACGIH) TLV = 10mg/m3.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 11p. 26 ref.
Malathion [en francés]
One page chemical safety informaton sheet based on Chemical Hazard Summary No.31 from CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 1p.
Cyanure d'hydrogène [en francés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of the data sheet already summarised in CIS 85-1015. Exposure limits (France, 1983): TWA = 2mg/m3; ceiling value = 10mg/m3.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1988. 6p. 32 ref.
Kalinova G., Izmirova N., Kalojanova F.
Minimum waiting periods for safe work with phosdrin and vydate in greenhouses
Minimalni srokove za bezopasna rabota s fosdrin i videjt v oranžerii [en búlgaro]
Degradation dynamics of vydate and phosdrin were followed on treated greenhouse flowers. Vydate reduces plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity (ChEA). It is a pesticide that degrades slowly. Phosdrin degrades faster and the amount when no effect on ChEA is observed (0.25mg) allows one-hour exposure of workers (weeding and picking carnations) as early as the first day after spraying. Minimum waiting periods are proposed for work in greenhouses after spraying: 3 days for phosdrin and 4 days for vydate.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.5, p.39-43. Illus. 7 ref.
Koleva M., Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Burkova T.
Study on renal function in chronic peroral propineb intoxication
Proučvane na băbrečnata funkcija pri hronična oralna intoksikacija s propineb [en búlgaro]
Rats were perorally treated with propineb in doses of 425 and 34mg/kg body mass (1/20 and 1/125 LD50), two times weekly for 4.5 months. Renal function was evaluated in terms of: clearance of endogenous creatinine, urea, sodium and potassium, chlorides in serum, serum osmolarity, clearance of free water and percentage of excreted versus filtered sodium. Decreased glomerular filtration and free water clearance, and increased sodium excretion were observed. Morphological studies established that functional changes precede morphological ones, and should be given consideration in the evaluation of pesticide residues in foods and in hygienic standard-setting.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.4, p.34-37. 8 ref.
Assessment of mutagenicity of industrial and plant protection chemicals
Contents of this report prepared by experts on behalf of ECETOC: general considerations; strategy for the detection of germ cell mutagens; selection of assays and interpretation of test results; tests in-vitro, number and types of tests to employ, genetic specificity of mutagenic action, terminology associated with activity in in-vitro assays, handling of isolated positive responses observed in-vitro, metabolism and tissue distribution; tests in-vivo, the difference between experiments in-vitro and in-vivo, the use of in-vivo somatic cell assays as a pre-sceen for potential germ cell mutagens; correspondence between proposed testing strategy and governmental requirements; recommendations. Regulatory requirements, including suggested tests for the detection of anomalies, are summarised for plant protection chemicals (USA, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Italy and Japan) and for general chemicals (EEC, USA, OECD recommendations).
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Bte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1987. 28p. Illus. 29 ref.
Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Mirkova E., Mihajlova A., Ilieva P.
Studies on acute and subacute oral toxicity of Sandofan C-50
Izsledvane na ostrata i podostrata oralna toksičnost na Sandofan C-50 [en búlgaro]
Sandofan C-50 is a preparation containing 40% copper oxychloride and 10% oxadixyl. The acute oral LD50 for albino rats (840mg/kg) puts the preparation into group III (moderately hazardous). At doses of 1/20 LD50 (42mg/kg) and 1/50 LD50 (16.8mg/kg) in 30-day experiments, there was no cumulative effect. Moderate signs of general toxic action were seen at the higher dose (42mg/kg): elevated activities of several dehydrogenases in blood and brain tissue, but there was no change in the general physical status and behaviour of the animals. The dose of 16.8mg/kg was inactive under the conditions of the 30-day experiments.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.6, p.41-46. Illus. 9 ref.
Comprehensive study of the effects of agricultural chemicals on human bodies
Nōgyō kagaku busshitsu ni yoru jintai e no eikyō ni kansuru sōgōteki kenkyū [en japonés]
This is a report on the findings of a comprehensive study done by the Pesticide Poisoning Study Team of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine in 1983-85. In the three years, 416 cases were treated at 35 medical institutions. In comparison with past findings, there was no decrease in accidents, the incidence was greatest among people in their fifties and herbicides were the principal problem. As regards organochlorine pesticides in the fat tissue of human bodies, 0.3ppm of total DDT and 0.2ppm of total BHC were detected. The amount of mercury in hair was 4.4-5.8ppm for men and 3.2ppm for women. In experimental studies on the chronic effects of pesticides, animals fed with low-protein forage were readily poisoned by organophosphorus compounds. Among experimental animals painted with paraquat or exposed by inhalation, it was detectable for 17 days in excreta in the former case and for 10 days in the latter. No lung fibrosis was observed.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.35, No.6, p.1021-1026. Illus.
Kalinova G., Izmirova N., Kalojanova F.
Determination of the waiting period for safe work after the application of methyl parathion under field conditions
Opredeljane na minimalen srok za bezopasna rabota sled prilagane na metilparation pri polevi uslovija [en búlgaro]
Workers spent 1h per day in contact with vegetables that had been treated with a 0.1% aqueous emulsion of methyl parathion. The pesticide is a strong inhibitor of cholinesterase activity - induces up to 50% inhibition of plasma ChEA on the first day after spraying. The rate of disappearance of methyl parathion from washings of workers' hands (daily samples for 7 days) showed that the compound degrades slowly. The minimum waiting period for safe work with methyl parathion under field conditions was determined to be 7 days.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.2, p.55-58. Illus. 4 ref.
Health effects of pesticides: A review of epidemiologic research from the perspective of developing nations
Acute poisoning among pesticide applicators is still a prominent health hazard in rural areas in developing countries. Data from China show that with a well organised grass-roots-level network of primary health care services, poisoning episodes can be prevented through the dissemination of information on the hazards and provision of prevention training courses. Among pesticide manufacturing workers, especially manual packers of organophosphorus insecticides, there is suggestive evidence of subacute poisoning resulting from continuous low-level exposure. Present evidence indicates a positive association between excess human cancer and the use of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, between soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's leukaemia, and lymphoma, and phenoxyacetic and chlorophenol herbicides. Further study of the cause of subacute poisoning now requires analytical investigation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.3, p.269-279. 60 ref.
Manual de prevención de riesgos en el uso de plaguicidas
This safety guide covers: general information on pesticides; toxicity information; hazards of use; preventive methods; first aid; table listing ca. 450 commonly used pesticides in Chile (source of information; type of insecticide; active ingredient with formulation and concentration information; chemical group; persistence; oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity).
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Bandera 84, Santiago, Chile, 1987. 77p. Illus.
Cruces Blanco C.
Aplicación de técnicas avanzadas en análisis espectrofluorimétricos - Determinación de fitohormonas, plaguicidas y sus metabolitos en el medio ambiente
Investigation of analytical problems that arise during the evaluation of the environmental effects of pesticides. Special attention is given to the application of certain analytical methods to a wide variety of matrices (biological fluids, ground soil, reservoir water, vegetables and fruits), in order to demonstrate the utility of the luminescence techniques as important tools for control and routine laboratory analysis.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1987, Vol.7, No.27, p.35-46. Illus. 56 ref.
Toxicology and hazard assessment of 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone II)
Potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP) are reviewed and hazards assessed. Further toxicologic evaluations should be conducted using only high-purity material that is free from possibly confounding impurities and stabilisers. Safety considerations when handling the material are included.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.42, No.5, p.292-296. 35 ref.
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