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  • Agricultural chemicals

1989

CIS 90-228 Wiklund K., Dich J., Holm L.E., Eklund G.
Risk of cancer in pesticide applicators in Swedish agriculture
The risk of cancer was analysed in a cohort of 20,245 licensed pesticide applicators (99% male) in agriculture who had licences issued between 1965 and 1976. The mean follow up time was 12.2 years. 558 malignant tumours were found (649.8 expected), which resulted in a statistically significantly decreased standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI):0.79-0.93). Significantly decreased risks of cancer were also found for liver (SIR = 0.45, 95% CI:0.18-0.93), pancreas (SIR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26-0.87), lung (SIR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35-0.68) and kidney (SIR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.84). SIR for testicular cancer was increased (18 cases, SIR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.92-2.45) and increased with period since licence. For those born in 1935 or later a non-significant increased overall risk of cancer was observed. Comparisons were made with agricultural workers in general since pesticide applicators are mainly farmers that use or have used pesticides to a greater extent. Higher risks for pesticide applicators were found for testicular cancer, tumours of the nervous system and endocrine glands, and Hodgkin's disease.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.46, No.11, p.809-814. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 90-265 Control of pesticides
Contents of this data sheet: types of pesticides; insecticides, fungicides, herbicides; control of pesticides; Regulation 1986; local authority users; use of approved pesticides; checklist for commercial users; labelling; domestic use.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0DA, United Kingdom, June 1989. p.F:20:1-F:20:3.

CIS 89-1878 Brown S.K., Ames R.G., Mengle D.C.
Occupational illness from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides among agricultural applicators in California, 1982-1985
California pesticide illness investigation reports involving toxicity category I or II organophosphate and carbamate pesticide exposures among agricultural pesticide applicators were reviewed for the years 1982-1985. The pesticides associated with each illness were recorded, and the exposures were classified as chronic, short-term, or accidental. Illnesses were associated with a range of pesticides, including both organophosphates and carbamates in both toxicity categories I and II. Approximately 19% of the illnesses were due to accidents. Overall, the analysis identified a need for improving occupational health surveillance and the regulations governing worker health and safety.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1989, Vol.44, No.1, p.34-39. 7 ref.

CIS 89-1997 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) - environmental aspects
Conclusions of this study on the ecological effects of 2,4-D: No direct toxic effects, acute or long-term, of 2,4-D applications under field conditions on any animals species have been observed thus far. There are inevitably, indirect effects resulting from the intended selective herbicidal properties of the compound. These effects would result from the use of any herbicide or from other methods of land management. There will, therefore, be effects for mammals, birds, and insects because of food deprivation, modification of habitat, requirements for nesting, shelter, etc. The application of 2,4-D appears to be less hazardous to the beneficial epigeal arthropod community than physical cultivation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 92p. Bibl. Price: CHF 12.00.

CIS 89-1996 DDT and its derivatives - Environmental aspects
Conclusions reached by this study on the ecological effects of DDT: DDT is highly toxic to aquatic microorganisms and aquatic invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds and some mammals such as bats. This DDT and its metabolites should be regarded as a major environmental hazard.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 98p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 13.00.

CIS 89-1995 Cypermethrin
No cases of accidental poisoning have been reported as a result of occupational exposure. Skin sensations, reported by a number of authors to have occurred during field studies, generally lasted only a few hours and did not persist for more than one day after exposure. Neurological signs were not observed. General medical and extensive clinical blood-chemistry studies, and electrophysiological studies on selected motor and sensory nerves in the legs and arms did not show any abnormalities.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 154p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 16.00.

CIS 89-1992 Toxicological profile for Aldrin/Dieldrin
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic properties of the two insecticides is identified and reviewed.
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, May 1989. 109p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-1608 Corrao G., Calleri M., Carle F., Russo R., Bosia S., Piccioni P.
Cancer risk in a cohort of licensed pesticide users
First admissions to the hospital among 25,945 men living in southern Piedmont (Italy) and holding a license authorising them to use pesticides were analysed in a study of the cancer risk related to exposure to pesticides. Standardised incidence ratios significantly higher than 1 were encountered for malignant skin cancers and lymphomas. The risk of lymphoma was particularly high in predominatly arable areas. The standardised incidence ratios for tumours of the nervous system and haematopoietic tissue showed an interesting age-related pattern and a higher risk in areas primarily devoted to forest tree plantation, but did not reach significance.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.203-209. 32 ref. Illus.

CIS 89-1129 Lindane
Lindane [en francés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Insecticide. Exposure limits (France, 1987): TWA = 0.5mg/m3. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; central nervous system disorders; irritation of skin and mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: hepatic disorders. EEC identification number and labelling codes: No.602-043-00-6; T; R23/24/25, R36/38, S2, S13, S44.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1989. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 89-805 Donna A., Crosignani P., Robutti F., Betta P.G., Bocca R., Mariani N., Ferrario F., Fissi R., Berrino F.
Triazine herbicides and ovarian epithelial neoplasms
The possible role of a class of herbicides, triazines, in ovarian carcinogenesis has been evaluated in a population-based case-referent study. Women previously exposed to triazines showed a significant relative risk of 2.7 for ovarian neoplasms. Although none of the doses could be quantified for the study subjects, 2 risk trends in favour of the plausibility of the association were found: the first by duration and the second by probability of exposure. The population representativity of the study and the comparability of information between the cases and referents suggest the lack of any major bias in the results. Triazine-related risk remained consistent when the analysis was restricted to farmers and when the exposure to other herbicides and to other types of cultivation were considered. Unexposed farmers had the same risk as unexposed non farmers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.47-53. 20 ref.

CIS 89-744 Clordano
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): 8h-TWA = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; irritation of skin and mucous membranes; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); renal and hepatic damage.
Noticias de seguridad, May 1989, Vol.51, No.5, 4p. insert.

CIS 89-905 Brenner F.E., Bond G.G., McLaren E.A., Greene S., Cook R.R.
Morbidity among employees engaged in the manufacture or formulation of chlorpyrifos
The prevalence of selected illnesses and symptoms during 1977-85 was compared between 175 employees potentially exposed to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and 335 matched controls with no history of exposure to organophosphates. Subjects were subdivided into three exposure intensity groups on the basis of job title and air monitoring data for dose response testing. This classification scheme was shown roughly to correlate with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in the workers. No statistically significant differences in illness or prevalence of symptoms were observed between the exposed and unexposed groups or among the three exposure subgroups. Potentially exposed employees did report symptoms of dizziness and of malaise and fatigue relatively more often than subjects from the comparison group; however, further analyses by exposure level, process area, or time did not support a relation with exposure. No cases of peripheral neuropathy were seen among the exposed workers. Although the sample size was small and the statistical power limited, the cumulative exposures likely to have been experienced by this workforce exceed those to be expected for individuals using the product as recommended. The absence of exposure related adverse effects, including neurological impairment, is reassuring.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.46, No.2, p.133-137. 13 ref.

1988

CIS 00-324 Decreto N° 18323-S-TSS de 1988 sobre el examen médico periódico anual de las personas que realicen actividades de manejo y aplicación de plaguicidas [Costa Rica]
Temas tratados: Costa Rica; descripción de procedimiento; reconocimientos médicos periódicos; intoxicaciones agudas; ley; plaguicidas; riesgos químicos; vigilancia de la colinesterasa; vigilancia médica.
Fotocopias, 10p. Con CIS. También en: La Gaceta n°149, 8 ago. 1988.

CIS 99-1763 Enmiendas de 1988 a la Ley federal relativa a los insecticidas, los funguicidas y los rodenticidas [USA]
The Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide Act amendments of 1988 [USA] [en inglés]
Temas tratados: autorización de productos nuevos; comprobación del suministro de productos peligrosos; eliminación de los residuos peligrosos; funguicidas; insecticidas; inspección; ley; pesticidas; productos químicos agrícolas; rodenticidas; almacenamiento; transporte; USA.
United States Code Congressional and Administrative News, vol.2, 100th Congress - Second Session, 1988, p.2654-2688.

CIS 99-1078 Decreto nº88-448 de 26 de abril de 1998 relativo a la protección de los trabajadores expuestos a los gases que se utilizan en los trabajos de fumigación [Francia]
Décret n°88-448 du 26 avril 1988 relatif à la protection des travailleurs exposés aux gaz destinés aux opérations de fumigation [France] [en francés]
Temas tratados: agricultura; bromuro de metilo; ácido cianhídrico; fosfina; Francia; fumigación; agentes fumigantes; información del personal; ley; limitación de la exposición; suministro de equipos de protección; valores-umbral; vigilancia médica.
Dictionnaire Permanent Sécurité et Conditions de Travail, Agriculture, Feuillets 49, 25 mar. 1997, p.337-338.
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/texteconsolide/SHHC8.htm [en francés]

CIS 96-1273 Normas para el transporte seguro de los plaguicidas
Directives pour le transport sans risque des produits phytosanitaires [en francés]
Estas normas, preparadas por la asociación internacional de la industria agroquímica, se dirigen a todas las personas involucradas en el transporte de los pesticidas. En el sumario: organización del transporte sin riesgos de los pesticidas; consideraciones generales (embalaje, marcado y etiquetado, condiciones climáticas, materiales y métodos de manutención); transportes viarios (elección de la empresa de transportes, selección y formación de los conductores, equipos de seguridad y trajes de protección, plano de la ruta, instrucciones a los conductores); carga y distribución; procedimientos de emergencia (reacción inmediata, primeros auxilios, control del siniestro, lucha contra incendios, limpieza y descontaminación). En anexo: listas de control (para la distribución en general); símbolos de riesgo.
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, 1988. 62p. Ilus. 6 ref.

CIS 96-1261 Directivas para el almacenamiento sin riesgo de los productos fitosanitarios
Guidelines for safe warehousing of pesticides [en inglés]
Directives pour le stockage sans risque des produits phytosanitaires [en francés]
Estas directivas, elaboradas por la asociación internacional de la industria agroquímica van dirigidas a todas aquellas personas involucradas en el almacenamiento de los pesticidas. En el sumario: riesgos inherentes a los productos y riesgos para el medio ambiente; localización y edificios destinados al almacenamiento; gestión de los almacenes; higiene y seguridad del personal; eliminación de los derrames de productos fitosanitarios y de sus residuos; protección del medio ambiente y medidas contra incendios. En anexo: lista de control para la seguridad del almacenamiento; guía de almacenamiento (con Etiquetas y Clases de Riesgos según el sistema ONU).
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, nov. 1989 (ediciones inglesa y española, 1988). 67p. Ilus.

CIS 95-2210 Pictogramas para productos químicos agrícolas: una ayuda para la utilización segura de los pesticidas
Pictograms for agrochemical labels: An aid to the safe handling of pesticides [en inglés]
Pictogramas realizados por el GIFAP en cooperación con la FAO, con el propósito de transmitir la información básica de seguridad a personas procedentes de horizontes culturales diferentes y con niveles heterogéneos de estudios. Los 12 pictogramas se agrupan en cuatro categorías principales: almacenamiento (a conservar en locales cerrados con llave y lejos del alcance de los niños); empleo activo (manutención de concentrado en forma líquida, en forma de polvo, aplicación); recomendaciones para la protección personal (guantes, protección ocular, consejos de lavado después del uso, botas, protección de la nariz y la boca, equipo de protección respiratoria); nota de aviso (peligro para los animales, peligro para los peces). Asimismo se dan recomendaciones para la utilización de pictogramas.
Groupement International des Associations Nationales de Fabricants de Produits Agrochimiques (GIFAP), 79a ave. Albert Lancaster, Bruxelles, 1180 Bélgica, 1988. [7]p. Ilus.

CIS 95-1814 Ware G.W.
Guía completa de lucha antiparasitaria con o sin productos químicos
Complete guide to pest control with and without chemicals [en inglés]
Este libro recoge información sobre la lucha antiparasitaria llevada a cabo por propietarios de viviendas, propietarios de pequeñas explotaciones agrícolas, jardineros y guardas de parque profesionales. En el sumario: parásitos y daños que ocasionan; la elección de utilizar o no utilizar productos químicos; tipos de pesticidas y formulación química; equipos de lucha antiparasitaria; precisiones sobre los tipos de parásitos y las técnicas apropiadas para luchar contra cada uno de ellos; la seguridad en la manipulación y el almacenamiento de los pesticidas; reglamentación sobre pesticidas; riesgos de los pesticidas y primeros auxilios. Se incluye una lista de los productos más comunes, con su nombre comercial y su denominación química.
Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA, 2a ed., 1988. xii, 304p. Ilus. 100 ref. Indice.

CIS 94-345
Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information System (CERIS)
PEST-BANK on SilverPlatter
CD-ROM disk containing two databases covering all US registered pesticides used in agriculture, industry and general commerce. Database 1 (Pesticide Products Database) contains information for approx. 50,000 pesticides (1,400 active ingredients, 5,000 registering companies, 20,000 sites, 7,500 pests) currently registered in the US. Each entry provides: product and brand names; registration information (incl. states in which registered); composition and formulation (names, synonyms, CAS numbers, trade names of all active ingredients by percentage); registered sites of applications; pests for which registered; specific site/pest combinations; other information (toxicity warning etc.). Database 2 (Tolerance Database) contains all pesticides tolerances listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). It indicates maximum permissible residue levels for > 400 chemicals, by chemical and food commodity (approx. 1,400 commodities listed), with CFR references.
SilverPlatter International, 100 River Ridge Drive, Norwood, MA 02062-5026, USA; 10 Barley Mow Passage, Chiswick, London W4 4PH, United Kingdom. Updated quarterly. 1 CD-ROM disk + floppy disk with search software (for IBM-compatible microcomputers).

CIS 93-623 Handbook on agricultural chemicals
Nōyaku yōran [en japonés]
This handbook (compiled under the supervision of the Plant Protection Division, Agricultural Production Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Fisheries) contains seven parts. The first three parts list the quantities of production, marketing, consumption, export and import of agricultural chemicals including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and fertilisers. Part 4 lists all registered agricultural chemical products, their manufacturers and active constituents. Part 5 lists the properties, methods of use and toxicity of new agricultural chemicals. Part 6 lists agricultural epidemics in Japan, and situations of aerial spraying. Part 7 contains information including toxicity of agricultural chemicals, utilisation standards of special category of toxic products, directories of related government agencies, manufacturers, distributors and organisations.
Japan Plant Protection Association, 1-43-11 Komagome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170, Japan, Dec. 1988. 700p. Index. Price: JPY 4300.

CIS 92-1973 Matos E.L., Loria D.J., Albiano N., Sobel N., de Buján E.C.
Efectos de los plaguicidas en trabajadores de cultivos intensivos
A study to investigate the effects of pesticides on the health of workers engaged in intensive cultivation was carried out in Argentina during 1983 and 1984. Surveys and interviews were conducted in two groups of workers, flower and ornamental plant growers. 12.3% of the flower growers and 18.6% of the plant growers had symptoms of acute poisoning, with no difference regarding the different tasks. However, the number of flower growers with symptoms of chronic poisoning was significantly greater for the pesticide applicators than for other workers in the same group. Among both groups, 65% of the manifestations were in the central nervous system or peripheral nerves. It was noted that protective measures taken by the workers were insufficient. Guidance on ways to improve working conditions, in particular the use of protective equipment, and promotion of appropriate technology are recommended. Summary in English. Also published in English in the Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization (Vol.21, No.4, 1987).
Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Feb. 1988, Vol.104, No.2, p.160-170. 12 ref.

CIS 92-1970 Cole D.C., McConnell R., Murray D.L., Pacheco Antón F.
Vigilancia de las enfermedades provocadas por plaguicidas: la experiencia nicaragüense
A pilot project aimed at improving the surveillance of diseases caused by pesticides was initiated in 1984 in two provinces of Nicaragua (León and Chinandega). In order to detect the degree of exposure to organophosphorus compounds, cholinesterase screening was performed. The percentage with low cholinesterase activity level (50% or less) increased sharply during the peak spraying season. Airfield workers were most affected. Workers who used certain types of personal protective equipment were significantly less affected. A relatively high rate of 74.6 poisoning cases per 100,000 inhabitants was reported. 94% of the cases reported via questionnaires were occupationally related, small farms being the most affected. Methyl parathion was implicated in roughly half of these cases, two-thirds of which were due to cutaneous exposure. Recommendations include: reduction of methyl parathion use, installation of closed systems for safer aircraft loading, provision and use of skin-protective clothing, and restriction of pesticide work by minors. Summary in English. Also published in English in the Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization (Vol.22, No.2, 1988).
Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Sep. 1988, Vol.105, No.3, p.231-244. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 92-2011 Bonderf J., Breteau M., Conso F., Dally S., Efthymiou M.L., Furet Y., Jamet P.
Principal types of acute poisoning by pesticides - Diagnosis, therapy and prevention
Les principales intoxications aiguës par les pesticides: diagnostic, thérapeutique et prévention [en francés]
Information note on the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of acute poisoning due to pesticides (with special attention paid to herbicides). Contents: classification (by chemical family, mode of action, toxicity) and acute poisoning in man; insecticides which are cholinesterase inhibitors (organophosphorus compounds, carbamates); organochlorine pesticides; synthetic pyrethrins; inorganic and organic fungicides; anticoagulants used as rodenticides; chloralose; strychnine. A separate section is devoted to the different stages of the preventive effort: homologation of products before they are put up for sale; protection of the population at large and in the workplace; personal protection; medical surveillance (of limited use in agriculture).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, In: Intoxications - Pathologie du travail, 1988. 12p. Illus. 92 ref.

CIS 92-960
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Aromatic amines, aromatic nitro compounds, carbamate pesticides, nickel
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: for aromatic amines and aromatic nitro compounds, determination of methaemoglobin level is used for detecting recent exposure to those compounds capable of oxidising haemoglobin iron, along with measurement of the compounds or their metabolites in urine; the internal dose and level of exposure to carbamates can be assessed by determination of their urinary metabolites; for carbamate insecticides with anticholinesterase activity, blood cholinesterases can be used as bioindicators of absorption and effect; determination in plasma/serum and urine are the most useful methods for biological monitoring of nickel exposure.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1988. 80p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-1761 Chemical Usage (Agriculture & Veterinary) Control Act 1988 [Australia - Queensland]
This Act is concerned with the use of certain dangerous chemicals and substances having chemical residues. Its provisions cover: improper and unauthorised use of chemicals; proscription and recall of chemicals; notification and approval requirements; powers of inspectors; issuing of regulations.
Government Printer, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 1988. 22p.

CIS 91-1283 Crop protection index
Index phytosanitaire [en francés]
Alphabetic listing of insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides and work- and rodent-controlling products sold commercially in France. The analytical section provides information for each substance on its toxicity, uses, conditions of use, distributor, international formulation code, concentration; there is an alphabetic listing by trade name and by active constituent.
Association de coordination technique agricole, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, 24th ed., 1988. 491p. Price: FRF 85.00

CIS 91-18
Ministério da Agricultura, Pescas e Alimentação
Decree of 24 Aug. 1988 establishing standards for the classification, labelling and packaging of pesticides and pesticide additives [Portugal]
Decreto-Lei ... estabelece normas relativas à classificação, rotulagem e embalagem de pesticidas e adjuvantes [en portugués]
This Decree establishes the legal basis for the classification, labelling and packaging of pesticides. Contents: scope (exclusions: drugs; radioactive products; transport of pesticides; export of pesticides to non-EEC countries; pesticides in transit only); definitions; toxicological classification of pesticides (based on LD50 and LC50 values); approval of labelling and packaging; requirements for packaging and labelling. In the appendix: table for the classificaiton of pesticides; calculation methods used in the classification; R and S-phrases used in labels.
Diário da República, 24 Aug. 1988, I Série, No.195, p.3504-3508.

CIS 91-278 Nikitin Ju.A.
Fire hazards of pesticides
Požarnaja opasnost' pesticidov [en ruso]
Contents: fire and explosion hazards of chemical agents for plant protection (fire hazards of preparation and application, fire and explosive characteristics of pesticides, thermal decomposition of pesticides and their self-ignition on reaction with water and oxidants, formation of hazardous mixtures in confined spaces, sources of ignition); safe storage and transportation (limitation of propagation of fires, disposal of chemicals and containers, fire safety training); special features of fire propagation and suppression in pesticide store-rooms; first aid in case of intoxication during a fire. Appendices: fire and explosion hazards of important pesticides and recommended fire-fighting devices; pesticide mixtures; example of a plan for fire-fighting in pesticide and mineral fertiliser store-rooms; model fire safety instructions for pesticide store-rooms; maintenance of fire-fighting equipment, communication devices and water supply systems.
Rosagropromizdat, Kržižanovskogo ul. 15, korp. 2, 117218 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 143p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.45.

CIS 91-140 Banić N., Hajnić V.
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, University of Zagreb, 1948-1988
This book marking the 40th anniversary of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (University of Zagreb), introduces its structure, research, training and publishing activities, and presents the Institute collection of scientific articles on various aspects of occupational health.
The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1988. 198p. Bibl.

CIS 91-122 Stel'mah V.A.
Toxicologie characteristics and nature of combined effect of a mixture of orthomenthane hydrocarbons
Toksikologičeskie svojstva i harakter kombinirovannogo dejstvija smesi ortomentanovyh uglevodorodov [en ruso]
B-100, a plant growth regulator preparation, is a mixture of o-methane, o-mentha-1,4-diene and o-cymene (o-methylcumene). Its intragastric LD50 for mice was 4950 (3960-6190)mg/kg and 5100 (4200-6300)mg/kg for rats. It had slight cumulative, mild local irritating, skin-resorptive effects and effects on mucous membranes. Combined effects were analysed by linear regression using a computer. The combined effect was less than additive under the conditions of intragastric administration and additive in the case of inhalation. Thus, for establishing an exposure limit for B-100, all 3 components can be considered equivalent.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1988, No.9, p.34-37. 9 ref.

CIS 90-1991
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Pesticide residues in food - 1987. Evaluations - Part II - Toxicology
These monographs were prepared by an WHO Expert Group and an FAO Panel of Experts subsequent to a Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) in Geneva (Switzerland), 21-30 Sep. 1987. They summarise safety data for the following pesticide residues: acephate, benalaxyl, bitertanol, chlordimeform, chinomethionat, chlorothalonil, cyfluthrin, dimethoate, ethoprophos, fenamiphos, permethrin, propiconazole. Data include results of toxicological studies, with special studies on carcinogenicity, reproduction, mutagenicity and teratogenicity. Results of observations in humans are also given where available. A toxicological evaluation gives levels causing no toxicological effect in experimental animals, together with a WHO estimate of an acceptable daily intake for man. An annex lists maximum daily intakes and residue limits for a range of pesticides.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Distribution and Sales Section, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, Italy, 1988. 144p. Bibl.

CIS 90-1859 Safety code of practice: working with and disposing of herbicides
Newpatibad khwamplodphai ryang kanthamngan kiawka sankam kamcad sadtruphyd [en tailandés]
Illustrated booklet presenting proper working methods (in processing, packaging, storage, transport and disposal), correct use and maintenance of protective equipment, personal hygiene and medical monitoring.
National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment, Phra Pinklao-Nakorn Chaisri Highway, Taling Chan, Bangkok 10170, Thailand, 1988. 44p. Illus.

CIS 90-1982 Bigot-Desjeux F.
Evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards due to the spraying of pesticides on railway property
Evaluation et prévention des risques professionnels de l'épandage d'herbicides en milieu ferroviaire [en francés]
The use of new herbicides and weed-control techniques by railways has entailed an improvement of working conditions and a reduction in the risk of contamination. An analysis of working conditions aboard a regional weed control train is followed by an evaluation of the medical surveillance of exposed workers by means of a questionnaire addressed to their physicians. The animal and human toxicity of the agents used (aminotriazole, atrazine, synthetic growth regulators) is reviewed, as is the regulation of herbicide use. A protocol for clinical and biological monitoring of exposed workers is proposed, as part of intensified safety and health measures to prevent possible long-term effects.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Cochin Port-Royal, 75005 Paris, France, 1988. 126p. 101 ref.

CIS 90-1417
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen
Pesticides [Sweden]
Bekämpningsmedel [en sueco]
These regulations (effective 1 July 1989) apply to work using chemical products for which permission is required under the Regulation concerning pesticides (see CIS 89-711), as well as materials which have been treated with pesticides. Contents: general requirements, personal protective equipment, hygiene, greenhouse spraying, seed disinfection, wood impregnation, work with wood treated with pesticides, special provisions dealing with permits for the use of class I pesticides for the impregnation of wood. These new regulations replace AFS 1987:19 (CIS 89-1087), Anvisning no. 126 and Meddelande 72:3. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 20 July 1988. 26p.

CIS 90-1272 Ballantyne B.
Toxicology and hazard evaluation of cyanide fumigation powders
The typical fumigant powder is a mixture of 40% sodium cyanide (NaCN) and 60% kaolin. The acute oral toxicity of the mixture is proportional to its NaCN content; kaolin does not modify the toxicity of the NaCN. Release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas from wetted powder gave potentially lethal concentrations of HCN at an application rate of 5g/m3, which is 5 times the recommended rate. The concentration produced by 1g/m3 was significant but not lethal. Application of fumigant powder to the eyes of rabbits produced conjunctivities and keratitis, and was ultimately lethal. Lethal amounts of cyanide were absorbed by abraded skin and moist intact skin, but not by dry intact skin. Thus, protective clothing and equipment should always be worn when cyanide fumigant powders are handled.
Clinical Toxicology, 1988, Vol.26, No.5/6, p.325-335. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 90-1244 Kostrodymov N.N., Lifljand L.M.
Hygienic significance of air pollution with tobacco dust
Gigieničeskoe značenie zagrjaznenija vozdušnoj sredy tabačnoj pyl'ju [en ruso]
This literature survey presents in concise form data on tobacco production at home and abroad, chemical composition of tobacco and health effects of tobacco dust on experimental animals and tobacco industry workers. Nicotine, pesticide residues and flavourants seem to be the main health hazards in the industry. Experimental data on animals are consistent with field observations on humans. Female tobacco workers often suffer late toxaemia of pregnancy, abnormal pregnancy interruptions and weakness in labour. Infants born to exposed mothers more frequently show signs of asphyxia and congenital anomalies at birth than those of control women. Tobacco workers suffer allergic disorders in the form of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, hepatitis and asthma. Occupational exposure to tobacco dust also affects the cardiovascular system (strong palpitation, heartache, dyspnoea). Arterial hypertension, hypotension, S-A bradycardia, tachycardia and arrhythmia have also been observed. The data call for further probing of the biological effects of tobacco dust, hygienic evaluations of tobacco manufacturing undertakings' environmental conditions and working out of measures for controlling atmospheric pollution by these undertakings.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1988, No.7, p.60-62. 39 ref.

CIS 90-737 Dieldrin, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA, skin) = 0.25mg/m3; NIOSH REL (8h-TWA, carcinogen) = 0.15mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8H-TWA, skin) = 0.25mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects; dermatitis; haemolytic anaemia; cataracts.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1988. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 90-736 DDT, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA, skin) = 1mg/m3; NIOSH REL (10h-TWA) = 0.5mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 1mg/m3. Toxicity: carcinogenic in laboratory animals; neurotoxic effects; irritates skin and eyes.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1988. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 90-368 Dangerous substances and preparations - Decree No.88-1231 of 29 Dec. 1988 [France]
Substances et préparations dangereuses - Décret n°88-1231 du 29 déc. 1988 [France] [en francés]
Decree published in the Journal officiel on 31 December 1988. It covers dangerous substances and preparations which present hazards other than those defined in article R.5152 of the Public Health Code. It classifies the substances concerned and states the rules to be observed with regard to labelling, packing, production and sale of dangerous substances and the use of agricultural pest control products containing these substances and preparations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2d Quarter 1989, No.135, Note No.1737-135-89, p.355-357.

CIS 90-503 Mattheus A., Müller J.
Twenty years experience in dermatological testing of herbicides and pesticides
Zwanzigjährige Erfahrungen bei der hauttoxikologischen Prüfung von Pflanzenschutz- und Schädlingsbekämpfungsmitteln [en alemán]
Dermatological testing forms part of the certification procedure of herbicides and pesticides. It is carried out according to national standards (TGL) and take into consideration relevant regulations issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. A national coordination group sets up priorities for the substances to be tested. Sensitisation tests are particularly required by the chemical industry; they are going to be increased in quantity. There is participation in various national and international research activities. A new test programme using epidermal cell cultures is being developed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Oct. 1988, Vol.34, No.10, p.565-566. 13 ref.

CIS 90-397 Aldrin, potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits, OSHA PEL (8h-TWA, SKIN) = 0.25mg/m3; NIOSH REL (10h-TWA) = 0.15mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA, SKIN) = 0.25mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; suspected carcinogen; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1988. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 90-266
Health and Safety Executive
Storage of approved pesticides: Guidance for farmers and other professional users
This guidance note is intended to help farmers and other professional users (non-agricultural usage of timber and masonry treatment products and of public health insecticides) who are responsible for storing approved pesticides. It should not be used as guidance for the storage of fumigant gases in cylinders (eg. methylbromide, hydrogen cyanide etc.), which should be securely stored in the open air and for the storage of pesticides in circumstances where the quantity stored creates a fire hazard. Content: statutory requirements; criteria for pesticide storage; application of criteria to chests, bins, vaults and cabinets; application of criteria to buildings; other considerations (electrical installation, water sypply, records, first aid); associated facilities (including training of personnel using the pesticide store).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1988. 10p. Illus. 12 ref. Price code: GBP AC.

CIS 90-222 Buslovič S. Ju., Krysanova A.I., Soroka L.I., Kravčenok S.N., Vojnova I.V., Mikluš T.A.
Impact of different routes of chlorinated phenoxy acid administration on the microsomal oxidation processes in the liver
Vlijanie različnyh putej vvedenija hlorproizvodnyh fenoksikislot na processy mikrosomal'nogo okislenija v pečeni [en ruso]
Study of the liver detoxification system and the corresponding metabolic processes with respect to different routes of administration (intragastric and percutanous) of herbicides (butyl ether of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DA) and sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,2-DPA)). Intragastric administration of the chlorophenoxy compounds resulted in significant activation of enzymatic microsomal oxidation systems. Parenterally administered preparations had no significant inducing effects. This shows the necessity of differentiating between detoxication mechanisms associated with different routes of exposure to harmful substances.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.89-91. 8 ref.

CIS 90-189 Mihajlova O.G., Ivanov J.V.
Study on potential atherogenic hazard of the pesticide acetochlor
Izučenie potencial'noj aterogennoj opasnosti pesticida acetohlora [en ruso]
Biochemical and cytological changes in the cardiovascular systems of rabbits associated with exposure to the pesticide acetochlor suggested that the compound is atherogenic. When administered jointly with cholesterol, its apparent atherogenic action was intensified. It is suggested that a safety factor of 100 be used when setting standards for autochlor residues.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.84-85. 9 ref.

CIS 90-227 Gun R.T., Grycorcewicz C., Esterman A.J., Bedwards J.B.
Ultralow volume application of organophosphate concentrate in grain terminals: A new occupational health hazard
The introduction of ultralow volume (ULV) application of the organophosphate pesticide Fenitrothion in grain terminals presents a risk to workers of skin contact with concentrate. Blood testing, by the Ellman method, of a group of 5 grain terminal workers working on grain treatment showed a lowering of mean red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC ChE) activity to 23 units/gmHb (normal value 28-40) with a range of 16-29. The probable cause was identified as percutaneous absorption of Fenitrothion concentrate by workers using ungloved hands to clean blocked drip feed nozzles. Modification of work practices was followed by a rise of mean RBC ChE to 33.6 units/gmHb (range 32-36).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1988, Vol.45, No.12, p.834-837. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 90-226 He F., Sun J., Han K., Wu Y., Yao P., Wang S., Liu L.
Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on subjects engaged in packing of pyrethroids
A health survey was conducted on 199 workers engaged in dividing and packaging pyrethroids. The subjects were exposed to fenvalerate at 0.012-0.055mg/m3 and deltamethrin at 0.005-0.012mg/m3 in the air with simultaneous skin contact for 0.5-4.5 months. Burning sensations and tightness or numbness on the face appeared in two thirds of the subjects and one third had sniffs and sneezes. Abnormal facial sensations, dizziness, fatigue, and miliary red papules on the skin were more evident in summer than in winter. Neither abnormalities in other organs or systems nor symptoms or signs of acute pyrethroid poisoning were found by interviews, examinations, and laboratory tests. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of NA, cAMP, and cGMP between the examined subjects and the control group. The urine concentration of fenvalerate in the study group ranged from 1.02 to 18.6µg/L; deltamethrin in the urine was present in trace amounts.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1988, Vol.45, No.8, p.548-551. 10 ref.

CIS 89-1951 Rick D.L., McCarty L.P.
The determination of the odor threshold of Telone II soil fumigant by a new method
A method has been developed for the determination of the olfactory threshold of vapours and gases. It involves the dilution of a concentrated vapour or gas by a metering pump into an odour-free stream of air and an odour-free sampling system. Its advantage over other methods is the speed and accuracy with which odour thresholds can be determined. This method has been used to determine the odour of Telone II Soil Fumigant in air. In a population of 22 persons, the concentration at which odour was detected was 4.4 ± 3.1ppm (mean ± S.D.). This level is slightly above the current threshold limit value time-weighted average of 1.0ppm but below the short-term exposure limit of 10ppm.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Nov. 1988, Vol.3, No.11, p.299-302. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-2066 Elliott L.J., Sokolow R., Heumann M., Elefant S.L.
An exposure characterization of a large scale application of a biological insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis
Personal exposure and area air monitoring for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was conducted to determine occupational and general public exposure potential to Bt. Portable sampling pumps with membrane filters (MF) were used to conduct the sampling. Analysis of the MF for Bt involved microbial culture techniques with the presence of toxin crystal formation confirming identification as Bt. This paper presents the exposure sampling results, discusses problems encountered when conducting microbial sampling with membrane filters, and discusses modifications to resolve the problems. Occupational exposure results ranged from 0 to 5600 colony forming units (CFU) of Bt/m3. General public Bt exposure results ranged from 0 to 1600CFU/m3.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Apr. 1988, Vol.3, No.4, p.119-122. 8 ref.

CIS 89-1994 Dithiocarbamate pesticides, ethylenethiourea, and propylenethiourea: A general introduction
This report assesses what is known about the impact of dithiocarbamate pesticides and two of their most important metabolites on man, animals, plants, and the environment. Intended to serve as a general introduction to documented health and environmental risks, the report concentrates on those dithiocarbamates that are most used and best known in order to characterise these pesticides as a group. More than 250 published reports are critically assessed in terms of methodological design as well as findings.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 140p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 15.00.

CIS 89-1635
Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in fumigation operations; Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulation 1988 [United Kingdom] - Approved Code of Practice
This booklet contains the Approved Code of Practice (effective 1 Oct. 1989) and 19 Regulations (applying to all fumigant gases; special duties are also imposed on the users of the more commonly used fumigants - methyl bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ethylene oxide and phosphine). The Code was approved under Section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988. It applies to fumigant operations whether undertaken in the open air, in temporarily created containment or in purpose-built fumigation or sterilisation chambers or enclosures. It does not apply to the use of vapours, fogs, fumes and smokes for the purpose of pest control, the use of which should follow the Approved Code of Practice, "The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health: Control of Exposure to Pesticides at Work" (in preparation).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 42p. Price: GBP 3.00.

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