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CIS 91-454 Herzstein J., Cullen M.R.
Methyl bromide intoxication in four field-workers during removal of soil fumigation sheets
This article describes a recent exposure incident in the field during removal of plastic sheets days after injection of methyl bromide into soil. Following removal of polyethylene sheets covering soil fumigated with methyl bromide, 4 field-workers developed fatigue and light-headedness and 3 workers noted progressive respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and neurologic symptoms. The acute systemic symptoms improved over several days, but later-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted for several weeks. This incident stresses the need for improved worker education and strict adherence to safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation and raises the possibility of an increased risk of toxicity associated with methyl bromide fumigation during a cool season.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.3, p.321-326. 13 ref.

CIS 91-592
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing deaths of farm workers in manure pits
This document describes the hazards associated with the generation of potentially dangerous gases in manure pits. Case reports describe deaths from asphyxiation during 2 incidents involving entry into manure pits. Recommendations include ventilation of all manure pits, testing the atmosphere within a pit before entry and use of a safety belt or harness.
Publications Dissemination, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1990. 7p. 13 ref.

CIS 91-567
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Deltamethrin has been reported to cause numbness, itching, tingling and burning of the skin and vertigo in exposed workers. Occasionally, a transient papular or blotchy erythema has been described. Most of these symptoms are transient and disappear within 5-7 days. Several non-fatal cases of poisoning have been reported through occupational exposure resulting from neglect of safety precautions. No long-term adverse effects have been reported. It is concluded that with good work practices, measures of hygiene and safety precautions, deltamethrin is unlikely to present a hazard for those occupationally exposed. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 133p. 261 ref. Price: CHF 16.00; developing countries: CHF 11.20.

CIS 91-54 Malathion
Malathion [en francés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; mild irritation of eyes; solvents in which malathion is mixed may cause skin irritation and allergies; neurotoxic effects. Long term exposure effects: same as short term effects; skin sensitisation.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Oct. 1990. 1p. Illus.

CIS 91-42 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: harmful. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-039-00-8; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1-61/109; I, II or III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-38 DDT
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: Toxic. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and skin. Long-term exposure effects: skin absorption; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); hepatic damage; suspected human carcinogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 602-045-00-7; T; R25-40-48; S22-36/37-44. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2761 (6.1-61/109).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-228
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Fenvalerate can induce numbness, itching, tingling and burning sensations in exposed workers. Clinical studies showed that these sensations develop with a latent period of approximately 30 minutes, peak by 8 hours and deteriorate after 24 hours. Some poisoning cases have resulted from over-exposure of workers due to neglect of safety precautions. With reasonable work practices, hygiene measures and safety precautions, fenvalerate is unlikely to present a hazard to those occupationally exposed. Detailed summary in French.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1990. 121p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 15.00.

CIS 91-227
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
There are no indications that d-phenothrin, when used as recommended, has an adverse effect on human beings. No cases of human poisoning have been reported. The exposure of the general population is expected to be very low and not likely to present a hazard. With reasonable work practices, hygiene measures and safety precautions, d-phenothrin is unlikely to be an occupational hazard. Detailed summary in French.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 64p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 10.00.

CIS 91-183 Moody R.P., Ritter L.
Pesticide glove permeation analysis: Comparison of the ASTM F739 Test method with an automated flow-through reverse-phase liquid chromatography procedure
The standard ASTM F739-85 testing procedure and an automated in-vitro diffusion analysis (AIDA) procedure were used to determine breakthrough times and penetration rates for 4 protective glove materials for 2 commercially available pesticides. Both procedure demonstrated no detectable breakthrough of the pesticides for nitrile butyl rubber and polyvinyl gloves, although same permeation was observed in some tests on rubber and neoprene gloves when using the AIDA method. The AIDA method has the advantage of providing a fully automated procedure that is especially amenable to glove permeation testing that requires routine sampling for extended test durations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1990, Vol.51, No.2, p.79-83. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 91-210
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kommission für Pflanzenschutz-, Pflanzenbehandlungs- und Vorratsschutzmittel
Criteria for the evaluation of carcinogenicity studies with plant pesticides
Kriterien zur Beurteilung von Kanzerogenitätsstudien mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln [en alemán]
Contents: chemical carcinogenesis - definitions of frequently used terms; general and specific requirements for long-term studies for the evaluation of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of substances; quality criteria for carcinogenicity studies; criteria for the carrying out and evaluation of short-term studies with regard to possible carcinogenic effects; exclusion criteria for the classification of substances with carcinogenic effects in animal studies.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, Germany, 1990. 114p. Bibl. ref.

CIS 91-209
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kommission für Pflanzenschutz-, Pflanzenbehandlungs- und Vorratsschutzmittel
Criteria for the evaluation of studies of reproductive toxicity with plant pesticides
Kriterien zur Beurteilung von Studien zur Reproduktionstoxizität mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln [en alemán]
Contents: introduction and statement of purpose; general definitions; determination of potential reproductive toxicity; testing strategies; quantitative assessment of reproductive toxicity; significance of in-vitro methods and short-term tests in reproductive toxicology; quality criteria for reproductive toxicology studies; interpretation of test results; general criteria for the evaluation of reproductive toxicological risks.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, Germany, 1990. 54p. 14 ref.

CIS 90-1820 Pyrethrins
Pyréthrines [en francés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: very low toxicity; no reported health effects from currently used refined pyrethrins.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-1980
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Principles for the toxicological assessment of pesticide residues in food
Topics covered in this criteria document include: historical background of the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR); the JMPR assessment process; considerations of identity, purity and stability; availability and quality of data; the collection and value of human data; structure-activity relationships; test methodologies; evaluation of data; biotechnology; special considerations for individual classes of pesticides. Glossary.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 117p. 183 ref. Index. Price: CHF 15.00.

CIS 90-1970 Chemistry and specifications of pesticides
Thirteenth Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Contents: Development of pesticides for use in public health (the WHO pesticide evaluation scheme, relations with industry, quality control of pesticides); vector control in urban areas; control of household vectors and pests; specifications and test methodology; biological control agents; decontamination of containers; relations with other organisations. Annexes provide recommended changes in existing specifications and methods, recommended specifications for new pesticides and formulations and new methods, and a guideline specification for ultra-low volume liquids.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 77p. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.

CIS 90-1959
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
This report concludes that with good work practices and safety precautions, tetramethrin is unlikely to present a hazard to those occupationally exposed. Although tetramethrin has been used for many years, there have been no reports of poisoning or adverse effects in human beings. Dermatological tests showed that tetramethrin is neither a primary irritant nor a human skin sensitiser. Details are given of the environmental behaviour of tetramethrin and its effects on environmental organisms, experimental animals and humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 69p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 11.00.

CIS 90-1622 Proctor T.D.
Protective clothing for use with pesticides
Papers presented at a seminar on protective clothing for use with pesticides, held in Coventry, United Kingdom, 15 September 1989. Topics covered: UK legislation affecting protective clothing for use with pesticides; proposed European Directives affecting the standards, use and marketing of personal protective equipment in Europe; test methods and selection criteria for types of coveralls; factors in the design of clothing for use against agricultural pesticides; legal requirements of pesticide manufacturers to provide appropriate information on their products and adequate guidance on protective measures.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, May 1990, Vol.11, No.4, p.237-283.

CIS 90-1465 Glyphosate
Glyphosate [en francés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Herbicide. Toxicity: low oral toxicity; irritation of respiratory tract, skin and eyes.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-932 Kurttio P., Vartiainen T., Savolainen K.
Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides and ethylenethiourea
Exposure of workers to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs; maneb or mancozeb) in 29 potato farms was evaluated during the control of potato late blight. Concentrations of EBDCs and ethylenethiourea (ETU), an impurity and degradation product in EBDC formulations, in ambient air were evaluated during pesticide application. Biological monitoring of exposure to EBDCs was carried out by measuring the concentrations of ETU, a metabolite of EBDCs, in urine for 22 days after the end of the exposure. The estimated inhaled doses of ETU and EBDCs during the average 4 hour application period were 0.07 and 1.8µg/kg, respectively. Only 1-10% of ETU on the clothes reached the skin. The creatinine corrected concentrations of ETU in urine were 0.1-2.5µg/mmol creatinine 24 hours after exposure ended. The estimated half life for eliminating ETU through the kidneys was close to 100 hours. These results indicate that the measurement of ETU in urine is suitable for biological monitoring of exposure to EBDCs.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1990, Vol.47, No.3, p.203-206. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 07-1089 Estudios de caso acerca del impacto de la mecanización y la utilización de sustancias químicas sobre la seguridad y la salud en la agricultura
Case studies on the impact of mechanisation and the use of chemicals on safety and health in agriculture [en inglés]
Estudios de caso en seis países africanos y asiáticos. Cada estudio sigue el mismo esquema: mano de obra agrícola; productos agrícolas; práctica de trabajo tradicionales; prácticas modernas, especialmente la utilización de maquinaria y sustancias fitosanitarias; riesgos y lesiones; prácticas preventivas; conclusiones dirigidas a la prevención
International Labour Office, Working Conditions and Environment Department, Occupational Safety and Health Branch, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Jan. 1989. 257p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1077 Ley Federal nº7802, de 11 de julio de 1989 relativa a la investigación ..., utilización, importación, exportación, ..., registro, clasificación, control, inspección y vigilancia de los productos fitosanitarios, sus compuestos y afines .. [Brasil]
Lei n°7.802, de 11 de julho de 1989 dispõe sobre a pesquisa, ..., a utilização, a importação, a exportação, ..., o registro, a classificação, o controle, a inspeção e a fiscalização de agrotóxicos, seus componentes e afins, ... [en portugués]
Temas tratados: Brasil; declaración de las sustancias peligrosas; etiquetado; ley; manutención y almacenamiento; productos fitosanitarios; productos químicos agrícolas; responsabilidades; sanciones; sustancias tóxicas.
Agrotóxicos: legislação federal e estadual, editado pela Secretaria técnica operacional da comissão estadual de controle de agrotóxicos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, feb. 1991. 6p.

CIS 96-1270 Normas para la utilización eficaz de los pesticidas
Guidelines for the safe and effective use of pesticides [en inglés]
Directives pour l'utilisation efficace et sans risque des produits phytosanitaires [en francés]
Estas normas, elaboradas por la asociación internacional de la industria agroquímica, van dirigidas a todas aquellas personas involucradas en el empleo de pesticidas. En el sumario: elección del pesticida; adquisición, transporte y almacenamiento, formulación, embalajes, dosificación y mezclas; equipos de aplicación (utilización, mantenimiento y reparación); aplicación del pesticida sobre el terreno; precauciones; primeros auxilios. En anexo: tipos de formulaciones de pesticidas; glosario; cartel tipo. La edición inglesa de 1983 se analizó en la ficha CIS 84-1412.
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, 1983 (ed. inglesa, 1989). 56p. Ilus.

CIS 96-1269 Normas sobre las medidas de protección personal al utilizar productos fitosanitarios en climas calurosos
Guidelines for personal protection when using pesticides in hot climates [en inglés]
Directives pour les mesures de protection personnelle pendant l'utilisation de produits phytosanitaires sous conditions climatiques chaudes [en francés]
Folleto formativo dirigido a los usuarios de pesticidas en los países en vías de desarrollo. En el sumario: vías de penetración de los productos fitosanitarios en el cuerpo humano; precauciones generales; protección personal en climas cálidos; materiales, diseños y disponibilidad de trajes y otros artículos de protección.
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, set. 1990 (ed. inglesa, ago. 1989). 34p. Ilus.

CIS 95-104 Manual de prevención de accidentes con plaguicidas
Consejo de Salud Ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, 1989. 22 p. Ilus. (]
Consejo de Salud Ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, 1989. 22p. Ilus. ###

CIS 93-950 Fernando R.
Pesticides in Sri Lanka: Documentation of selected literature and legal aspects
This book is a collection of selected literature and legal documentation concerning pesticides use in Sri Lanka. The literature covers general and economic aspects; methods of pest control in agriculture, especially in rice, vegetables and tea production; occupational exposure to pesticides and safety and health at work; and medical and clinical aspects of pesticide poisoning. The legal documentation includes the Control of Pesticides Act No.33 of 1980, the additional regulations of 1985, a list of prohibited pesticides and the list of products registered under the Act including their common names, trade names, formulations and uses.
Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 14, Rotunda Gardens, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka, 1989. ix, 255p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-917 Clifford N.J., Nies A.S.
Organophosphate poisoning from wearing a laundered uniform previously contaminated with parathion
The occurrence of 3 cases of organophosphate poisoning within a 2-week period in a pesticide-formulating plant was traced to the persistence of a high concentration of parathion in a single pair of contaminated coveralls, despite repeated washings. Significantly large amounts of parathion were absorbed through the skin from the soiled clothing. Recommendations are given for the proper handling of contaminated clothing, effective methods of cleansing the skin and treatment of organophosphate poisoning.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 1 Dec. 1989, Vol.262, No.21, p.3035-3036. 16 ref.

CIS 91-1659
Health and Safety Executive
In-situ timber treatment using timber preservatives - Health, safety and environmental precautions
Contents of this guidance note: objectives and extent of remedial timber treatment; types of wood preservatives and their uses; training of professional users; responsibilities of employers, employees and the self-employed; site survey and selection of treatment; preventive measures (correct storage and transport, precautions for other persons affected by the work, safe place of work and safe means of access, work in confined spaces, contamination of water supply, dust control, fumes and skin contact, explosion and fire, electrocution, procedures after treatment). Appendices provide a list of relevant legislation and an outline of first-aid treatment for contaminated persons.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 7p.

CIS 91-736
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 88-48. Aldrin is a carcinogenic agent (LD50 = 39mg/kg). Toxic if inhalated, ingested or absorbed through skin. Long-term exposure can cause hepatic damage and epileptic symptoms. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R24, R25, R103, S1, S2, S13, S28, S45, S103.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 91-897 Jitsunari F., Asakawa F., Nakajima T., Shimada J., Ogata M.
Determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol levels in the urine of termite control workers using chlorpyrifos
Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been used to control termites since regulatory measures against the use of chlordanes in Japan were taken in September 1989. An improved gas chromatographic (GC) method for the assay of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in the urine was developed for the biological monitoring of exposure to chlorpyrifos. Urinary TCP was separated and determined precisely (coefficient of variation 4%) with high sensitivity (detection limit, 10ng/mL) and recovery (>90%) using a wide bore capillary column (WBC column). The accuracy and precision of the method are satisfactory. The time course of urinary excretion of TCP was followed in workers. Urinary TCP was low in the off-season and high in the busy season, and varied with the length of the working period. The TCP level showed a change reciprocal to the variations in the plasma cholinesterase activity. The urinary TCP level thus seems to reflect the extent of exposure to chlorpyrifos. The decrease in cholinesterase activity is probably due to exposure to chlorpyrifos.
Acta Medica Okayama, Oct. 1989, Vol.43, No.5, p.299-306. 15 ref.

CIS 91-890 Nehéz M., Nehéz I., Vetró G., Csankó J., Lévay S., Maurer J., Dési I.
Cytogenetic examination of commercial clerks who sell pesticides
Peszticideket is forgalmazó kereskedelmi alkalmazottak citogenetikai vizsgálata [en húngaro]
A cytological study was carried out among 35 commercial clerks (12 women and 23 men) exposed to pesticides in the course of their work and among 53 controls (23 women and 30 men). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the incidence of chromosome alterations.
Egészségtudomány, 1989, Vol.33, p.275-278. 41 ref.

CIS 91-551 Betta A., Maranelli G., Dal Ri C.
Pesticide immunotoxicity
Immunotossicità da pesticidi [en italiano]
Pesticides have been reported as altering immune functions in animals and man. The paper reviews published data from which it emerges that pesticide exposure is often associated with depressed humoral and cellular responses in mammals. The immunomodulating effects are affected by the route of administration and can also occur without general toxic effects, with a clear dose-effect correlation and for different dose levels. Immunotoxicity has also been investigated in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides: many kinds of effects are described, since many immunotoxicants have multiple effects on immune functions but emphasis is placed on the importance of further studies carried out in workplace situations where exposure levels can be more accurately measured.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.80, No.5, p.381-389. 65 ref.

CIS 91-525 Sunaga M., Yoshida M., Ueda T., Kosaka M., Hara I.
Relationship between exposure to chlorpyrifos and concentration of urinary alkylphosphates in termite control workers
Shiroari bōjo sagyōsha ni okeru kurorupirihosu no bakuro to nyōchū arukiru rinsan nōdo to no kankei [en japonés]
A study was made of workers spraying chlorpyrifos (CP) both under floors and around houses. All under-floor sprayers wore respirators. CP levels in air near the breathing zone, amounts of CP in contact with skin, and urinary alkyl phosphate (diethyl phosphate and diethyl thiophosphate) levels were higher in the under-floor sprayers. The total urinary alkyl phosphate level was more closely correlated with the amounts of CP in contact with skin than with the personal ambient CP level. Respiratory absorption of CP was prevented by the use of a respirator, so the urinary alkyl phosphates were mainly derived from the dermal absorption of CP. Biological monitoring using urinary alkyl phosphate levels is a useful index for CP exposure.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1989, Vol.31, No.3, p.142-149. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 90-1990 Organophosphorus pesticides: An epidemiological study
This report on organophosphorus pesticides is composed of two parts. One part (the core protocol) was developed because of the need, pointed out by earlier WHO studies, for epidemiological assessment of the effects of long-term, low-level exposures and for improved surveillance, monitoring and control of toxic exposures. The core protocol provides the framework and standardised methods for observing and documenting health impairment in workers and other populations exposed to organophosphorus compounds. The information collected is meant to contribute to the measurement of exposure-effect relationships. The other part of the report serves as a companion document and summarises preliminary findings and practical experience gained from the pilot phase of the core protocol by participating institutions in Europe.
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Environmental Health Service, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København, Denmark, 1987. 138p. 39 ref.

CIS 90-1643
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Allethrins - Allethrin, d-Allethrin, Bioallethrin, S-Bioallethrin
Allethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used mainly for the control of household insects. Topics covered in this review include chemical and physical properties and analytical methods, sources and distribution in the environment, kinetics and metabolism, effects on environmental organisms and experimental animals, and evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment. No data are available on the effects of allethrins on man, although these substances have been used for many years with no toxic effects reported. It is concluded that with proper use and reasonable safety precautions, allethrins are unlikely to present a hazard to the general population or those occupationally exposed. Environmental problems are only likely to arise in the event of misuse or spillage.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 75p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 10.00.

CIS 90-1642
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Resmethrins - Resmethrin, Bioresmethrin, Cisresmethrin
This review opens with general information on the properties of resmethrin and its isomers, analytical methods and sources of environmental pollution including production and use patterns, residues in food and fat and residues in domestic animals. This is folowed by a review of what is known about degradation of resmethrins in the environment, kinetics and metabolism, effects on environmental organisms and experimental animals, and an evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment. No data have been reported on the toxicity of these substances for humans. It is concluded that with proper use and reasonable safety precautions, resmethrins are unlikely to present a hazard to the general population or to those occupationally exposed. With recommended application rates, it is unlikely that levels of resmethrins or their degradation products will be environmentally significant.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 79p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 10.00.

CIS 90-1641
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Aldrin and dieldrin
Much of the data presented relates to the transport, distribution and degradation of these chemicals in the environment, their migration into foods and presence in humans and in wildlife species. Other topics include kinetics and metabolism, effects on environmental organismes, experimental animals and humans, and an evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment. The report concludes that the present level of exposure constitutes no health risk to the general population. Recommended precautions should be observed to minimise worker exposure.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 335p. Bibl. Price: CHF 34.00.

CIS 90-1637 Dimethoate
Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide produced in many countries for use against a broad range of insects in agriculture, and for control of the housefly. While the general population is not normally exposed to dimethoate, occupational exposure may occur during manufacture, formulation and use, mainly through inhalation and dermal absorption. Dimethoate is not persistent in the environment and its toxicity in aquatic organisms and birds has been reported to be moderate to high. Animal experiments have shown dimethoate to be moderately toxic. The lethal oral dose for human beings has been estimated to be in the range of 50-500mg/kg body weight. Topics covered in this review include environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on experimental animals and on man; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 85p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 12.00.

CIS 90-1636 Dichlorvos
Dichlorvos is an organophosphate widely used as an insecticide. It is readily absorbed by mammals and readily metabolised in the liver. Topics covered in this literature review are: physical and chemical properties and analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms; effects on experimental animals; effects on man; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment. It is concluded that exposure to dichlorvos via food and drinking water is negligible and does not constitute a health hazard. Continuous exposure of young children and diseased or elderly people in poorly ventilated rooms should be avoided. Dichlorvos and its formulations do not contribute an undue hazard to those occupationally exposed, provided adequate precautions are taken.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 157p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 16.00.

CIS 90-1568 Rastogi S.K., Gupta B.N., Husain T., Mathur N., Garg N.
Study of respiratory impairment among pesticide sprayers in mango plantations
Pulmonary function studies were conducted on 489 pesticide workers in India engaged in spraying operations on mango plantations. These workers were exposed to a variety of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. A reference group consisting of 208 controls was taken from the same area. The results of the study showed 36.5 and 41.5% prevalence of respiratory impairment in the exposed workers and in the controls, respectively. The most common pulmonary impairment among the exposed subjects (18.8%) and controls (16.9%) was of the restrictive type, followed by mixed ventilatory defect. Bronchial obstruction affected 2.5 and 3.7% of the exposed and control populations, respectively. The study revealed that occupational exposure to pesticides had a direct bearing on the respiratory impairment identified in the exposed workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.16, No.5, p.529-538. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-1281 Goedicke H.J.
Volatilisation of pesticides from plants and soil as a potential source of exposure
Verdunstung von Pflanzenschutzmitteln von Pflanzen und Boden als potentielle Expositionsquelle [en alemán]
The volatilisation of pesticides from plant and soil surfaces causes an exposure of men and environmental contamination. Saturation concentration, volatilisation rate and volatilisation half-life for various insecticides are calculated. Values are given for open-air and greenhouse concentrations of substances.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1989, Vol.35, No.3, p.146-148. 15 ref.

CIS 90-1283 Sasagawa M.
Agricultural chemicals in cholesterol gallstones - with special reference to an epidemiological study on cancer of the biliary tract
Tanno koresterōru kessekichū no zanryū nōyaku bunseki - tokuni tandōgan no ekigakuteki shiten kara [en japonés]
Niigata prefecture (Japan) has a very high mortality rate from biliary tract cancer. There is a correlation between the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for biliary tract cancer and the amount of certain agricultural chemicals consumed. Agricultural chemicals were detected in cholesterol gallstones of 99 patients, including 11 patients with gallbladder cancer. DLD, pp'-DDT, β-BHC and PCB were detected in the gallstones, even though the epidemiological study showed no positive correlation between them and the SMR for biliary tract cancer. MCPA, MCPB, CNP and simetryn, which did show significant correlations with the SMR, were not detected. Further investigation of the biliary excretion of the metabolites of these chemicals is indicated.
Niigata Medical Journal, Feb. 1989, Vol.103, No. 2, p.104-111. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 90-1225 Wiggins P., Schenker M.B., Green R., Samuels S.
Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice
462 female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by questionnaire to obtain details of hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anaesthetic gas (94%), X-rays (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rate of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). 41% of respondents who reported taking X-rayss did not wear film badges, and 27% of the respondents exposed to anaesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anaesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rayss, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures which are common in veterinary practice. Measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.16, No.1, p.55-66. Bibl.

CIS 90-1291 Lengerich S.K., Burroughs F.G.
Near real-time monitoring of potential dermal exposure during backpack herbicide spraying
Spraying was performed under typical field research conditions and monitoring was accomplished using water-sensitive strips attached to the applicator on 6 regions of the body. 24 trials were monitored with distances sprayed varying from 30 to 90m. The rate of spray exposure was assumed constant. Significant exposure was observed on the lower half of the body, while amounts collected on the upper half were minimal. Effects of wind speed and orientation were negligible, as tested, although the height of the boom above the ground had a significant impact on exposure levels. The study investigated only potential dermal exposure and not actual exposure and absorption. The water-sensitive paper strips proved to be an inexpensive and reliable monitoring tool. It was concluded that backpack pesticide spraying can be a safe procedure for an applicator wearing appropriate protective clothing.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1989, Vol.50, No.10, p.516-519. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 90-931 Ripke F.O.
Crop protection with lower exposure of personnel and environmental pollution
Pflanzenschutzgeräte anwender- und umweltschonend [en alemán]
The pesticide spraying equipment described is characterised by a "crop tilter" and a flat fan nozzle which generates large drops. Both features help to reduce dispersion of pesticides by the wind and thus environmental pollution. For pesticide application to fruit trees and vines a spraying facility is described which encloses the part of the plant to be sprayed and recycles pesticide run-off caught in it.
Landtechnik, 1989, Vol.44, No.4, p.150-153. Illus.

CIS 90-840 Saurez L., Weiss N.S., Martin J.
Primary liver cancer death and occupation in Texas
A death certificate case-control study of primary liver cancer and occupation was conducted to determine if the high risk of liver cancer in Mexican-Americans can be explained by farmworker exposures to pesticides. The association of liver cancer with the petroleum and chemical industry and with other potentially high-risk occupations was also examined. For the years 1969 to 1980, 1,742 deaths from primary liver cancer were identified for Texas males. Controls were randomly selected from other causes of deaths among males excluding all neoplasms. Risk for farmworkers based on age, race, and ethnicity-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) was not excessive but was larger than the risk for farmers. Excess risk in the petroleum and chemical manufacturing industries was confined to oil refinery workers . Other occupations with twofold risk or greater were plumbers and pipefitters, butchers and meat cutters, textile workers and longshoremen.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.167-175. Bibl.

CIS 90-853 Ames R.G., Brown S.K., Mengle D.C., Kahn E., Stratton J.W., Jackson R.J.
Cholinesterase activity depression among California agricultural pesticide applicators
Cholinesterase activity measurements in California of 542 agricultural pesticide applicators under medical supervision during the first 9 months of 1985 were analysed. 26 workers, 4.8% of the sample, had cholinesterase values at or below the California threshold values for removal from continued exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides (60% of baseline for red blood cell cholinesterase and 50% of baseline for plasma cholinesterase activity). Eight of these 26 workers, 31.5% had pesticide-related illnesses. Pesticides most frequently associated with cholinesterase depressions exceeding California threshold values included mevinphos (Phosdrin), oxydemeton methyl (Metasystox-R), methomyl (Lannate), and acephate (Orthene); these pesticides included organophosphates in toxicity categories I and II and one carbamate in toxicity category I.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.143-150. Bibl.

CIS 90-930 Osterloh J.D., Wang R., Schneider F., Maddy K.
Biological monitoring of dichloropropene: Air concentrations, urinary metabolite, and renal enzyme excretion
Fifteen applicators of dichloropropene (DCP) were studied for personal air exposure to DCP, excretion of the metabolite of DCP (3CNAC), and excretion of the renal tubular enzyme, N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG). Each was studied for four 6-8h consecutive intervals following baseline determination of 3CNAC and NAG excretion. In accord with pilot data, 24-h urinary excretion of 3CNAC (mg) correlated well with exposure product for DCP. A more precise correlation of the air exposure product with urinary excretion of 3CNAC was discerned by using the morning urine after the previous day of exposure. Four workers had clinically elevated activity of NAG in all of their urine collections after baseline. Nine workers showed greater than 25% increases in NAG excretion when compared to baseline. Dichloropropene air exposure products of >700mg.min/m3 or excretion of >1.5mg 3CNAC/d distinguished abnormally high daily excretion of NAG. These data demonstrate a firm positive relationship between air exposure and internal exposure, and a possible subclinical nephrotoxic effect in DCP workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1989, Vol.44, No.4, p.207-213. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 90-443 Attention all agricultural workers - Guide to farm chemical safety
Guidance brochure on the safe use of pesticides, aimed at farm workers.
Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Nov. 1989. 4p.

CIS 90-442 Guardino Sola X.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Control de la contaminación en la fabricación de pesticidas - Efectos sobre la salud
Contents of this manual and technical information note: exposure to pesticides; toxicological aspects; environmental and biological monitoring; environmental criteria for exposure to pesticides (exposure limits in the USA, USSR, Spain; criteria followed by the EEC), includes a list of TLVs (ACGIH, USA) and MAC values (GOST, USSR) for ca. 110 pesticides; biological evaluation of exposure; effects on health; determination of pesticides in air; protective measures.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1989. 64p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 90-552 Harville J., Que Hee S.S.
Permeation of a 2,4-D isooctyl ester formulation through neoprene, nitrile, and Tyvek protection materials
Tyvek (laminated saranax) and unsupported nitrile gloves gave protection from penetration against formulation concentrates and aqueous emulsions of Esteron 99 [isooctyl ester of(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid)] under conditions simulating extremes of field conditions. Neoprene gloves, whether unsupported or supported, lined or unlined, were permeated much more than unsupported nitrile gloves. An initial penetration was observed for all the materials. Degradation occurred in the neoprene and supported golve materials. The selection procedure was sufficient to predict correctly that nitrile would protect better than neoprene; however, direct experimental confirmation was necessary to select the type of nitrile material which provided optimum protection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1989, Vol.50, No.8, p.438-446. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 90-38 DDT
Chemical information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA, 8h TWA) = 1mg/m3 (skin). Toxicity: skin absorption; irritation of skin and eyes; neurotoxic effects; genotoxic effects.
Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1989, Vol.51, No.12, 4p. Insert.

CIS 90-228 Wiklund K., Dich J., Holm L.E., Eklund G.
Risk of cancer in pesticide applicators in Swedish agriculture
The risk of cancer was analysed in a cohort of 20,245 licensed pesticide applicators (99% male) in agriculture who had licences issued between 1965 and 1976. The mean follow up time was 12.2 years. 558 malignant tumours were found (649.8 expected), which resulted in a statistically significantly decreased standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI):0.79-0.93). Significantly decreased risks of cancer were also found for liver (SIR = 0.45, 95% CI:0.18-0.93), pancreas (SIR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26-0.87), lung (SIR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35-0.68) and kidney (SIR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.84). SIR for testicular cancer was increased (18 cases, SIR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.92-2.45) and increased with period since licence. For those born in 1935 or later a non-significant increased overall risk of cancer was observed. Comparisons were made with agricultural workers in general since pesticide applicators are mainly farmers that use or have used pesticides to a greater extent. Higher risks for pesticide applicators were found for testicular cancer, tumours of the nervous system and endocrine glands, and Hodgkin's disease.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.46, No.11, p.809-814. Illus. 33 ref.

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