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1991

CIS 91-1785 Aldicarb
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; dispnoea; nervous and respiratory disorders.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1975
Health and Safety Commission
The safe use of pesticides for non-agricultural purposes - Approved Code of Practice
This Approved Code of Practice provides practical guidance on the control of exposure to pesticides at work with respect to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1988. Contents: scope, application, interpretation and definitions; duties; hazard assessment (deciding to use a pesticide and choice of the right one, information used in making an assessment, what an assessment involves and when it should be reviewed); prevention or control of exposure (substitution, engineering and operational controls, personal protective equipment); use and maintenance of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; record keeping. An additional note gives guidance on the safe disposal of pesticides.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 45p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 91-1955
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Aldicarb
This criteria document surveys the available literature on the toxicology of aldicarb, a highly toxic pesticide. Accidental poisoning and a controlled laboratory study resulted in cholinergic symptoms including blurred vision, muscle weakness, nausea, dyspnoea and diarrhoea. Intoxication and poisoning due to occupational exposure are known to have occurred as a result of a neglect of recommended safety precautions. It is recommended that the handling and application of aldicarb should be undertaken by trained applicators and its use in agriculture should be restricted to situations where less hazardous substitutes are unavailable. A summary of the document is given in both French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 130p. ca. 230 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (in developing countries: CHF 11.20).

CIS 91-1610 Garcia E.G., de Almeida W.F.
Exposure of Brazilian rural workers to agricultural chemicals
Exposição dos trabalhadores rurais aos agrotóxicos no Brasil [en portugués]
Presentation of data on the potential exposure of rural workers in Brazil to agricultural chemicals (principally pesticides and herbicides). The data are on the consumption of such chemicals and the number of rural workers, by state, agricultural product (cotton, rice, cocoa, coffee, sugar-cane, horticulture, millet, soya beans, wheat), and type and size of farms.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.72, p.7-11.

CIS 91-1609 Jauhiainen A., Räsänen K., Sarantila R., Nuutinen J., Kangas J.
Occupational exposure of forest workers to glyphosate during brush saw spraying work
The purpose of this study was to measure forest workers' exposure to the herbicide glyphosate during silvicultural clearing. Both the exposed (study) group and the nonexposed (control) group contained 5 persons who were medically examined before and after their 1-week working period (including laboratory tests) for possible health effects. In addition, exposure to glyphosate was measured in the study group from samples taken from the workers' breathing zone and from urine samples. The laboratory tests and urinary glyphosate analyses were repeated for the exposed group 3 weeks later, when the men had entirely stopped their work with the herbicide. Exposure to glyphosate through the workers' breathing zone was low. The highest value found was 15.7µg/m3. In this study, a biological monitoring method was also developed to monitor the workers' exposure to glyphosate. Urine concentrations were under the gas chromatographic detection level of <0.1ng/µL (<1.0µmol/L). No major differences were noted, either in medical examinations or in the laboratory tests performed, between the exposed and control groups before and after the work period.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.61-64. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1622 Economic instruments of control in environmental policy: Nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium in phosphorus fertilizers
This document represents part of a report by a Swedish commission set up to analyse the possibilities for increased usage of economic instruments of control in environmental policy. Contents: 1. Nickel-cadmium batteries (environmental problems; production and use of cadmium and current measures against its spread; types of NiCd batteries and their application; collection of discarded batteries; alternative to the NiCd battery). 2. Cadmium in phosphorus fertilisers (general observations on cadmium input into Swedish arable land and the production of phosphorus fertilisers; alternative instruments of control and their evaluation). The Commission's proposals, including the introduction of an environmental charge, are summarised.
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 171 85 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 33p. Illus.

CIS 91-904 Forget G.
Pesticides and the third world
This paper explores some of the issues concerned with pesticide intoxication in the Third World and suggests some avenues of research likely to reduce the risk faced by exposed populations. The characteristics of several classes of pesticide are reviewed (organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, herbicides, organochlorinated pesticides, pyrethroids, botanical pesticides) along with reported health effects and results of toxicity studies. Legal aspects are also discussed along with application technologies, surveillance programmes and community participation, and risk factors related to the tropical climate.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1991, Vol.32, No.1, p.11-31. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-792 Safety and health in the use of agrochemicals: A guide
Contents of this training manual, aimed primarily at workers in developing countries: safety and health aspects (how dangerous substances enter the body, classification, labelling and identification, safe handling and use, disposal of waste, operational control and use of personal protective equipment); poisoning by agrochemicals, its management and emergency responses (types and symptoms of poisoning and injury, first-aid treatment, role of poison information centres, effects of temperature and fire emergencies); roles and responsibilities of manufacturers, government agencies, retailers, employers, workers and the public; education and training; case histories illustrating accidents resulting from improper use of agrochemicals in developing countries.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. 79p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.

1990

CIS 09-754
Health and Safety Commission
Recommendations for training users of non-agricultural pesticides
A first part of this booklet reproduces the relevant articles of legislation and regulations pertaining to the responsibilities of employers to protect the health of workers at work, and in particular to provide training to users of pesticides. It then presents training modules tailored to specific sectors where pesticides are used in non-agricultural settings (wood preservation, public health, biocides for surface treatment, antifouling paints, fumigation and food storage).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 1990. 26p. Illus. Price: GBP 2.00.

CIS 99-381 Decreto especial nº20/1990 que estipula el registro y el control de los pesticidas [Etiopía]
Special Decree No.20/1990 to provide for the registration and control of pesticide [Ethiopia] [en inglés]
Temas tratados: almacenamiento; aprobación; declaración de los accidentes de trabajo; declaración de las sustancias peligrosas; eliminación de residuos peligrosos; embalaje y llenado; Etiopía; etiquetado; ley; notas de aviso; pesticidas; producción de pesticidas; prohibición de utilización; sanciones.
Negarit Gazeta of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1 set. 1990, 49o año, n°21, p.149-155.

CIS 99-257
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Guía de salud y seguridad del bentazone
Bentazon health and safety guide [en inglés]
Este documento proporciona consejos prácticos sobre la limitación de la exposición a bentazone. Se incluye un sumario de información sobre seguridad química para mostrarlo en el puesto de trabajo. En el sumario: productos químicos agrarios; bentazone; contención de vertidos; eliminación de residuos nocivos; protección frente a incendios; primeros auxilios; ingeniería de la salud; riesgos para la salud; herbicidas; IPCS; legislación; niveles permisibles; almacenamiento; efectos tóxicos.
Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), Servicio de Distribución y Ventas, 1211 Genève 27, Suiza, 1990. 18p. Ilus. Precio: CHF 5,00 (CHF 3,50 países en desarrollo).

CIS 98-1390
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Cialotrine
Cyhalothrin [en inglés]
Resúmenes en francés y español. Temas tratados: cialotrine; documentación básica; efectos neurológicos; efectos tóxicos; estudio bibliográfico; IPCS; productos químicos agrícolas; toxicología.
Organización Mundial de la Salud, Servicio de Distribución y Ventas, 1211 Genève 27, Suiza, 1990. 106p. Ilus. 136 ref. Precio: CHF 14,00 (CHF 9,80: países en desarrollo).

CIS 96-1266 Normas para redactar etiquetas de plaguicidas y folletos técnicos
Contenido de estas normas dirigidas a todas las personas encargadas de redactar soportes de información (etiquetas, fichas de datos) destinados a los usuarios de pesticidas: diseño de las etiquetas según las normas en vigor (incluyendo listas de control); redacción y presentación clara de la información (estructura y formato del texto, estilo y corrección de pruebas, tipos y tamaños de letras, ilustraciones, empleo del color, revisión, calidad del papel).
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, set. 1990. 47p. Ilus. 8 ref.

CIS 95-100 Guía de seguridad de la "Shell Agriculture"
Shell Agriculture Safety Guide [en inglés]
Esta guía es la principal fuente de información sobre los productos agroquímicos (sobre todo los pesticidas) comercializados por la compañía Shell. Se compone de 4 partes: 1 -Recomendaciones de carácter general; precauciones, toxicidad, almacenamiento, transporte, procedimiento en caso de accidente, protección personal, protección del medio ambiente, seguridad en la utilización, eliminación de los residuos, emergencias, actuación en caso de intoxicación. 2 - Consejos médicos detallados en intoxicaciones por: organofosfatos, carbamatos, compuestos organoclorados (OC), piretroides y rodenticidas anticoagulantes (incluyendo intoxicación de animales domésticos). 3 - Métodos analíticos: actividad de las colinesterasas en sangre humana completa; compuestos OC en la sangre; inhibidores de la colinesterasa en el agua; determinación del tiempo de protrombina en sangre con el método "Normotest". 4 - Fichas de datos toxicológicos sobre 40 sustancias o grupos de sustancias: cada ficha contiene los datos de: nombre(s) del producto, clase de riesgo establecido por la OMS, tipos de formulación, resumen de los riesgos, almacenamiento, transporte, protección personal, protección medioambiental, seguridad de utilización, residuos, situaciones de emergencia (escapes y desbordamientos, etc.), procedimientos en caso de intoxicación, recomendaciones médicas.
Shell International Chemical Company Ltd., Crop Protection Division, Shell Centre, London SE1 7PG, Reino Unido, 1990. x, 253p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice.

CIS 94-655
Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional
Investigación sobre intoxicación de trabajadores agrícolas por plaguicidas
In-depth study of the problem of pesticide poisoning in a developing country like Bolivia. After a survey of demographic, political, economic and health conditions in the country, the book describes the parameters of the study (extent of pesticide use in Bolivia, conditions of their use, epidemiology of poisoning, training and information of workers, methods for evaluating changes in cholinesterase activity and cellular damage in exposed workers, sample selection). Main problems encountered: low level of education and training among agricultural labourers; little use of protective equipment; unsafe storage and preparation practices; exposure of minors to pesticides; high risk of intoxication, as shown by lowered cholinesterase activity and incidence of cellular damage. Recommendations are made for an improvement of the situation. In annex: list of the principal pesticides used in Bolivia (with LD50 and type noted); result of water quality assessments in various localities; list of prohibited pesticides in Bolivia; results of cytogenetic tests on the sample population.
Ministerio de Previsión Social y Salud Pública, La Paz, Bolivia, 1990. 160p. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 93-1629 Scarselli R., Palmi S., Paolucci V.
Chemical and toxicological data on the principal organophosphorus pesticides and a proposal for methods for medical surveillance methods and the biological monitoring of workers exposed in agriculture
Inquadramento chimico-tossicologico dei principali pesticidi organofosforici e proposta di metodiche per la sorveglianza sanitaria ed il controllo biologico dei lavoratori esposti in agricoltura [en italiano]
The use of biological indicators capable of monitoring the exposure of farm workers to organophosphorus pesticides is considered for the purpose of evaluating the risk of even limited exposure. The compounds are classified according to the presence of alkyl or phenolic groups and of sulfur, extrapolated from the list of Presidential Decree No.233/88 and the subsequent Ministerial Decree No.258 of August 2nd 1990, implementing relevant EEC directives. Data are presented in tabular format: type of substance (with major pesticides named); toxicological classification; toxic effects; recommended surveillance methods (biological indicators of exposure and effect, tests to be administered at the first medical exam and during periodic visits).
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.2, No.3, p.65-84. 14 ref.

CIS 93-1494 Adams R.W.
Ministry of Environment, Pesticide Control Program
Handbook for pesticide applicators and dispensers
Intended as a reference manual for pesticide applicators and others who require basic information on pesticides or safe pesticide use, this updated version of an earlier edition includes new standards for safe pesticide transport, storage and disposal. More information is also provided on pesticide properties, pest control objectives and pest management as well as new chapter on equipment calibration. A quiz is included at the end of each chapter for the purposes of testing students on their knowledge of the information covered. Glossary of pest control terms.
Crown Publications Inc., 546 Yates Street, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 1K8, Canada, 5th ed., 1990. viii, 253p. Illus. Index.

CIS 93-1281 Garrandés Asprón R.
Pesticidas - Repercusiones en la salud
Health hazards of pesticides and their toxicological mechanism are studied from a biochemical point of view. In this respect, carcinogenic effects of pesticides, as well as their effect on the enzyme cholinesterase, are discussed. Eye and visual function disorders are also indicated. General recommendations on prevention are given.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.37, No.149, p.49-52. 6 ref.

CIS 92-1562 Dési I., Nehéz M., Palotás M., Tempfli A., Hogye A., Vetró G.
Experience of health status surveillance of pesticide workers in Hungary
Potential dermal exposure to pesticides was studied in 26 male workers. In addition, epidemiological studies were conducted in three south-eastern agricultural counties of Hungary, involving 189 men working with pesticides in plant protection, both indoors and in the fields, and 16 women in contact with these substances. There were no cases of acute poisoning, nor were there any alterations detected in routine clinical and laboratory tests. For early detection of hidden genetic damage, chromosome aberration tests were performed: the number of chromosome aberrations was higher due to increases of hypodiploid cells in the exposed subjects. The probability of chromosome damage was also demonstrated in the few women tested. In previous studies of immune function in some of the men, the immunological tests gave positive results. The importance of frequent screening of exposed workers is emphasised.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.517-523. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-1588 Settimi L., Boffetta P., Comba P., Terracini B.
Epidemiologic study for the evaluation of the cancerogenic risk associated with pesticides
Proposal for a large-scale case-control study of the carcinogenic risk associated with pesticide exposure. During a two-year period (1990-1992) cases of cancer in people between the ages of 20 and 74 are to be identified in five Italian hospitals in a region where agricultural workers constitute at least 10% of the active male population. For each case, a detailed questionnaire (including questions related to job history) is to be administered to the patient. The answers are to be compared with those from a referent group. It is hoped that the existence or absence of cancer risk associated with specific types of agricultural work can be confirmed as a result of this study. The total number of cancer cases investigated is expected to be ca. 2,200 per year. This study is likely to be a powerful tool for the identification of cause-effect relationships for cancers among agricultural workers, should such relationships exist.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.494-498. 13 ref.

CIS 92-1640 Maroni M., Barbieri F., Colombo M.G., La Ferla F.
The International Centre for Pesticide Safety
The International Centre for Pesticide Safety (ICPS) was inaugurated in March 1990. Co-ordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and in collaboration with research and university institutions, the Centre operates in the following areas of activity: information and documentation on pesticide toxicity; epidemiological, toxicological and clinical research; training and education; laboratory research. ICPS is also a centre of meetings and courses on permanent education. This paper reports on the activities carried out so far and on the future programmes of ICPS.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.489-493.

CIS 92-1637 Van Sittert N.J., Dumas E.P.
Field study on exposure and health effects of an organophosphate pesticide for maintaining registration in the Philippines
Exposure of 21 pesticide sprayers in the Philippines to monocrotophos (also known as azodrin, an organophosphorus pesticide) was evaluated over a 3-day period. Although ample evidence of exposure (dermal and oral) was found, and plasma cholinesterase levels in eight of the sprayers were below 50% of baseline values, there was no evidence of adverse health effects in any of the sprayers, and there were no cases of clinically significant inhibition of whole blood or red blood cell cholinesterase activity. The importance of proper spraying technique and adequate use of personal protective equipment is emphasised.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.463-473. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 92-1636 Ambridge E.M., Haines I.H., Lambert M.R.K.
Operator contamination during pesticide application to tropical crops
Investigations to determine dermal contamination of rural farmers during pesticide application to tropical crops are described. Contamination patterns and levels vary according to crop type and height, and application method. Non-toxic model pesticides and tracer dyes were applied to rice, vegetable, mango, cotton and coffee crops in the Philippines, Thailand, Tanzania and Malawi, using knapsack and ULV spinning disc sprayers. Tracer dye falling on the operator during application was measured for each type of crop sprayed. Mean gross dermal deposits of dye were: rice 97mg/h; mango 257mg/h; vegetables 103mg/h; cotton 220mg/h; coffee 95mg/h. The implications of these gross dermal deposit figures in relation to pesticide contamination and hazard are discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.457-462. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 92-918 Wolfe W.H., Michalek J.E., Miner J.C., Rahe A., Silva J., Thomas W.F., Grubbs W.D., Lustik M.B., Karrison T.G., Roegner R.H., Williams D.E.
Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam. I - Physical health; II - Mortality
In a 20-year comprehensive study, the health and noncombat mortality of US Air Force veterans responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Viet Nam were compared with those of a group of non-exposed veterans. At the second follow-up examination in 1987, both groups were similar in reported health problems, diagnosed skin conditions, and hepatic, cardiovascular and immune profiles, but exposed subjects had experienced significantly more basal cell carcinomas than comparison subjects. The mortality study showed no significant group differences regarding accidental death, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths and no evidence of increased mortality among the exposed group.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 10 Oct. 1990, Vol.264, No.14, p.1824-1836. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 92-719 Federal Act of July 5, 1990 on Transactions with Plant Protection Products (Plant Protection Products Act) [Austria]
Bundesgesetz vom 5. Juli 1990 über den Verkehr mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln (Pflanzenschutzmittelgesetz - PMG) [en alemán]
Contents of this law on pesticides and similar products: definitions; placement on the market of plant-protection products; authorisations; trade names; labelling provisions; packaging; establishment of a Plant Protection Products Register; yearly publication of an Official List of Plant Protection Products (Amtliches Pflanzenschutzmittelverzeichnis); advertising; notification obligations; procedures for importation; inspection; confidentiality of information; penalties; transitional provisions.
Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, 31 July 1990, No.193, p.3205-3219. English version in a translation by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Youth and Family, Untere Donaustrasse 11, 1020 Wien, Austria, 1990, 29p.

CIS 92-551 Albracht G., Bolm-Audorff U.
Health problems due to handling pesticides
Gesundheitliche Probleme beim Umgang mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln [en alemán]
Acute and chronic toxicity as well as the sensitising, mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effects of pesticides are reviewed. A list of pesticides with known or suspected carcinogenic effect on humans is provided. The lack of compliance with the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1986, by agricultural and horticultural enterprises is criticised. No measurements of pesticides in the breathing zone of workers as required by the ordinance are taken and exposed workers receive no medical examinations.
WSI Mitteilungen, 1990, Vol.43, No.12, p.777-783. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 92-540 Maschewsky W.
Neurotoxic effects of substances occurring at the workplace
Nervenschäden durch Arbeitsstoffe [en alemán]
The occupationally induced diseases of the nervous system and their symptoms are listed in a table. The most important groups of substances with neurotoxic effects, such as heavy metals, pesticides and organic solvents, are specified. Thirteen industrial branches are mentioned in which exposure to neurotoxic substances may occur, including the chemical industry, the metal-working, automobile and printing industries and agriculture and horticulture. The reasons why occupational neurotoxic effects usually remain undetected or are misdiagnosed and the available tests for their detection are presented.
WSI Mitteilungen, 1990, Vol.43, No.12, p.762-769. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 92-547 Vineis P., Settimi L., Seniori Costantini A.
Exposure to agrochemicals and cancer risk
Esposizione a fitofarmaci e rischio oncogeno [en italiano]
Review article on the association of cancer risk with exposure to agrochemicals. Agricultural workers generally show a lower cancer mortality compared with other occupational categories. This observation is currently believed to be due to lower cigarette consumption. However, for some types of tumours (lymphoma, leukaemia, myeloma, soft tissue sarcoma, skin, prostate, encephalus and stomach tumours), mortality is higher among agricultural workers. The only chemical substances used in agriculture for which the IARC Monographs have established the existence of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity for man are arsenical compounds and mineral oils; for other substances there is clear evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals, mostly in the absence of human data. In the case of exposure to phenoxyacetic herbicides, the available epidemiological evidence is contradictory, with excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and soft tissue sarcoma reported in some studies but not in others. Cohort studies have been performed among insecticide production workers and spray operators (with excesses of lung tumour), and among grain processing workers (with excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in particular). A number of case-control studies are also available, especially concerning tumours of the lymphatic and haemopoietic systems and ovarian tumours.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.81, No.5, p.363-372. 27 ref.

CIS 91-1980 International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (Amended version) [FAO]
Code international de conduite pour la distribution et l'utilisation des pesticides (Version amendée) [FAO] [en francés]
This international code is designed to encourage responsible trade practices, and safe and efficient use of pesticides. It covers: definitions; pesticide management; testing of pesticides; reducing health hazards; regulatory and technical requirements; availability and use; distribution and trade; information exchange and prior informed consent; labelling, packaging, storage and disposal; advertising; monitoring and observance of the Code. The full copy of FAO Conference Resolution 10/85, which adopted the Code, is appended.
Publications Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, Italy, 1990. 34p. 16 ref.

CIS 91-1874 Restrepo M., Muñoz N., Day N.E., Parra J.E., De Romero L., Nguyen-Dinh X.
Prevalence of adverse reproductive outcomes in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Colombia
A prevalence survey of adverse reproductive outcomes was carried out in a population of 8867 persons (2951 men and 5916 women) who had been working in the floriculture industry in the Bogotá area of Colombia for at least 6 months. These workers were exposed to 127 different types of pesticides. The prevalence rates for spontaneous abortion, prematurity, stillbirths, and malformations were estimated for pregnancies occurring among the female workers and the wives of the male workers before and after they started working in floriculture, and these rates were related to various degrees of exposure. A moderate increase in the prevalence of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and congenital malformations was detected for pregnancies occurring after the start of work in floriculture.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1990, Vol.16, No.4, p.232-238. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 91-1462 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-1457 Thallium metal
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects; delayed effects. Long-term exposure effects: disorders of the vision, lungs, kidneys, liver and central nervous system; may cause birth defects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-1581 Goldburg R., Rissler J., Shand H., Hassebrook C.
Biotechnology's bitter harvest. Herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture
This report examines the extent of current herbicide use and research into herbicide-tolerant crops and trees and discusses the human health, environmental, social and economic aspects of herbicides and herbicide-tolerant plants. Alternative methods of weed control developed in the context of sustainable agriculture are outlined. Recommendations are made to discourage the development and adoption of herbicide-tolerant crops and trees.
The Biotechnology Working Group, USA, 1990. 73p. ca. 160 ref.

CIS 91-1554 Cantor K.P., Booze C.F.
Mortality among aerial pesticide applicators and flight instructors
A cohort mortality study was conducted of male aerial pesticide applicators and flight instructors identified from computerised Federal Aviation Administration (USA) medical examination records for 1965-1979. Vital status of 9,677 applicators and 9,727 instructors was determined through January 1, 1980, and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. The overall SMR was 127 for applicators (699 deaths) and 93 for instructors (454 deaths). Fatalities from non motor-vehicle accidents, mostly aircraft crashes, were in notable excess (SMR = 1,168 among applicators, 630 among instructors), whereas deaths from most chronic diseases, including all cancer, was below expectation (e.g., for arteriosclerotic heart disease, SMR = 52 among applicators and 50 among instructors). The ability of the study to assess cancer risk among applicators was limited by a relatively brief follow-up period. However, 8 applicators (SMR = 171), but only 1 flight instructor (SMR = 24), died of leukaemia, and small, non significant risk elevations for some other cancer sites among applicators were observed and warrant continued follow-up.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.45, No.5, p.295-302. 22 ref.

CIS 91-1634 Pesticide incidents investigated in 1989/90
This summary report deals with cases in Great Britain involving acute symptoms following pesticide exposure. Investigations include suspected poisoning during ground spraying and other agricultural operations, aerial spraying complaints, environmental incidents and incidents involving non-agricultural use of pesticides. Details provided include activity in progress and chemical being used, the number, sex and age of persons involved and a brief summary of the incident or nature of the complaint. Details are also given of enforcement action taken under the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985 along with the results of a survey of pesticide stores carried out by the Agricultural Inspectorate in October 1989.
Chief Inspectors Branch CI 2B, Health and Safety Executive, Daniel House, Trinity Road, Bootle L20 7HE, United Kingdom, July 1990. 78p.

CIS 91-1414 Decree No.98,816 of 11 Jan. 1990 concerning pesticides and their components [Brazil]
Decreto n°98.816, de 11 de jan. de 1990, ... sobre ... [os] agrotóxicos, seus componentes e afins ... [en portugués]
Decree implementing Act No.7802 of 11 July 1989. It concerns experimentation with and production, packaging, labelling, transportation, storage, sale, advertising, use, importation, exportation, waste treatment, registering, classification, control and inspection of pesticides used in agriculture. The Decree: assigns responsibilities to various federal ministries concerning pesticides; regulates the registration of pesticides (including the special case of pesticides undergoing testing) and of enterprises using them; prohibits pesticides causing certain health hazards; establishes rules for packaging, labelling and advertising; prescribes the supply of a product data sheet (use, toxicology, protective measures) together with the product; regulates regular inspection by government authorities; provides details on penalties and the implementation of the Decree.
Revista CIPA, Sep. 1990, Vol.11, No.130, p.48-57. Also in: Diário Oficial, 12 Jan. 1990, p.876.

CIS 91-1627
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for toxaphene
Acute inhalation exposure to toxaphene has been reported to cause stimulation of the central nervous system leading to convulsions and sometimes loss of consciousness. Several cases of fatal and nonfatal poisoning have been reported following ingestion of toxaphene or toxaphene-contaminated food; death is due to respiratory arrest following convulsive seizures. Long-term exposure can also result in neurological effects. Available evidence suggests that adequate doses of toxaphene can cause cancer in laboratory animals and may have a carcinogenic effects in humans. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. xii, 161p. Illus. ca. 310 ref.

CIS 91-1249
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for endrin and endrin aldehyde
Very limited studies were found on the systemic effects of endrin in humans; no information was found regarding effects of endrin aldehyde. Inhalation studies demonstrate that the nervous system is the primary target for endrin toxicity. Acute human poisonings following ingestion of endrin involved symptoms of central nervous system toxicity leading to sudden collapse and death. No long-term effects have been reported in exposed workers. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. 97p. Illus. 214 ref.

CIS 91-1228 He F., Zhang Z., Chen S., Sun J., Yao P., Liu L., Li Q.
Effects of combined exposure to pyrethroids and methamidophos on sprayers
Effects of exposure to pyrethroids combined with methamidophos were studied on 524 sprayers and compared with the effects on 1480 farmers spraying only pyrethroids. The results showed neither significant difference in the prevalence of adverse effects of acute intoxication between the two groups, nor inhibition of blood cholinesterase with sprayers with combined exposure. However, there was a tendency towards the increase of urinary deltamethrin or fenvalerate in the combined exposed groups without an increase of deltamethrin metabolite Br2A in the urine. This might indicate an inhibitory effect of organophosphate in the metabolism of pyrethroids in man which is similar to that found in animals.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.31-36. 9 ref.

CIS 91-1212 Héry M., Diebold F., Hubert G., Oury V., Limasset J.C
Manufacture of phosphoric acid and phosphate and phosphate-containing fertilisers - Occupational exposure to fluorine compounds and inorganic acids
Fabrication de l'acide phosphorique et des engrais phosphatés et composés - Exposition aux composés fluorés et aux acides minéraux [en francés]
Exposure to chemical contaminants in the atmosphere was evaluated on the premises of seven fertiliser manufacturers. The measurements concerned primarily hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid. Overall results showed short-term exposure levels that were often in excess of short-term limit values (VLE in France, TLV-C or TLV-STEL in the US), particularly in the case of hydrogen fluoride, while long-term exposure limits (VME in France and TLV-TWA in the US) were generally respected, except in the case of superphosphate manufacture, where half the samples showed levels in excess of limit values.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1803-141-90, p.809-816. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 91-1069
Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen (Committee for the Prevention of Emergencies due to Dangerous Substances)
Storage of packaged pesticides: storage of more than 400kg of pesticides in distribution centres and similar enterprises [Netherlands]
Opslag bestrijdingsmiddelen in emballage: opslag van bestrijdingsmiddelen in distributiebedrijven en aanverwante bedrijven (vanaf 400kg) [en holandés]
This directive contains guidelines for the safety of large storage facilities for pesticides. Attention is given to: site admission, fire prevention, containment of fire extinguishing water, separate storage of pesticides, clean-up of spilled pesticides, instruction and training of personnel, heating, emergency lighting, emergency and first aid, personal protection equipment.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 56p.

CIS 91-766 Mecoprop
International chemical safety card. Danger symbol: harmful. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: possibly carcinogenic in humans; may cause birth defects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-049-00-2; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1; 61 & 109; I, II, III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-765 MCPA
International chemical safety card. Danger symbol: harmful. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: possibly carcinogenic in humans; may cause birth defects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-051-00-3; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1; 61 & 109; I, II, III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-764 Lindane
International chemical safety card. Danger symbol: toxic. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; possibly carcinogenic in humans. EC identification number and labelling codes: 602-043-00-6; T; R23/24/25-36/38; S2-13-44. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2761 (6.1; 61 & 109; III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-918 Hildebrandt A., Schön H., Mayer E.
Duration of exposure in chemical crop protection in agriculture
Expositionsdauer beim chemischen Pflanzenschutz im Ackerbau [en alemán]
A questionnaire survey was conducted between 1977 and 1979 in approximately 1,500 crop farms in the Federal Republic of Germany to determine the frequency and amount of pesticide application. A follow-up study in 1987 included 500 of these farms. Data are presented for winter wheat, winter barley and sugar-beet. With these data and the data of a job study the length of exposure to pesticides was determined. For 100, 60 and 30ha crop farms 127, 85 and 37 hours of pesticide exposure were obtained, respectively.
Landtechnik, 1990, Vol.45, No.3, p.120-122. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 91-917 Sharma V.K., Kaur S.
Contact sensitization by pesticides in farmers
30 farmers with contact dermatitis and 20 controls were patch tested with a series of locally used pesticides. Allergic reactions to one or more pesticides were seen in 11 patients but none of the controls. Carbamates (maneb, carbofuran, carbaryl) were the most frequent sensitisers (7 patients), followed by organophosphorus compounds like: malathion and oxydemton methyl (4 patients); 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and fenvalerate (3 patients each); streptocycline (2 patients). Irritant reactions to captaf were seen in 4 patients, thiobencarb weedicide in 3, and organophosphorus compounds in 3. Pesticides should be patch tested in all farmers with contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1990, Vol.23, No.2, p.77-80. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 91-791 Code of practice for the safe use of pesticides on farms and holdings
Training package containing a code of practice, illustrated leaflets and posters. The Code gives guidance on meeting responsibilities under the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986, and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (see CIS 89-1092). Contents: user training and certification; planning and preparation (selecting the right pesticide, assessment of health risks, preventing and controlling exposure, application methods and precautions, safety checks); working with pesticides (use of control measures, dangerous practices, handling pesticide containers, precautions during filling, protection of honey bees, preventing unwanted pesticide drift, monitoring exposure, maintenance of control measures, health surveillance); disposal of pesticide waste (legislation, minimisation of waste, disposal of waste concentrates, containers and packaging); keeping records.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 75p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 91-407 Urea: safe use and handling
Chemical safety data sheet. Toxic effects: risk of mild irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes in sensitive persons. Under normal conditions of use and handling, urea is not considered toxic to humans or animals.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1989. 4p. 5 ref.

CIS 91-396 Paraquat
Chemical safety data sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA, and adaptation into Spanish of the corresponding data sheet from the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards" (DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.89-104).
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 1990, Vol.52, No.10, 4p. Insert.

CIS 91-378 Dichlorprop
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: harmful. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-045-00-0; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1; 61 & 109; I, II, III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-454 Herzstein J., Cullen M.R.
Methyl bromide intoxication in four field-workers during removal of soil fumigation sheets
This article describes a recent exposure incident in the field during removal of plastic sheets days after injection of methyl bromide into soil. Following removal of polyethylene sheets covering soil fumigated with methyl bromide, 4 field-workers developed fatigue and light-headedness and 3 workers noted progressive respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and neurologic symptoms. The acute systemic symptoms improved over several days, but later-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted for several weeks. This incident stresses the need for improved worker education and strict adherence to safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation and raises the possibility of an increased risk of toxicity associated with methyl bromide fumigation during a cool season.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.3, p.321-326. 13 ref.

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