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  • Agricultural chemicals

1992

CIS 94-114 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Acide trichloro-2,4,5 phénoxyacétique [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-94 Mecoprop
Mécoprop [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbol: harmful. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: possibly carcinogenic in humans; may cause birth defects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-049-00-2; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1; 61 & 109; I, II, III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-93 MCPA
MCPA [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbol: harmful. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: possibly carcinogenic in humans; may cause birth defects. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-051-00-3; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1; 61 & 109; I, II, III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-92 Lindane
Lindane [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbol: toxic. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; possibly carcinogenic in humans. EC identification number and labelling codes: 602-043-00-6; T; R23/24/25-36/38; S2-13-44. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2761 (6.1; 61 & 109; III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-77 Dichlorprop
Dichlorprop [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: harmful. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-045-00-0; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1; 61 & 109; I, II, III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-73 DDT
DDT [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: Toxic. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and skin. Long-term exposure effects: skin absorption; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); hepatic damage; suspected human carcinogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 602-045-00-7; T; R25-40-48; S22-36/37-44. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2761 (6.1-61/109).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-72 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Acide dichloro-2,4 phénoxyacétique [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: harmful. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 607-039-00-8; Xn; R20/21/22; S2-13. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2588 (6.1-61/109; I, II or III).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-1988 FINNIDA's manual. Risk management of toxic chemicals
Part 1 of this loose-leaf manual contains 30 project manager's guides providing practical information on the safety management of a specific toxic chemical or group of chemicals. Part 2 comprises a collection of 31 chemical data sheets on the impacts of a particular chemical on the environment and human health along with guidelines for safe use. These are arranged in eight chemical groups (organochlorinated pesticides and other chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, natural and synthetic pyrethrins, aromatic hydrocarbons, dithiocarbamates, quaternary nitrogen compounds, triazine derivatives). An alphabetical index is provided and a separate A3-size display-type warning card is included for each of the chemicals listed.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, Finnish International Development Agency, Mannerheimintie 15, 00260 Helsinki, Finland, Apr. 1992. 762p. loose-leaf. Index.

CIS 93-1653 Control technology for the formulation and packing of pesticides
This book describes the ways in which current technologies and managerial procedures can be used to control the occupational health hazards inherent in the formulation of pesticides. Measures needed to protect the general public and the environment surrounding the plant are also described. Contents: formulation processes; toxic and flammable hazards and sources of exposure; general principles of control technology; control technology when planning, building or extending a pesticide formulation plant, at or near a hazard source, in the workplace and near the worker; monitoring and evaluation programmes; storage and transport.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 79p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: CHF 15.00 (CHF 10.50 in developing countries).

CIS 93-1619 Wester R.C., Maibach H.C., Sedik L., Melendres J.
Percutaneous absorption of [14C]chlordane from soil
Whereas less than 0.1% of radioactively labelled chlordane (a widely used termite control agent) traversed human cadaver skin in diffusion cells, about 4% of the applied dose appeared in the urine of rhesus monkeys. In both in-vitro and in vivo-experiments, soil containing 67ppm chlordane was held in contact with the skin for 24h, after which retention in the soil and adhesion to the skin were determined. Radioactivity in the cadaver skin and in the receptor fluid was measured immediately after exposure; urinary excretion of radioactivity was followed for six days, by which time it had returned to baseline levels. Several soap-and-water washes were necessary to decontaminate the skin of the monkeys. The limitations of data obtained by in-vitro methods and the retention of pesticides by the skin should be kept in mind in attempts to estimate exposure from contaminated soil.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.35, No.4, p.269-277. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 93-1418 Ordinance No.7/1992 (25 Feb.) of the Minister of Agriculture concerning the aerial spraying of agricultural chemicals [Hungary]
This text (effective 25 Feb. 1992) regulates the aerial spraying of agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers). It prescribes the technical requirements of airplanes used for such purposes and the qualifications of operators. It prohibits the spraying of highly toxic and toxic substances when the wind speed exceeds 4m/sec (fixed-wing aircraft) or 2m/sec (helicopters); in the case of other substances the limit is 4m/sec. For liquid substances to be sprayed at quantities of 1-30L/ha the maximum wind speed is 2m/sec; such substances cannot be sprayed when there is a thermal updraft. There are further limitations based on environmental and seasonal considerations.
Magyar Közlöny, 25 Feb. 1992, No.19, p.672-673.

CIS 93-1282 Muldoon S.R., Hodgson M.J.
Risk factors for nonoccupational organophosphate pesticide poisoning
Between 1966 and 1980, 535 occurrences (with 670 persons exposed overall) of non-occupational, non-agricultural malathion poisoning were reported in the Pesticide Incident Monitoring System (PIMS) database in the USA. Home exposures accounted for 494 (92%) of the reports, with improper use (61%) and labelling problems (3%) being the primary causes. Another 17 reports (3%) were associated with commercial pesticide application at home. Of the 18 fatalities, 11 were successful suicides, while the rest were unintentional. If data from a previous coded data set on diazinon are also considered, it can be concluded that public health measures aimed at the safer use of pesticides outside the workplace are needed and that PIMS data are a valuable source of epidemiological data on pesticide poisoning.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.38-41. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 93-780 Frandsen N.
Checkmate...? - A film about brain damage and rehabilitation
Videotape about two Danish workers suffering from brain damage induced by exposure to chemicals in the workplace (turpentine and other organic solvents in one case, agricultural chemicals sprayed in a greenhouse in the other). The circumstances of exposure, the recognition of the condition and the rehabilitation of the victims are discussed.
Frandsen, Amalievej 3, 1875 Frederiksberg C, Denmark, 1992. Videotape (46min) + brochures. 12p.

CIS 93-956 Integrated international safety guidelines for pesticide formulation in developing countries
These guidelines are intended for industries and governments, and address problems of safety, health and the environment that may arise in the formulation of pesticides. Issues associated with the formulation of pesticides in developing countries are summarised along with the hazards of various formulations. The guidelines are presented in sections dealing with operational, occupational, environmental and managerial issues, and the roles of government and industry.
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria, 1992. 72p. 25 ref.

CIS 93-925 Brouwer R., Brouwer D.H., Tijssen S.C.H.A., Van Hemmen J.J.
Pesticides in the cultivation of carnations in greenhouses - Part II. Relationship between foliar residues and exposures
The relationship between the levels of dermal and respiratory exposure to four pesticides and the amount of pesticide on the leaves of the plants has been studied during the cutting of carnations in 18 farms. Dermal exposure is strongly related to the amount of dislodgeable foliar residue (DFR). A transfer factor from leaves to hands of approximately 4500cm2/h has been calculated. Dermal exposure of hands and forearms can be predicted from measurements of DFR. The DFR was mainly determined by the amount of the pesticide remaining from previous applications and the last application rate, not by the application technique (spraying or dusting). The concentrations in the breathing zone after dusting of zineb (dustable powder) and chlorothalonil (wettable powder) were significantly correlated with DFR. The concentrations of thiram did not correlate with DFR. Respiratory exposure results from dispersion of foliar dust containing pesticides.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.582-587. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 93-924 Brouwer D.H., Brouwer R., De Mik G., Maas C.L., Van Hemmen J.J.
Pesticides in the cultivation of carnations in greenhouses - Part I. Exposure and concomitant health risk
Respiratory exposure and dermal exposure of the hands and forearms to four pesticides have been measured in 18 farms for carnation culture. For 94 workers, the geometric mean dermal exposure rate during flower cutting was 10.1mg/h and during sorting/bundling by 35 workers the dermal exposure rate was 7.3mg/h. The average concentration in air as measured by personal air sampling during cutting after a pesticide had been dusted was 0.7mg/m3. For the same area, pesticide spraying exposed the applicator to a dermal exposure seven times higher than dusting. However, during dusting respiratory exposure was higher. Generally, overall exposure is higher during manual activities in treated crops than during application. Risk to health occurs after application of pesticides that are relatively toxic and show relatively good skin-penetrating properties at relatively high application rates. The respiratory exposure to dusted pesticides may in some situations also result in health risks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.575-581. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 93-617
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Alpha-cypermethrin
With good work practices, hygiene measures and safety precautions, the use of alpha-cypermethrin is unlikely to present a hazard to those occupationally exposed to it. In a study of exposure during formulation, mild skin sensations were the only reported effects. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 112p. ca. 100 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries).

CIS 93-616
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Endrin
The primary site of action of endrin is the central nervous system; exposure of humans to a toxic dose may lead to excitability and convulsions and death may follow within 2-12 hours if appropriate treatment is not administered immediately. Cases of acute non-fatal intoxication due to accidental over-exposure have been observed in workers in an endrin manufacturing plant. Endrin does not accumulate in the human body to any significant degree and no long-term adverse effects were observed during a study of 232 occupationally exposed workers. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 241p. ca. 550 ref. Price: CHF 28.00 (CHF 19.60 in developing countries).

CIS 93-593 Schwope A.D., Goydan R., Ehntholt D., Frank U., Nielsen A.
Permeation resistance of glove materials to agricultural pesticides
More than 100 permeation tests (in triplicate) with approximately 20 pesticide formulations were conducted with 13 different glove materials. The test method measured the simultaneous permeation of the carrier solvent(s) and active ingredient(s), in particular those active ingredients that have low solubility in water and low volatility. The key among the findings is that the carrier solvent generally permeates first and at a much higher rate than the active ingredient. Furthermore, the permeation behaviour of formulations containing solvents generally mirrored that of "neat" carrier solvents (composed of a single active ingredient in pure form) alone. Thus, insight into the selection of the most appropriate glove material for a given pesticide formulation can be gained from permeation data for "neat" chemicals. Preferred materials include nitrile rubber, butyl rubber, and plastic film laminates. Natural rubber and polyvinyl chloride materials generally are not recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.352-361. 10 ref.

CIS 93-568 LaGoy P.K., Bohrer R.L., Halvorsen F.H.
The development of cleanup criteria for an acutely toxic pesticide at a contaminated industrial facility
Sodium fluoroacetate, a restricted-use rodenticide, was improperly applied to kill rats in a South American steel mill. As a result of this application, several workers were seriously injured. Clean-up levels were developed to prevent significant exposure of workers who could inhale contaminated dust, contact dust, or soil dust in outdoor areas or on plant floors and who could contact contaminated surfaces. On the basis of a health risk analysis, the following clean-up levels for sodium fluoroacetate were developed: air clean-up levels, 0.05mg/m3; soil/dust clean-up levels, 100mg/kg; and wipe sample clean-up levels, 0.2mg/100cm2. These risk-based clean-up levels were ultimately used to assist the regulatory agencies in reaching a decision to reopen the plant.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.298-302. 15 ref.

CIS 93-167 Faustini A., Arpaia F., Pagliarella P., Forastiere F., Papini P., Perucci C.A.
Monitoring of cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers and vendors exposed to carbamates and organophosphate pesticides
Monitoraggio delle colinesterasi in lavoratori agricoli e commercianti esposti ad esteri fosforici e carbammati [en italiano]
In a study of cholinesterase (ChE) levels in 59 subjects exposed to carbamates and organophosphorus pesticides, conducted before and after exposure, it was found that the measurement of plasma ChE activity has more sensitivity in the monitoring of these substances than the measurement of erythrocyte ChE activity. Maximum reduction (38%, 95% CI=22%-53%) in plasma ChE activity was observed within six days of the last exposure in workers loading and applying pesticides.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.135-145. 22 ref.

CIS 93-223 Brown D.P.
Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants - An update
A previous mortality study among four organochlorine pesticide manufacturers was updated through 1987. The organochlorine pesticides included chlordane; heptachlor and endrin; aldrin, dieldrin and endrin; and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. The mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms at each of the plants was lower than expected. There was a statistically significant increase in liver and biliary tract cancer among workers at plant 3 (five observed, standardised mortality ratio 393, 95% confidence interval 1.27-9.20). These results are somewhat consistent with experimental animal findings showing benign and malignant tumours of the liver after exposure to aldrin and dieldrin. However, the deaths were due to a mixture of intra- and extra-hepatic tumours (biliary tract and gall-bladder), and the dose-response analysis was limited because of the small number of deaths and lack of exposure data. Additional study of this group should include continued follow-up of the total cohort and a case-referent analysis of the deaths from liver and biliary tract cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.155-161. 15 ref.

CIS 93-32
Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Storage of packaged pesticides: Storage of pesticides in distribution and related enterprises (in excess of 400kg) [Netherlands]
English translation of the directive originally abstracted as CIS 91-1069. It contains guidelines for the safety of large storage facilities for pesticides. Attention is given to: site admission, fire prevention, containment of water used for fire extinguishing, separate storage of pesticides, clean-up of spilled pesticides, instruction and training of personnel, heating, emergency lighting, emergency and first aid, personal protection equipment.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1992. 55p.

CIS 93-263 Andersson L., Gabring S., Hammar J., Melsäter B.
Principles for identifying unacceptable pesticides
This report presents a set of general principles established by the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate for assessing when a pesticide is unacceptable from a health and environmental protection standpoint. Pesticides are classified as having clearly unwanted properties or particularly serious properties according to certain toxicological parameters (acute or chronic toxicity, corrosive and irritating properties, allergenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties and reproductive toxicity) and ecotoxicological parameters (degradability, bioaccumulation, mobility and effects on non-target organisms).
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 34p.

CIS 93-248 Vasilić Ž., Drevenkar V., Rumenjak V., Štengal B., Fröbe Z.
Urinary excretion of diethylphosphorus metabolites in persons poisoned by quinalphos or chlorpyrifos
The urinary excretion rates of diethylphosphorus metabolites and changes in blood cholinesterase activities, as indicators of pesticide absorption and retention in the body, were studied in 15 persons poisoned either by the organophosphorus pesticides quinalphos or chlorpyrifos. The organophosphate poisoning was always indicated by a significant depression of serum and/or red blood cell cholinesterase activities. The return of serum cholinesterase activity to the range of referent values took more than 30 days and had a different course in different persons. Enzyme activity was affected not only by the amount of pesticide absorbed but also by its retention in the body which, according to the differences in excretion rate of urinary diethylphosphorus metabolites in the patients, was different in different groups of persons.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, May 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.351-357. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 93-247 Al-Jaghbir M., Salhab A.S., Hamarsheh F.A.
Dermal and inhalation exposure to dimethoate
Dermal and respiratory exposure and plasma acetyl-cholinesterase (ChE) activity were monitored on six workers spraying tomatoe crops under plastic houses with dimethoate [O,O-dimethyl S-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl) phosphorodithoate]. The mean dermal exposure was 914mg/day and the mean respiratory exposure was 17mg/day. The maximum dose received by the spraymen was 18.2mg/day. It was estimated that 84% of the dermal exposure was to the forearms and hands. Of the body areas monitored, the back of the neck received the least rate of exposure. The results also show a reduction in plasma ChE among spraymen. The mean difference was 37.1% less than the pre-exposure values, which exceeds the limits set by the World Health Organization.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, May 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.358-361. 19 ref.

CIS 93-145 McConnell R., Cedillo L., Keifer M., Palomo M.R.
Monitoring organophosphate insecticide-exposed workers for cholinesterase depression - New technology for office or field use
A limitation to the diagnosis of mild organophosphate poisoning and to the preventive screening of organophosphate-exposed workers has been the large interindividual variability in erythrocyte cholinesterase, thus necessitating a pre-exposure baseline measurement of enzyme activity as a basis for evaluating subsequent declines. A new colorimetric erythrocyte cholinesterase kit was tested on 23 pesticide plant workers. All workers had normal cholinesterase, and exposed and unexposed workers had similar mean cholinesterase levels. Although erythrocyte cholinesterase was found to have a coefficient of variation of 12%, haemoglobin-adjusted erythrocyte cholinesterase had a markedly reduced coefficient of variation (7.4%). The 90% confidence interval (24.9-31.7IU/g haemoglobin) resulted in a lower normal limit, i.e. 78% of the upper limit. Even if a pre-exposure baseline was high normal but unknown at the time of examination, the clinician can be confident that any person with a normal result will have cholinesterase levels not less than 78% of baseline.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.34-37. 9 ref.

CIS 92-1986 Smith A.H., Patterson D.G., Warner M.L., MacKenzie R., Needham L.L.
Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels of New Zealand pesticide applicators and their implication for cancer hypotheses
The phenoxyherbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a widely used pesticide. Little is known about the extent of exposure to the 2,4,5-T contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent animal carcinogen. The study determined whether the blood serum levels of TCDD in 2,4,5-T applicators were greater than those of a control group not involved in 2,4,5-T spraying. Nine of 548 New Zealand applicators were selected who had sprayed 2,4,5-T for a range of 83-372 months. Results showed that the average serum level of TCDD for applicators was almost 10 times that of the control subjects, while the average levels of all other congeners and isomers measured in the two groups did not differ substantially. Increased risks of cancer from brief exposure to phenoxy herbicides reported in other countries are probably not attributable to the TCDD that contaminates 2,4,5-T. It cannot be determined from these results, however, whether TCDD exposure from prolonged use of 2,4,5-T poses significant health risks.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 15 Jan. 1992, Vol.84, No.2, p.104-108. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 92-1680 McMahon C.K., Bush P.B.
Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the southern United States
A field study was conducted to measure breathing zone concentrations of smoke suspended particulate matter (SPM), herbicide residues, and carbon monoxide (CO) on 14 prescribed fires. The sites were burned within 30-169 days after herbicide application. Tract size ranged from 2.4 to 154 hectares. No herbicide residues were detected in the 140 smoke samples from the 14 fires. Concentrations of SPM and CO were highly variable depending on fire conditions and the location of personnel. Worker respirable SPM concentrations ranged between 0.2 and 3.7 mg/m3. Exposure periods depended on fire size and ranged from 1.2 to 6.3hrs. Area monitors placed in high-density smoke zones had total SPM concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 45 mg/m3. CO breathing zone concentrations ranged from <6 to 30ppm/hr while the fires were being worked on. These values are well below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 35ppm/hr for an 8-hour work shift.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.265-272. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 92-1109 Dibromocloro propano
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: nemagon. Toxicity: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; male antifertility effects.
Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 1992, Vol.53, No.4, 4p. Insert.

CIS 92-1276 Expert group meeting to develop integrated international safety guidelines for pesticide formulation in developing countries
Proceedings of an expert group meeting to develop integrated international safety guidelines for pesticide formulation in developing countries held in Brussels, Belgium, 24 February-6 March 1992. Topics covered: UNIDO's activities in industrial safety and environmental protection and objectives of this meeting; safety issues of the formulation of pesticides in developing countries; explosion hazards related to particle reduction with special relevance to pesticide formulation; fire hazards and hazard ranking; good manufacturing practice; stewardship in the safe storage of agrochemicals; electrostatic hazards in industry; responsible care; legislation aspects in developing countries; monitoring health effects of pesticides; effluent treatment technologies in pesticide formulation; environmental issues in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Hungary.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Wien International Centre, P.O. Box 300, 1400 Wien, Austria, 1992. 219p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-945
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Isobenzan
Isobenzan, also called Telodrin, is highly toxic and very persistent. Although no longer manufactured, it may still be present in the original waste disposal sites or dredgings from contaminated sediments. Data on exposed humans are limited to studies on workers in a factory in the Netherlands during the manufacture and formulation of isobenzan; several cases of intoxication and convulsions were reported. The available information on the hazards of isobenzan is incomplete, but is sufficient to indicate that no human or environmental exposure to this substance should be allowed. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 62p. 88 ref. Price: CHF 10.00 (in developing countries: CHF 7.00).

CIS 92-537 Snodgrass H.L.
Permethrin transfer from treated cloth to the skin surface: Potential for exposure in humans
Results of animal experiments showed that fabric treated with permethrin at a rate of 0.125mg/cm2 lost the substance to the skin surface at an average rate of 0.49%/day. At the end of the 7-day exposures in rabbits, about 3.2% of the available permethrin had reached the skin. Variables including effects of prelaundering, varying environments, presence of sweat and different fabric types had little effect on the migration rate. The exposure dose to humans from wearing permethrin-treated (0.125mg/cm2) military clothing is predicted to be 0.0006mg/kg/day.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Feb-1992, Vol.35, No.2, p.91-105. 22 ref.

CIS 92-379 Aldrín
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Short-term toxic effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects. Long-term toxic effects: neurotoxic effects; dermatitis; suspected human carcinogen. Adaptation into Spanish of the corresponding data sheet from the NIOSH Publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards" (DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 89-104).
Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 1992, Vol.54, No.1, 4p. Insert.

1991

CIS 00-948 Bromuconazol
Versión española de IPCS ICSC 1264. Ficha Química Internacional de Seguridad. Vías de exposición: inhalación, absorción cutánea e ingestión. Efectos de una exposición de corta duración: la ingestión puede inducir efectos sobre el sistema nervioso central que desemboquen en una depresión. Efectos de una exposición prolongada: la sustancia puede producir efectos en el hígado, pudiendo llegar a ocasionar lesiones tisulares y un déficit funcional.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 2p.

CIS 00-318 Decreto N° 116 del 18 de septiembre 1991 por medio del cual se reglamenta la Comisión Técnica Interinstitucional sobre agroquímicos [Panamá]
Temas tratados: instituciones públicas de prevención; ley; Panamá; plaguicidas; productos fitosanitarios.
Gaceta Oficial, 8 oct. 1991, n°21.889, 2p.

CIS 00-323 Decreto N° 20345-S del 21 de marzo de 1991 sobre el uso, manejo, tránsito, aplicación, fabricación y formulación de plaguicidas [Costa Rica]
Temas tratados: Costa Rica; declaración de las sustancias peligrosas; registros de exposición; plaguicidas; riesgos químicos; sustancias tóxicas.
Fotocopias, 2p. Con CIS. También en: La Gaceta, n°75, 22 abr. 1991.

CIS 96-1933 Pesticidas [Suecia]
Bekämpningsmedel [en sueco]
Esta enmienda entró en vigor el 1 de Abril de 1992 sustituyendo a la Orden 1986:20 (CIS 87-36) sobre la pintura antiincrustante. Puntos que se tratan: productos antiparasitarios; información general sobre los pesticidas; pulverización en invernaderos; desinfección de las semillas, tratamiento de las coníferas; plantación de árboles coníferas; comentarios.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Suecia, 1991. 11p.

CIS 96-1194 Real Decreto 8 feb. 1991. Plaguicidas. Modifica la Reglamentación técnico-sanitaria para fabricación, comercialización y utilización, aprobada por R.D. 3349/1983, de 30 nov. [España]
La introducción de esta modificación (en vigor desde el 15 de mayo de 199) del Reglamento de 1983 sobre pesticidas (ver CIS 96-1190) tenía como objetivo armonizar la legislación española sobre pesticidas con las disposiciones de la Directiva 78/631/CEE (CIS 91-715), tal como fue modificada por las Directivas 81/187/CEE (CIS 91-713) y 84/291/CEE (CIS 84-1290). Las modificaciones abarcaron los siguientes puntos: clasificación de los pesticidas; registro de los pesticidas; etiquetado, condiciones de comercialización de los pesticidas clasificados como nocivos en los centros mixtos. Anexos modificados: clasificación por cálculo de los pesticidas que contienen uno o varios ingredientes activos; clasificación de los pesticidas en las categorías I/A-C, II/A-D (con número CEE para cada uno de ellos); relación de las sustancias activas con su LD50 y LC50.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 15 feb. 1991, n°40, p.1157-1166.

CIS 96-284 Kaloyanova F.P., El Batawi M.A.
Toxicología de los pesticidas en el ser humano
Human toxicology of pesticides [en inglés]
Este manual ofrece información toxicológica correspondiente a las siguientes categorías de pesticidas: compuestos organofosforados; carbamatos; compuestos organoclorados; piretroides sintéticos; compuestos organostánicos; compuestos clorfenoxy; dipiridilos. La información suministrada incluye: propiedades, usos, metabolismo, toxicidad (mecanismos de acción), relación dosis-efectos, efectos sobre los humanos y prevención de la exposición. Otros capítulos tratan de diversos pesticidas, de los efectos para la salud de la exposición a varias sustancias, de la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda a los pesticidas y de los períodos de seguridad que deben respetarse antes de entrar en los locales donde se hayan empleado pesticidas.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA, 1991. x, 196p. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: GBP 104,00.

CIS 95-1972 Acetato de dinoseb
Versión española de IPCS ICSC 10-0882. Ficha internacional de seguridad de las sustancias químicas. Efectos de una exposición de corta duración: absorción cutánea; efectos neurotóxicos (sistema nervioso central). Una exposición a muy fuertes concentraciones puede desencadenar la muerte. Efectos de una exposición prolongada: puede causar alteraciones de la reproducción en el ser humano. Valores umbral no establecidos.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 2p.

CIS 95-1942 Directiva del Consejo de 15 de julio de 1991 referente a la comercialización de productos fitosanitarios; modificaciones de las Directivas de 27 de julio de 1993, 22 de julio de 1994, 27 de julio de 1994 y 21 de diciembre de 1994 [Comunidades Europeas]
Council Directive of 15 July 1991 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market; Amendments of 27 July 1993, 22 July 1994, 27 July 1994 and 21 December 1994 [European Communities] [en inglés]
Directive du Conseil, du 15 juillet 1991, concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques; modifications des 27 juillet 1993, 22 juillet 1994, 27 juillet 1994 et 21 décembre 1994 [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
Contenido de la Directiva de 1991 (DO): definiciones; disposiciones generales relativas a la comercialización de productos fitosanitarios (PF); otorgamiento, revisión y retirada de autorizaciones de PF; inscripción de los principios activos (PA) [autorizados] en el anexo I; información acerca de los posibles efectos peligrosos; reconocimiento mutuo de las autorizaciones; intercambio de información; protección de datos y confidencialidad; embalaje y etiquetado; medidas de control; disposiciones administrativas; investigación y desarrollo. Anexos I y II: condiciones que deben darse para promover un expediente de inserción de un PA o de un PF. Los anexos IV y V muestran las frases-tipo R y S que figuran en la Directiva 67/548/CEE (CIS 92-23). El documento de 25/06/92 es un rectificativo a la DO. La Directiva 93/71/CEE modifica los anexos II y III de la DO referente a las demandas de autorización y "los datos sobre la eficacia". La Directiva 94/37/CE modifica las prescripciones de los anexos I y II de la DO en lo que respecta a la identidad, las propiedades, etc., de los PA y los PF. La Directiva 94/43/CE introduce el Anexo VI: principios uniformes para la evaluación y autorización de los PF. La Directiva 94/79/CE modifica las prescripicones de los anexos II y III de la Directiva de 1991 referente a los estudios toxicológicos y de metabolismo sobre los PA y los PF.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 ago. 1991, vol.34, n°L 230, p.1-32; 25 jun. 1992, n°L 170, p.40; 31 ago. 1993, n°L 221, p.27-36; 29 jul. 1994, n°L 194, p.65-81; 1 set. 1994, n°L 227, p.31-55; 31 dic. 1994, n°L 354, p.16-31.

CIS 95-1265 Ware G.W.
Principios fundamentales de los pesticidas: guía de auto-aprendizaje
Fundamentals of pesticides: A self-instruction guide [en inglés]
Esta guía de pesticidas está diseñada para el aprendizaje personal de los adultos y consta de 14 módulos: pesticidas - herramienta química para la lucha antiparasitaria; terminología de los pesticidas; insecticidas; fungicidas; bactericidas; nematocidas; rodenticidas; reguladores del crecimiento; defoliantes; desecadores; biorracionales (pesticidas de origen natural no ecotóxicos); pesticidas y legislación (en Estados Unidos); seguridad en la manipulación y utilización de los pesticidas; toxicidad de los pesticidas (con cuadros clasificadores de la toxicidad). A medida que se avanza en el estudio, se prevén algunos controles para revisar el nivel de conocimientos adquiridos, finalizando con un "examen" final compuesto por 125 preguntas. Glosario.
Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA, 3a ed., 1991. xvi, 307p. Ilus. 42 ref. Indice.

CIS 95-489 Oudejans J.H.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
Pesticidas agrícolas - Propiedades y funciones en materia de protección integral de las cosechas
Agro-pesticides - Properties and functions in integrated crop protection [en inglés]
Este manual de formación proporciona directivas precisas en lo que concierne a la protección de las cosechas y la seguridad en la utilización de pesticidas. En el sumario: principios de la lucha antiparasitaria integral; clasificación de los pesticidas; fabricación y composición de los pesticidas; toxicidad y residuos de los pesticidas; síntomas y tratamiento de las intoxicaciones por causa de pesticidas; regulación, registro administrativo y etiquetado de los pesticidas; políticas de protección de las plantaciones e infraestructura reglamentaria; seguridad en la manipulación, almacenamiento y señalización de los pesticidas; transporte, vertidos accidentales y eliminación; equipo de pulverización y de mantenimiento; control de las plagas animales, los parásitos de las plantas, las malas hierbas y los parásitos en los lugares de almacenamiento.
FADINAP/ARSAP, Agriculture and Rural Development Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Tailandia, 1991. viii, 329p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice.

CIS 94-1481 Demeton-O-metil
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0429. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 0.5mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991); PDK: 0.1mg/m3 P (USSR 1988).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 94-1480 Cumafos
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0422. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects; inhibition of cholinesterase. Long-term exposure effects: significant depletion of blood cholinesterase.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 94-1637 Knopp D., Glass S.
Biological monitoring of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-exposed workers in agriculture and forestry
Urinalysis was conducted on two workers involved in spraying 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) sodium salt solution from vehicle mounted equipment in agriculture and on two helicopter crew members applying 2,4-D dimethylamine salt for bush control in forestry. All sprayers showed detectable quantities of 2,4-D in morning urine samples. The highest concentration was measured in the vehicle driver (2.5ppm), while urine levels in the forestry workers were much lower (0.365ppm and 0.052ppm). The calculated amounts excreted seemed to be sufficiently reliable to be used for assessing the risk of human exposure to 2,4-D.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.63, No.5, p.329-333. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 94-1636 Neuberger M., Landvoigt W., Derntl F.
Blood levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in chemical workers after chloracne and in comparison groups
A study was made of workers involved in the production of chlorophenoxy herbicides. Nine production workers with a history of chloracne from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in 1971-1973 had a median level of 340pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) per gram blood lipid in 1990. This was significantly higher than blood levels in four controls without chloracne and no known exposure from the same plant and in 17 external controls. Results demonstrate that chloracne may be considered as a reliable indicator of heavy dioxin exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.63, No.5, p.325-327. 13 ref.

CIS 94-1150 Cianamida
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0424. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitization; animal tests show that this substance possibly causes antifertility effects. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 2mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 94-1149 Carbofenotión
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0410. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 94-615 Igbedioh S.O.
Effects of agricultural pesticides on humans, animals and higher plants in developing countries
Undesirable side effects that result from the indiscriminate use of agricultural pesticides in developing countries are widespread. This has captured the attention of health workers, governments, and environmental protection agencies. In fact, the potential health effects of long-term exposure to humans, animals, and higher plants are of great concern. This study examines the effects of agricultural pesticides on such living forms and explores modes of action, and presents strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of pesticides to living forms in developing countries.
Archives of Environmental Health, July/Aug. 1991, Vol.46, No.4, p.218-224. 52 ref.

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