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  • Agricultural chemicals

1993

CIS 94-1928 Krüger E., Werth B.
Studies of pesticide contamination in root-crop farming
Untersuchungen zur Pestizidkontamination bei Hackfruchtpflegearbeiten in Landwirtschaftsbetrieben [en alemán]
Dermal exposure pads were attached to the skin of the chest, arms and legs of 61 farm workers spraying root crops with pesticides. The pesticide concentrations found on the pads of workers wearing protective clothing were low. However, concentrations as much as 77.2% in excess of the tolerable dermal dose were found when no protective clothing was worn. Of the 61 workers, 24 had health problems such as headache (23), vision disturbances (11) and dermatitis (2).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1993, Vol.28, No.1, p.9-12. 34 ref.

CIS 94-2003 Schmidt-Bleek F., Marchal M.M.
Comparing regulatory regimes for pesticide control in 22 countries - Toward a new generation of pesticide regulation
Some historical developments of chemical control legislation are traced, from specialized laws, such as pesticide acts, to the 1970/1980 generation of generalized legal instruments involving all commercial chemicals. It is then argued that a "cradle-to-grave" assessment will henceforth be necessary. The international implications of the worldwide trade in pesticides are considered. As the use of pesticides has invariably transfrontier effects and since unilateral import restrictions due to environmental quality requirements constitute non-tariff barriers to trade, a high degree of international harmonization is desirable. The results of a comprehensive review in 1990/1991 of the regulatory pesticide management regime in 22 countries are presented, comprising countries from Central and Eastern Europe as well as the industrialized Western countries. Taking all observations into consideration, an advanced prototype legislative framework for pesticide management is proposed.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, June 1993, Vol.17, No.3, p.262-281. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 94-1943 Morrison H., Savitz D., Semenciw R., Hulka B., Mao Y., Morison D., Wigle D.
Farming and prostate cancer mortality
The study was based on a retrospectively assembled cohort of male Canadian farmers age 45 years or older for the period June 1971 to the end of 1987. The cohort was linked to the Canadian National Mortality Database. A total of 1,148 prostate cancer deaths and 2,213,478 person-years were observed. The study examined the relation between the risk of dying from prostate cancer and various farm practices. A weak, but statistically significant, association was found between number of acres sprayed with herbicides in 1970 and risk of prostate cancer mortality. When the analysis was restricted to farmers believed to be subject to the least amount of misclassification, the risk associated with acres sprayed with herbicides increased (rate ratio (RR)=2.23 for 250 or more acres sprayed; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-3.84; test for trend, p<0.01). No other farm exposure examined was associated with any detectable pattern of increased or decreased risk.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Feb. 1993, Vol.137, No.3, p.270-280. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 94-1658 Sack D., Linz D., Shukla R., Rice C., Bhattacharya A., Suskind R.
Health status of pesticide applicators - Postural stability assessments
Postural sway testing was performed on 37 pesticide-exposed workers and 35 non-exposed subjects. All subjects were asymptomatic. Weight/height ratio, exposure to pesticides, recent organophosphate exposure and plasma cholinesterase level were associated with increased body sway. The pattern of sway performance suggested a proprioceptive impairment, well compensated by visual cues, potentially attributable to pesticide exposure. The finding is of unclear clinical significance because neurological examinations and nerve conduction studies that were reported separately did not show evidence of neuropathy.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1196-1202. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 94-1634 Yeary R.A., Eaton J., Gilmore E., North B., Singell J.
A multiyear study of blood cholinesterase activity in urban pesticide applicators
A study was made of blood cholinesterase activity in a cohort of urban pesticide applicators ranging from 1,680 to 3,800 workers. During the period 1981-1991, 208,788 blood samples were taken with an average of six samples per year from each worker. A total of 150 workers (0.44% of the cohort) were removed from exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides because of decreased cholinesterase activity. No worker required treatment for signs of cholinesterase inhibition. There was no evidence of year-to-year changes in baseline cholinesterase values that were attributable to pesticide exposure.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May 1993, Vol.39, No.1, p.11-25. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 94-1633 Mbiapo F., Youovop G.
Regulation of pesticides in Cameroon
A study was carried out to evaluate the pesticide regulatory system in Cameroon. Current procedures for the registration, importation and distribution of pesticides are described. The study shows that Cameroon has insufficient legislation in this area. Registration does not exist, and attestations of importation are issued by the Ministry of Agriculture following efficiency tests on the product. Importation and distribution are carried out in less than ideal conditions. There is a need for training and information of all those involved in work with pesticides and for appropriate legislation.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May 1993, Vol.39, No.1, p.1-10. 7 ref.

CIS 94-1126 Metribuzin
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 5mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1323 Machado Neto J.G., Matuo T., Matuo Y.K.
Dermal exposure of pesticide spraying workers in staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cultivation - Efficiency of personal protective equipment
Exposição dérmica de aplicadores de agrotóxicos na cultura estaqueada de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) - Eficiência de equipamentos de proteção individual [en portugués]
The protective power of different types of protective overalls made of plastic was compared with that of plastic aprons worn by pesticide sprayers in Brazil. The pesticide concerned was a copper-based fungicide, and exposure levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The plastic aprons reduced dermal exposure of the front part of the body by 83-94%. The overalls reduced it only by 73-78% in the chest and arm area, while they proved to be useless in providing protection of the legs and thighs.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.21, No.79, p.29-38. 17 ref.

CIS 94-1313 Willis W.O., Peyster A., Molgaard C.A., Walker C., MacKendrick T.
Pregnancy outcome among women exposed to pesticides through work or residence in an agricultural area
This study covered 535 women enrolled in a southern California community clinic perinatal program. They were potentially exposed to pesticides and other agricultural chemicals occupationally and/or environmentally. Maternal blood samples were assayed for cholinesterase activity and exposure history was determined by concurrent interviews. These assessments were conducted on each participant approximately once each trimester. No difference between exposed and unexposed women was noted for risk of preterm birth or toxaemia. Subjects who experienced spontaneous abortion were all unexposed, and the rate of spontaneous abortion was 2.1%, less than expected. A greater incidence of low birth weight among unexposed women indicates that exposure may have had a "protective" effect.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.943-949. 23 ref.

CIS 94-969 Emara M., Tolba F., Salem M., El-Mahdy A.
β2-Microglobulin in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus compounds
Twenty agricultural workers in Egypt were investigated for the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on kidney function by estimation of serum-β2-microglobulin. There was a significant increase in the level of serum-β2-microglobulin compared to the control group; serum creatinine levels were within the normal range. The use of serum-β2-microglobulin was thus found to be a more sensitive test for detecting moderate changes of glomerular filtration rate than serum creatinine.
Agricultural Medicine and Rural Health, Winter 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.21-23. 4 ref.

CIS 94-1019
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Carbendazim
Given the similar toxicities of benomyl and carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate, the main metabolite of benomyl in mammals), the two fungicides are evaluated together in this monograph. No adverse effects on human health have been reported. Both substances represent a very low risk for acute poisoning in humans; benomyl causes dermal sensitization. Animal data and the limited human data available indicate that it is unlikely that these substances would cause systemic toxicity effects in occupationally exposed subjects. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 132p. Illus. approx. 190 ref. Price: CHF 22.00 (developing countries: CHF 12.60).

CIS 94-882 Zahm S.H., Blair A.
Cancer among migrant and seasonal farmworkers: An epidemiologic review and research agenda
There are an estimated three million hired migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States. They may be exposed to mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic pesticides during agricultural operations. Field conditions that provide little opportunity to wash skin or clothing to minimize pesticide absorption may intensify exposure. Little is known, however, about the occurrence of cancer in migrant or seasonal farmworkers. Most cancer epidemiologic research on agricultural populations has focussed on farm owner/operators. The few studies that have evaluated cancer in farmworkers suggest that they may be experiencing excesses of multiple myeloma and cancers of the stomach, prostate, and testis. A few studies suggest that the farmworkers may differ from farmers by experiencing excesses of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx, lung, and liver. Cervical cancer was elevated in female farmworkers in one study. It is concluded that descriptive data and aetiologic research on cancer among farmworkers and family members are urgently needed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.753-766. 53 ref.

CIS 94-877 Fleming L.E., Timmeny W.
Aplastic anemia and pesticides: an etiologic association?
The majority of cases of aplastic anaemia, a rare previously lethal disease, are of unknown aetiology. Nevertheless, for the past three decades, case reports and case series of aplastic anaemia have suggested an aetiological association between aplastic anaemia and pesticide exposure. A review of the medical literature, including basic science literature, provides support for this possible association. Two hundred and eighty cases of aplastic anaemia associated with pesticide exposure were reported in the literature. The majority of these cases were young (mean age 34yrs; median, 28), with a short latency (mean, 5 months) and with a history of occupational exposure to pesticides. The pesticide exposures reported were to organochlorines and organophosphates, both commonly used types of pesticides throughout the world. Therapeutic and methodological issues as well as future directions for research into this aetiological association are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1106-1116. 38 ref.

CIS 94-974 Brouwer R., van Maarleveld K., Ravensberg L., Meuling W., de Kort W., van Hemmen J.J.
Skin contamination, airborne concentrations, and urinary metabolite excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses
In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n=16) were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46mg and from 3 to 278µg, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major metabolite of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24hrs. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r=0.85). Calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for >80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.593-603. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 94-973 Strohmer H., Boldizsar A., Plöckinger B., Feldner-Busztin M., Feichtinger W.
Agricultural work and male infertility
Data from couples (n=103) seeking artificial insemination with donor sperm because of poor sperm quality and a control group of couples treated by in-vitro fertilization due to female causes were analyzed according to the occupations of the spouses. Comparison of occupational categories revealed a significant difference in the prevalence of agricultural occupation (11/103 vs. 1/103, p<0.01) between the group with male factor infertility and the normospermic controls. These patients also reported more long-term exposure to several insecticides and other pesticides. These toxic chemicals probably have a detrimental effect on male fertility and therefore it is suggested that they should be handled with caution.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.587-592. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 94-651 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [en alemán]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 93-1983. It includes the latest version of the German Ordinance on Dangerous Substances (Gefahrstoffverordnung), effective 1 Nov. 1993, and its Annexes I-IV: specifications for data sheets; classification and labelling of preparations and pesticides; labelling of certain substances, preparations and products; prohibitions of manufacture or use; special provisions for certain substances and activities; substances for which medical surveillance of exposed persons is required.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 27 Ergänzungslieferung, Dec. 1993. 170p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-649
International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Methyl parathion
Methyl parathion is a highly toxic organophosphorus ester insecticide. Overexposure through skin contact or inhalation during manufacture or use may cause severe or fatal poisoning; signs and symptoms are those characteristic of systemic poisoning by cholinesterase-inhibiting organophosphorus compounds and may include effects on the central nervous system. Methyl parathion formulations are readily absorbed; hazardous exposures may occur without warning. It is not possible to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to methyl parathion. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 244p. approx. 500 ref. Price: CHF 28.00 (CHF 19.60 developing countries).

CIS 94-555 Kishi R., Katakura Y., Yuasa J., Miyake H.
Association of parents' occupational exposure with cancer in children. A case-control study of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Shōni akusei shuyō to ryōshin no jūji suru sangyō oyobi shokugyō no kanren. Kyūsei rinpagakyūsei hakketsubyō no shōrei taishō kenkyū [en japonés]
Cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children less than 15 years of age identified between 1980 and 1990 in four hospitals in northern Japan (147 cases) were matched by age and sex with other hospital patients and by place of residence and sex with children in the general population. Data on occupation and exposure to various agents were obtained from mothers by interview and from fathers by mail questionnaire. More fathers of the cases were engaged in agriculture, medicine or science than were fathers of controls; more mothers were engaged in agriculture. In comparison with hospital controls, paternal preconceptual exposure to chemicals and prenatal exposure to pesticides and maternal prenatal exposure to benzine and spray pesticides were important risk factors. In comparison with population controls, maternal prenatal exposure to benzine and exposure to spray paints before the appearance of leukaemia were highly significant risks.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.6, p.515-529. 43 ref.

CIS 94-508 A guide to safety with pesticides
Informative booklet on the safe use of pesticides. Commonly used pesticide labels (pictograms) are explained.
Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1993. 4p. Illus.

CIS 94-321 Hustinx W.N.M., van de Laar R.T.H., van Huffelen A.C., Verwey J.C., Meulenbelt J., Savelkoul T.J.F.
Systemic effects of inhalational methyl bromide poisoning: A study of nine cases occupationally exposed due to inadvertent spread during fumigation
Systemic methyl bromide (CH3Br) poisoning with signs and symptoms of varying severity developed in nine greenhouse workers after acute inhalational exposure on two consecutive dates (one exposure episode might have been to >200ppm = 800mg/m3 CH3Br). Two of the victims needed intensive care for several weeks because of severe reactive myoclonus and generalized convulsions, which remained unresponsive to drug treatment and could only be suppressed effectively by induction of thiopental coma continued for three weeks. Prior subchronic exposure to CH3Br is likely to have been a factor in the development of severe symptoms. A factor contributing to the rapid spreading of CH3Br through the greenhouse was the fact that the drainage system was empty and out-of-use.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.155-159. 21 ref.

CIS 94-297 Zhuang J.G., Cheng Y.J., Yang S.X., Shu J.H., Levy L.S.
The setting of an occupational exposure limit for phosphamidon in the workplace - A Chinese approach
As a result of a systematic occupational health survey on the workers exposed to phosphamidon, together with the literature review, a 'maximum allowable concentration' (MAC) for phosphamidon in workplace air is suggested: 0.02mg/m3, on the condition that the route of skin entry be blocked effectively. The standard-setting process in China is compared to the current UK approach.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1993, Vol.37, No.1, p.89-99. 31 ref.

CIS 94-317 Kauppinen T., Kogevinas M., Johnson E., Becher H., Bertazzi P.A., De Mesquita H.B.B., Coggon D., Green L., Littorin M., Lynge E., Mathews J., Neuberger M., Osman J., Pannett B., Pearce N., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
Chemical exposure in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and in spraying of phenoxy herbicides
Exposure patterns are reported for manufacturing and sprayer cohorts incorporated in the "IARC International Register of Workers exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Contaminants". Information was based on company questionnaires, company reports, plant visits, and serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD measurements. In addition to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols, workers in manufacturing plants may have been exposed to raw materials, process chemicals, other agents synthesized or formulated, and impurities of all these agents. Sprayers also had a complex exposure pattern, including phenoxy herbicides and some other pesticides, their carriers and additives, and residues of chemicals formed during manufacture. Biological monitoring and industrial hygiene data were rarely available, most since the late 1970s. Exposure of workers depended mainly on the jobs they performed. A quantitative exposure classification is not feasible in this study. Semiquantitative exposure estimates may be derived through a critical interpretation of biological monitoring and industrial hygiene data together with individual work histories.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.23, No.6, p.903-920. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1982 Pesticides incidents investigated in 1992/93: A report by Field Operations Division
This summary report deals with cases in Great Britain involving acute symptoms following pesticide exposure. Investigations include ill health incidents during ground spraying and other agricultural operations, aerial spraying incidents and complaints, general and environmental complaints and incidents involving non-agricultural use of pesticides. Details provided include activity in progress and chemical being used, number, sex and age of persons involved and a brief summary of the incident or nature of the complaint. Details are also given of enforcement action taken under the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985 and the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986.
Health and Safety Executive, Field Operations Division, Unit B2, Room 813, Daniel House, Trinity Road, Bootle L20 7HE, United Kingdom, 1993. 85p.

CIS 93-1950 Halkova Z., Zaykov C., Antov G., Mihaylova A., Mircheva V., Dinoeva S., Chipilska L.
Experimental study of subacute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity of Bulmoscide preparation
The microbial product Bulmoscide is a new Bulgarian selective insecticide. The purpose of this study was to give the toxicological characteristics of subacute oral, dermal and inhalation exposure of microbial preparation Bulmoscide, which is based on bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, serotype H-14. The study was performed on sexually mature Wistar rats of both sexes. No significant changes in non-specific, clinico-laboratory and biochemical parameters as well as morphological examinations in any tested groups compared to the control groups were revealed. The doses 110mg/kg (1.32 x 109 sp/kg) at oral administration during 90 days, 3000mg/kg (3.6 x 1010 sp/kg) in 21 day dermal application and maximum attainable concentration of dust aerosol 18mg/m3 (2.2 x 108 sp/m3) during a 30 day inhalation exposure are "no toxic effect" levels. On the basis of these data, Bulmoscide has been determined to be of low toxicity, presenting little hazard in terms of the Hygiene Classification of pesticides.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.1, p.19-25. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 93-1806 Demeton-O-methyl
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 0.5mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1989-1990); PDK: 0.1mg/m3 P (USSR).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1801 Coumaphos
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects; inhibition of cholinesterase. Long-term exposure effects: significant depression of blood cholinesterase.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1795 Carbophenothion
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1942 Bond G.G., Rossbacher R.
A review of potential human carcinogenicity of the chlorophenoxy herbicides MCPA, MCPP and 2,4-DP
For the purpose of assessing the human carcinogenic potential of the chlorophenoxy herbicides MCPA, MCPP, and 2,4-DP, the relevant epidemiological and toxicological evidence is reviewed. These compounds have not produced tumours in animal studies conducted under current test guidelines, giving no reason to predict that they would be carcinogenic in humans. Epidemiological studies have been conducted on three continents; greater emphasis is placed on the studies reported from western Europe, however, as this has been the area of more use. Although several of these studies provide suggestive evidence of associations between exposure to chlorophenoxy compounds and increased risks for some uncommon cancers, it is inconsistent and far from conclusive. None of the evidence specifically implicates MCPA, MCPP, or 2,4-DP as human carcinogens.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.50, No.4, p.340-348. 53 ref.

CIS 93-1990 Lauwerys R.R., Hoet P.
Industrial chemical exposure - Guidelines for biological monitoring
The revised edition of this manual (see CIS 85-1653 for previous edition) presents practical guidance on the assessment of occupational exposure to industrial chemicals. An introductory chapter on the advantages, conditions and limitations of biological monitoring, interpretation of results and practical considerations is followed by descriptions of techniques for the biological monitoring of exposure to a number of organic, inorganic and organometallic substances.
Lewis Publishers, Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, Michigan 48118, USA, 2nd edition 1993. xii, 318p. Index. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 56.00.

CIS 93-1891 Fillmore C.M., Lessenger J.E.
A cholinesterase testing program for pesticide applicators
Illnesses associated with increased use of cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides have brought about recommendations for monitoring pesticide applicators. The State of California requires medical supervision and monitoring. In this study, 103 worker-years of cholinesterase monitoring are reported. Twenty-four workers (24%) were temporarily removed from spraying because their cholinesterase plasma activity levels were below 60% of baseline. Five workers (5%) had mild symptoms of toxicity but none reported a specific incident of exposure. The relative risk of pesticide poisoning was increased in workers whose initial baseline plasma levels were low or if their levels had already dropped to 60%-80% of their baseline previously in the season. Case studies and differences in baselines by month of determination suggest poor monitoring compliance by the companies and employees. Suggestions as to how the physician can overcome these problems and for improvements of the guidelines are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.61-70. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 93-1967 Kangas J., Laitinen S., Jauhiainen A., Savolainen K.
Exposure of sprayers and plant handlers to mevinphos in Finnish greenhouses
The exposure of sprayers and plant handlers to mevinphos, a toxic organophosphate insecticide, was evaluated in eight flower-growing greenhouses, in order to assess an appropriate re-entry interval after application. The method of application considerably affected the levels of mevinphos in greenhouse air and on the foliage. The Finnish occupational exposure limit for mevinphos (100µg/m3) was exceeded during the use of non-thermal foggers. Usually, however, the concentration in the breathing zone was below 10µg/m3 9-12h after application; the half-life was 9.2h. These data provide evidence that the main route of exposure is dermal, a conclusion supported by the excellent correlation between dermal exposure and the amount of mevinphos on the foliage. The calculated re-entry interval was approximately 4.5h. However, that interval is likely to be too short in practice because the risk of dermal exposure is considerable for more than 10h after application.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1993, Vol.54, No.4, p.150-157. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1974
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Benomyl
Benomyl causes contact dermatitis and dermal sensitisation in humans. No other effects have been reported. It is unlikely that benomyl, or its decomposition product carbendazim, would cause systemic toxicity effects in occupationally exposed subjects. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 135p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 18.00 (CHF 12.60 in developing countries).

CIS 93-1973
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
1,3-Dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloropropane and mixtures
Occupational exposure to 1,3-dichloropropene and 1,2-dichloropropane may be through inhalation or via the skin. 1,3-dichloropropene causes irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory mucosa. Inhalation of high concentrations results in serious signs and symptoms of poisoning, while lower exposures result in depression of the central nervous system and irritation of the respiratory system. Dermal exposure causes severe skin irritation. Liver and kidney function changes have also been reported. Several cases of dermatitis and skin sensitisation have been reported in workers using solvent mixtures containing 1,2-dichloropropane. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 261p. ca. 350 ref. Price: CHF 31.00 (CHF 21.70 in developing countries).

CIS 93-1866 Bruynzeel D.P., de Boer E.M., Brouwer E.J., de Wolff F.A., de Haan P.
Dermatitis in bulb growers
A damaged skin forms a health hazard in flower-bulb growers as it enables higher permeation rates for pesticides than normal skin. An investigation was performed of the skin condition of 103 bulb growers and 49 controls. Contact dermatitis of the hands was of the same order (11 and 10%) in both groups. However, minor signs of dermatitis were seen more often in bulb growers (30% versus 8%, p<0.05). Most growers had contact with narcissus sap during the investigation. This irritant sap, as well as many other skin contacts with irritants such as hyacinth dust and pesticides, seemed to be responsible for many skin complaints. Contact sensitisation was suspected in 19 growers and 3 controls. Patch tests showed that contact sensitisation existed to pesticides in probably 10, and to flower-bulb extracts in 4 growers. Reactions to propachlor were not regarded as very reliable as the test concentration seemed to be marginally irritant. There were only a few allergic reactions to narcissus (3) and tulip (2) and none to hyacinth. This investigation showed that minor irritant contact dermatitis was frequent in bulb growers, and indicated that contact sensitisation to pesticides and bulbs seemed to be a less frequent but important cause of dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1993, Vol.29, No.1, p.11-15. 26 ref.

CIS 93-1645
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Propachlor
There is little information on the effects of propachlor (synonym: ramrod) on humans. A few cases of contact and allergic dermatitis in exposed farmers and production workers have been reported. Patch tests revealed a positive patch test reaction, irritation reaction or hypersensitivity. There have been no reports of other symptoms or diseases either among occupationally exposed humans or the general population. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 110p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (developing countries CHF 11.20).

CIS 93-1274 Bas Bueno de Mesquita H., Doornbos G., van der Kuip D.A.M., Kogevinas M., Winkelmann R.
Occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and cancer mortality in the Netherlands
A cohort of 2,310 workers from two plants who manufacture and prepare chlorophenoxy herbicides in the Netherlands was followed during the periods 1955-1985 and 1965-1986, respectively. In 1963, there was an industrial accident in one factory with concomitant release of dioxin into the environment. Mortality data on 963 exposed and 1,111 nonexposed men were evaluated by external and internal comparison. Compared with national rates, total mortality (94 deaths, SMR = 101; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82-124) and cancer mortality (31 deaths, SMR = 107; 95% CI, 73-152) for exposed workers were not significantly increased. A statistically insignificant increase was observed for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no increase in either total mortality in cancer mortality among the 139 workers probably exposed to dioxins during the 2,4,5-trichlorophenol production accident. Compared with nonexposed workers, exposed workers did not exhibit a higher total mortality. Mortality due to all cancers and respiratory cancer was not significantly elevated. These findings suggest that the increases in cancer mortality among workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols may be attributable to chance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.289-300. 20 ref.

CIS 93-1153
Agricultural Industry Advisory Committee (AIAC)
A guide to producing a farm COSHH assessment
Guidance book aimed at farmers who wish to learn how to produce a COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988, see CIS 89-1092) assessment. Attention is drawn to hazardous substances commonly used in farming, warning symbols used, assessing exposure on farms, control measures, health surveillance, implementing the assessment. A check list is presented (exposure prevention, hazards and risks, control, protective equipment, instruction and training, health surveillance).
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 12p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 93-951 Dinham B.
The Pesticides Trust
The pesticide hazard: A global health and environmental audit
World survey of pesticide use, and of the effects of pesticides on health and the environment. Contents: introduction (background, international regulation, controls on pesticide trade); trading in pesticides; health and safety (number of workers exposed, particular problem of agricultural labourers, low-income countries and unreliable statistics, chronic exposure, overreporting of suicides, aerial spraying, problems of storage and disposal, food contamination, problems of medical diagnosis of pesticide poisoning, labelling issues); environmental issues; country reports (Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela, Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaysia). In annex: questionnaire survey addressed to major agrochemical corporations, and a summary of the responses; producers of PIC (Prior Informed Consent) pesticides still available and of potential PIC pesticides. Glossary.
Zed Books Ltd., 57 Caledonian Road, London N1 9BU, United Kingdom and 165 First Ave., Atlantic Hughlands, NJ 07716, USA, 1993. 228p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

1992

CIS 03-1546 Guía de Seguridad e Higiene para la utilización de los productos químicos agrícolas
Bezopasnost' i gigiena truda pri ispol'zovanii agrohimikatov: rukovodstvo [en ruso]
Traducción rusa del manual referenciado en CIS 91-792. En el sumario: aspectos generales (modo de penetración de las sustancias peligrosas en el organismo, clasificación, etiquetado e identificación, seguridad de la manipulación y de la utilización, destrucción de residuos, prevención técnica, equipo de protección individual); intoxicación por los productos químicos agrícolas (tipos y síntomas de intoxicación y de lesión, primeros auxilios, papel de los centros de información toxicológica, efectos de la temperatura e intervenciones en caso de incendio); papel y responsabilidades de los fabricantes, servicios públicos, minoristas, empresarios, trabajadores y población local; educación y formación; casos que ilustran las consecuencias de una utilización incorrecta de los productos químicos agrícolas en los países en desarrollo.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1992. 109p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 02-1078 Lindano
Lindane [en francés]
Ficha toxicológica. Actualización de la ficha referenciada en CIS 89-1129. Toxicidad aguda: irritación de la piel y la mucosa nasal; afectación del sistema nervioso central; hiperexcitabilidad miocárdica; colapso cardiovascular; insuficiencia respiratoria; insuficiencia renal; trastornos digestivos (ingestión). Toxicidad crónica: efectos hematotóxicos; síntomas neurológicos. Límites de exposición (Francia): TWA = 0,5 mg/m3. Número CEE y códigos de etiquetado obligatorios: nº602-043-00-6; T, R23/24/25, R36/38, S2, S13, S44. En CIS 01-201 se analiza la colección completa de fichas toxicológicas en formato CD-ROM.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 00-325 Reglamentación de 1992 relativa a la homologación de los plaguicidas común a los Estados Miembros del CILSS [Comité Inter-Estados de lucha contra la sequedad del Sahel]
Réglementation de 1992 sur l'homologation des pesticides commune aux Etats membres du CILSS [Comité inter-Etats de lutte contre la sécheresse dans le Sahel] [en francés]
Reglamentación sobre la homologación de los plaguicidas comunes en los Estados miembros del CILSS (Comité Inter.-Estados de lucha contra la sequedad del Sahel) el cual incluye Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali; Mauritania, Níger, Senegal y Chad.
Fotocopias, 16p. Con CIS.

CIS 96-1804
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Fenitrotión
Fenitrothion [en inglés]
Conclusiones de esta documentación básica: el fenitrotión (metathion) es un éster organofosforado moderadamente tóxico; una sobreexposición debida a la manipulación de esta sustancia durante su fabricación o utilización puede provocar una intoxicación grave. Se han descrito algunos casos de dermatitis de contacto. Resúmenes en francés y en español.
Organización Mundial de la Salud, Servicio de Distribución y Ventas, 1211 Genève 27, Suiza, 1992. 184p. 420 ref. aprox. Precio: CHF 22,00 (CHF 15,40 países en desarrollo).

CIS 96-1803
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Triclorfón
Trichlorfon [en inglés]
Principales conclusiones de esta documentación básica: se han descrito numerosos casos de intoxicación humana por la exposición al triclorfón (clorofos); en algunos casos ha aparecido una polineuropatía diferida algunas semanas después de la exposición. Se han producido algunas intoxicaciones de origen profesional; la exposición a concentraciones atmosféricas por encima de 0,5 mg/m3 conduce a una disminución de la colinesterasa plasmática y cambios en los trazados electroencefalográficos. Resúmenes en francés y en español.
Organización Mundial de la Salud, Servicio de Distribución y Ventas, 1211 Genève 27, Suiza, 1992. 162p. 460 ref. aprox. Precio: CHF 22,00 (CHF 15,40 países en desarrollo).

CIS 96-12 Ley de 1992 sobre Control de los Pesticidas y los Productos Químicos Tóxicos [Guyana]
Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals Control Act 1992 [Guyana] [en inglés]
El objetivo de esta Ley es regular la fabricación, importación, transporte, almacenamiento, venta, utilización y eliminación de los pesticidas y otros productos químicos tóxicos en Guayana. También establece la Oficina de Control de los Pesticidas y Productos Químicos Tóxicos, encargada del registro de dichas sustancias y de las inspecciones. En esta Ley se contienen las disposiciones relativas a la emisión de reglamentos.
Georgetown, Guyana, 1992. 22p.

CIS 95-2021 Matarrita L.
Programa de Educación Manejo Seguro de Plaguicidas - Equipos de aplicación terrestre
Manual de formación sobre la adecuada aplicación terrestre de los pesticidas agrícolas (es decir no por pulverización aérea). Se describen los diferentes modelos de aplicadores de pesticidas y los elementos que lo constituyen.
Cámara Insumos Agropecuarios, Apdo.:691 - 2150 Moravia, San José, Costa Rica, 2a ed., 1992. 29p. Ilus. 5 ref.

CIS 95-102 Matarrita L., Aguilar L.
Programa de educación. Manejo seguro de plaguicidas - Clases de plaguicidas
Cámara Insumos Agropecuarios, Apdo.: 691-2150 Moravia, San José, Costa Rica, 2a ed., 1992. 14p. Ilus. 4 ref. ###

CIS 94-1178
Health and Safety Executive
Food and Environment Act. Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986. An open learning course
This open-learning course is concerned with Part III of the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985 (FEPA) and the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (COPR) made under it. The course has been prepared to give officers authorized to enforce Part III an understanding of their powers and functions. Contents: review of the requirements of FEPA and COPR; application of COPR; pesticide approval; consents; the advertisement, sale, supply, storage, transport and disposal of pesticides; use of pesticides and codes of practice; summary of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (COSHH); elements of training; powers of enforcement; offences. Self-assessment questions and answers are included.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vii, 215p. Price: GBP 16.00.

CIS 94-293 Dourson M.L., Knauf L.A., Swartout J.C.
On reference dose (RfD) and its underlying toxicity data base
Toxicity data on pesticides were summarized and compared amongst different animal species and types of bioassays. These comparisons showed the expected variability. After quantitative and statistical analysis, it was concluded that, on the average, a two-year dog bioassay detected toxic responses at similar doses as a two-year rat study, and that both of these bioassays detected toxic responses at lower doses than either a rat two-generation bioassay, a rat developmental toxicity study, or a two-year mouse bioassay. Although these chronic dog and rat bioassays were found to detect toxic responses at lower doses than the other studies listed, this analysis does not reflect the seriousness of the effects that were compared. Within the confines of this analysis, then, it appears that a two-year dog and rat study, reproductive and developmental bioassays are a sufficient data base on which to estimate high confidence Reference Doses (RfDs), and furthermore, that an additional uncertainty factor is needed to estimate RfDs to account for this variability when fewer than this number of bioassays are available.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, May-June 1992, Vol.8, No.3, p.171-189. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 94-289 Cone J.E., Sult T.A.
Acquired intolerance to solvents following pesticide/solvent exposure in a building - A new group of workers at risk for multiple chemical sensitivities?
This study describes an incident involving resort hotel workers who reported various symptoms most likely associated with pesticide applications to control cockroach infestation. Many of these workers subsequently developed acquired intolerance to pesticides, solvents, or other agents, suggesting multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). The accepted hypothesis for the outbreak is that it represents acute and chronic poisoning with a cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide, probably the carbamate pesticide Baygon, mixed with organic solvent carriers. It is noted that in two previous building-associated pesticide poisoning cases there were far fewer MCS-like symptoms reported. It is suggested that the difference in the outbreak under review may be the ongoing nature of the exposure, namely that the repeated applications of pesticides and carriers in the same environment contrast with the evacuation and clean-up that occurred in the other two building outbreaks.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.8, No.4, p.29-39. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 94-116 Thallium metal
Thallium (métal) [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects; delayed effects. Long-term exposure effects: disorders of the vision, lungs, kidneys, liver and central nervous system; may cause birth defects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-114 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Acide trichloro-2,4,5 phénoxyacétique [en francés]
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: suspected human carcinogen and teratogen.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

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