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El trabajo en ordenadores de pantalla/El trabajo en ordenadores de pantalla
Ergonomic guide concerning work with CRT display terminals. Contents: common complaints among display terminal operators; general principles concerning illumination and visual perception; ergonomic aspects of the workplace (terminal, keyboard, desk, seat, foot-rest, sitting posture); workplace design; hygienic aspects (radiation, thermal environment, noise, organisation of working time and pauses, orthopaedic aspects); psychological aspects of work with display terminals; ergonomic checklist.
Asociación para la Prevención de Accidentes, C/Echaide 4, 20005 San Sebastián, Spain, 1985. 58p. Illus.
Carrasco de Salas J.M., Carrasco Benítez G.
Estudio epidemiológico del trabajo sobre pantallas de visualización (PDV) - Avance de resultados/Estudio epidemiológico del trabajo sobre pantallas de visualización (PDV) - Avance de resultados
Spanish questionnaire study of the working conditions of 197 persons working with video display terminals and 146 with other administrative duties (control group). Significant results of the study: the opinion of the operators concerning the lighting of the workplace was much more negative than that of the controls (regarding intensity of light, glare, reflection, contrasts and shadows). The operators were also significantly more affected by backache and pains in the neck and shoulders and by irritated eyes and temporarily troubled eyesight then were the controls. The differences in perceived general muscular and articular pain, depressions, general fatigue and skin troubles, however, were not statistically significant. The results are compared to those of a similar NIOSH study.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1985, Vol.32, No.128, p.42-58. Illus.
International trade union guidelines on visual display units
Directives syndicales internationales sur les unités de visualisation [en francés]
Main aspects covered by these guidelines: health hazards of VDUs, recommendations for the use of VDUs, workplaces with VDUs, recommended technical standards, technical information, glossary.
Fédération internationale des employés, techniciens et cadres, 15 avenue de Balexert, 1219 Genève, Switzerland, 1985. 91p. Illus.
Sibarov Ju.G., Skolotnev N.N., Vasin V.K., Naginaev V.N.
Labour protection in computer centres
Ohrana truda v vyčislitel'nyh centrah [en ruso]
This training manual for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in computer centres. Contents: fundamentals of labour legislation, organisation of safety work, safety standards; occupational accidents and diseases; occupational hygiene (main issues of occupational hygiene, labour physiology and psychology, microclimate, noise control, lighting, ventilation and heating); electrical safety (effects of electricity on the human body, protective measures); fire protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", Stromynskij per.4, Moskva, USSR, 1985. 175p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Rbl.0.35.
Work with visual display units
Arbete vid bildskärm [en sueco]
These regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1986) apply to CRT display terminals, but do not cover oscilloscopes, measuring instruments, typewriters or calculating machines with luminous displays. They specify that the screen should provide good legibility, that the workstation should be laid out so as to avoid any reflection, and that the working-surface height should be adjustable to obtain an optimal angle of vision. The workstation should be designed so as to exclude strained postures and motions. Any person working more than one hour during a working day at a VDU should undergo a vision test. Employees suffering from eye-strain should be given the opportunity to alternate with other less strenuous tasks. Work with VDUs involving monotonous routines should be avoided. Detailed commentaries. (An English translation is available from Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Stockholm).
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 18 June 1985. 11p. Illus.
Guidelines to occupational health in VDT operation
A revised edition of the provisional guideline abstracted as CIS 85-1275. These guidelines apply to office workers as defined by the Japanese Ordinance on Health and Hygiene in the Office. Contents: the working environment (lighting, glare prevention, noise control); work practice (operation hours, VDT equipment and furniture, adjustment); maintenance, checking and cleaning; health care; OSH education. Appendices include detailed explanations of the guidelines, a comparison of regulations and guidelines on VDT use in 5 countries (Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, USA, United Kingdom) and a comparison of the Japanese Ministry of Labour's Administrative Notice on VDT Operation (20. Dec. 1985) with guidelines set by Japanese labour organisations.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Shiba Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, 20 Dec. 1985. 34p. Price: Y.1,000.
Working conditions at video monitors
Warunki pracy przy monitorach ekranowych [en polonés]
A review of the physical and psychological hazards faced by workers at cathode-ray-tube (CRT) display units is followed by the results of observations made at CRT workstations in a billing office of the Polish postal and telecommunications authority. Although radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields above allowable levels were measured around the monitors (which had been installed in 1977), the workers were positioned far enough from the screens to be outside the danger zone. In ergonomic terms, the full 8h working day with only 2 breaks did not conform to the Central Institute of Labour Protection's 1982 recommendation of an effective 5h day with a 10min break every hour and a gymnastics break once per shift. Modification of the work schedule in accordance with the recommendations improved worker performance.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.10-15. Illus. 6 ref.
Alonso Arenal F.
Nuevas tecnologías, salud y empleo
The impact of new technologies on employment and its structure is reviewed and the potential health hazards are identified for the microelectronic and biotechnology industries.
Salud y trabajo, Nov.-Dec. 1985, No.52, p.38-52. Illus.
Work with visual display units
Travail sur écran de visualisation [en francés]
Contents of this ergonomic study: mental work-load, visual stress (criteria for inaptitude and reduced aptitude for hiring personnel to work more than 4h per day on VDUs), postural stress; analysis and layout of the work station; medical supervision, visual aptitude.
Promosafe, Sep.-Oct. 1985, Vol.12, No.4, p.351-362. Illus. 32 ref.
Knave B.G., Wibom R.I., Voss M., Hedström L.D., Bergqvist U.O., Carlsson L.L., Levin M.I., Nylén P.R., Böös S.R., Calissendorf B.M., Nyman K.G., Lidén C., Wahlberg J.E.
Work with video display terminals among office employees [in 5 parts]
Aspects covered in this major epidemiologic study of 400 Swedish VDT operators: subjective symptoms and discomfort; physical exposure factors; ophthalmologic factors; refraction, accommodation, convergence and binocular vision; dermatologic factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1985, Vol.11, No.6, p.457-493. Illus. 82 ref.
Lidén C., Wahlberg J.E.
Does visual display terminal work provoke rosacea?
A questionnaire was sent to all 179 employed outpatients of the dermatology department of the Karolineka Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) who had been diagnosed as having rosacea or perioral dermatitis. The questions related to occupation and the occurrence of video display terminal (VDT) work; VDT workers were asked about their working hours and the perceived effect of VDT work on their skin condition. Results were tabulated along with sex, age, occupational and symptomatological data. Of the 166 respondents, 42 had worked with VDTs; 9 of the 42 felt that VDT work aggravated their skin condition, and 4 of the 8 had begun VDT work before the onset of rosacea. There may be a relation between rosacea and VDT work in these cases.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1985, Vol.13, No.4, p.235-241. 21 ref.
De Passano C., Pugnet G., Prost G.
A project for the improvement of monitoring tasks and working conditions of the personnel of a road-tunnel control room
Essai d'amélioration de la condition de la surveillance et des conditions de travail des pupitreurs d'un tunnel routier [en francés]
Description of a control room where monitoring of a road tunnel and working conditions have been improved by changes in the closed-circuit television system. The effectiveness and limitations of the system are evaluated.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.59-61.
Wolbarsht M.L., Landers M.B.
Testing visual capabilities for medical surveillance or to ensure job fitness
A rationale is presented for designing screening-type eye examinations to document visual capabilities for specific jobs or changes in visual function following exposure to specific ocular hazards. Possible applications to clinical situations are also discussed. A battery of tests that include contrast sensitivity, distortions in macular imaging and colour vision is detailed for use with 3 occupations: automobile driver licence applicants, visual display operators and laser users.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.27, No.12, p.897-901. Illus. 25 ref.
Floru R., Cail F., Elias R.
Psychophysiological changes during a VDU repetitive task
A simulated realistic 120min data-entry task on a visual display terminal was employed to study the relationship between performance and various physiological indices of arousal. For 80% of the subjects, performance showed a progressive decline, reaching minimal values after 45-46min of work, followed by a significant rebound. Behavioural responses were associated with EEG arousal changes whereas average heart rate decreased from beginning to the end. The EEG pattern accompanying the rebound of the performance during the data-entry task supports the auto-arousal hypothesis which assumes that a cerebral compensatory effort intervenes in a mental repetitive task.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1985, Vol.28, No.10, p.1455-1468. Illus. 36 ref.
Friedrich J., Kollmeier R., Schläger U., Wicke W.
Video display terminal work - Social effects and approaches to work design
Bildschirmarbeit - Soziale Auswirkungen und Gestaltungsansätze [en alemán]
The 1st part of this report is an analysis of the literature on the social consequences of video terminal work (changes in job content and qualifications, workload and stress, unique features of the work) and on ways of humanising the work. The 2nd part is a bibliography of about 600 citations according to the topics covered in this report.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 322p. 600 ref. Price: DM.34.00.
Effective use of colours on visual displays screens - Part 2
Värinäytön suunnittelu: värien käytön ohjeet [en finlandés]
This article treats the perception of colour and provides guidelines for the effective use of colours on a visual display screen. The perception of colour is affected by numerous factors: the size of the target, its distance from the viewer, the time the target is visible, and the viewer's age are some of the factors important to how colour is experienced. Colour can be used on the display screen to arouse attention, to group information, or to designate values. These benefits are lost if colour is used without an understanding of how colour is perceived.
Ergonomiatiedote, 1985, No.3, p.1-12. Illus. 14 ref.
Effective use of colours on visual display screens - Part 1
Värinäytön suunnittelu: väri ja värinäkeminen [en finlandés]
First of 2 articles devoted to this topic. Colour domination in the display of information has occurred so rapidly that the effective use of colour has not been considered thoroughly. From the ergonomic point of view, the use of colours requires knowledge about the physiology of colour vision - how the lens, the retina, and the brain react when light reaches the eye. It must also be remembered that a variety of visual deficiencies affect the perception of colour. The ergonomist has to know the perceptual aspects of colours - how colour is experienced. This perception of colour is also influenced by hue, lightness, saturation, and brightness.
Ergonomiatiedote, 1985, No.2, p.1-12. Illus. 6 ref.
Visual display units: Job content and stress in office work
This book, aimed at consultants, managers, trade unionists and other individuals affected by new office technology, explores a common office task: that of the data entry operator working on a visual display unit or keypunch. Aspects covered: the changing nature of office work; organisation and scheduling of tasks; health, safety and ergonomic considerations related to data entry jobs; occupational stress; recommendations for improving data entry work; statistical aspects.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1985. 138p. Bibl. Price: SF.17.50.
This illustrated leaflet, intended for the general public, uses illustrations and a question/answer format to describe causes and prevention of hazards from video display units.
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (ROSPA), Cannon House, The Priory Queensway, Birmingham B4 6BS, United Kingdom, 1985. 10p. Illus. Price: £0.70.
Binnie C.D., Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite D.G.A, de Korte R., Wilkins A.
Visual display units and risk of seizures
This letter to the editor provides evidence and explanations for the statement that visual display units (VDUs) are much less likely to cause epileptic seizures in photosensitive subjects than does television. The evidence is that photosensitive subjects, 40% of whom have epileptiform EEG discharges when viewing black-and-white television, do not have them when viewing VDUs. The explanation is that in VDUs flicker is reduced and the alternating linear raster pattern is usually absent.
Lancet, 27 Apr. 1985, Vol.1, No.8435, P.991. 5 ref.
A study of VDU operators' information processing based on saccadic eye movement and response time
Visual search experiment carried out to delineate operator visual information processing in VDU work. Eye movements, response times and performances were measured. The operators used 2 different types of information processing sequential and rereading. The relation between information processing and performance revealed that the subject who carried out the sequential type performed better in information processing. Regularity in eye movement produces better performance.
Ergonomics, June 1985, Vol.28, No.6, p.855-867. Bibl.
Electrooculography and video recording in the evaluation of occupational stress in intensive VDU work
Electrooculographie et vidéo-recorder dans l'évaluation de la contrainte de travail sur terminal de saisie intensive [en francés]
Electrooculographie et vidéo-recorder dans l'évaluation de la contrainte de travail sur terminal de saisie intensive [en holandés]
3 VDU terminals used in intensive data input work in banks were studied. Description of the 3 work stations, of the operators, of the tasks involved and of the recording method for the electrooculographic tracings coupled and synchronised with the video-recorded image of eye movements. More mental and eye strain exists in this kind of intensive terminal work than in others. A better analysis is possible of the ergonomic factors involved and they can lead to a rearrangement of the work stations and of the tasks involved.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1985, Vol.22, No.1, p.7-16. Illus. 20 ref.
Health hazards of VDUs: A review of the issues and a bibliography with selected annotations
Aspects covered in this technical note: health risks issues and evidence; trade union responses; bibliography.
Trade Union Research Unit, Ruskin College, 23 Worcester Place, Oxford, United Kingdom, Mar. 1985. 73p. Bibl. Price: £15.00.
Staehle W.H., Hattke W., Sydow J.
Organisational and social effects on the individual arising from the use of visual display units in offices
The aim of this report was to create a situational and organisational frame of reference and to specify the effects of VDUs on the individually perceived work situation. Contents: theoretical concepts (macrostructure of the work situation); hypotheses concerning VDU use in offices; empirical investigations on VDUs in offices (methodology, descriptive and empirical results concerning measures prior to VDU introduction, sociodemographic features of VDU users, user attitudes and changes due to VDU introduction); limits of the investigation.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill Co., Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 128p. Illus. 41 ref.
Cabrol M., Chabaud C., Christol J., Delvolve N., De Terssac G., Lambert G., Queinnec Y.
Effect of the introduction of a visual display unit in a computerised office on the health of operators
Conséquences de l'introduction de terminaux à écran de visualisation sur la santé des opérateurs dans un bureau automatisé [en francés]
This report is the outcome of a project that was developed to serve as a basic framework for the longitudinal observation of potential health hazards of VDU operators. It sets out criteria for the characterisation of the possible health effects caused by computerisation, the location and description of the work tasks which caused the health effects, the location and description of the operators affected and the establishment of the time when the health effects were produced. Three checklists for the investigation of the state of health of the VDU operators are appended.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 116p. 22 ref.
Reading V.M., Weale R.A.
Objective signs of potential physical stress and fatigue in visual display unit operators
The aim of this report presented in 2 parts was to investigate objective, physiological changes which occur in the human body when subjected to stressors at work, such as working with a video display unit (VDU), and to correlate these objective measures with psychophysical data collected simultaneously on the speed and accuracy of performance responses. The investigated subjects (7 in the first part of the report and 29 in the second) worked either with a VDU and keyboard or with pencil and paper on specific closely defined tasks. Coverage: methodology (psychophysical tests, electrophysiological measurements); observer data; protocols; results; trainee VDU operator study.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 97p. Illus.
Dreyer V., Jensen S., Pedersen V., Petersen E., Richter A.
The working environment at visual display units - a field study
Arbejdsmiljøet ved skærmterminaler - En feltundersogelse [en danés]
Analysis of the problems relating to heat radiation, noise, dust, lighting, and ergonomics in the directory enquiries section of a telephone company, with a control sample from the accounts department. The questionnaire sheets used for the study and a check list for the evaluation of the workplace design are appended.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 263p. Illus. Price: ECU 13.57
Allegations of reproductive hazards from VDUs
Proceedings of a conference held in London (United Kingdom), 29-30 Nov. 1984. Contents: epidemiology of spontaneous abortions, birth defects and prematurity; adverse pregnancy outcome amongst VDT operators - the cluster phenomenon; reproduction and work with visual display units - a pilot study; physical and chemical environments at VDT work stations - air ions, electrostatic fields, magnetic fields and PCBs; electric and magnetic fields around VDTs - review of biological efects, standards and practical solutions for reducing exposure levels; a manufacturer's viewpoint; a trade union response to the allegations of reproductive hazards from VDUs; visual display unit operation - possible reproductive effects; work and pregnancy in Montreal - preliminary findings on work with visual display units; review of the radiation emission surveys of VDUs.
Humane Technology, P.O. Box 2, Quorn, Leicestershire LE12 8EG, United Kingdom, 1984. 206p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 15.00 (Europe), GBP 16.50 (elsewhere).
Craipeau S., Marot J.C.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Telework: Impact on living and working conditions
Télétravail - impact sur les conditions de vie et de travail [en francés]
Telework (i.e. telecommuting) is defined as "work carried out by a decentralised unit (person or group), i.e. a unit separated from its establishment, whose activity calls for the intensive use of telecommunications facilities". This report on a study financed by the CEC covers: the information society; a framework for analysis of telework; three important dimensions (technical and organisational change, modified perception of space and time, workers' perception of and satisfaction in their work). Particular attention is paid to telecommuting in France (public and private sector, interviews with managers and teleworkers, the concepts of autonomy of workers and of integration of telecommuting in the working community and in daily life). Case studies are also provided for: Federal Republic of Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Italy, USA. Evaluation reports by the Trade Unions' Group, Employers' Group and Governments' Group on the Seminar on the Impact of Telework on Living and Working Conditions (Brussels, Belgium, 30 Nov. 1983). In the appendices: detailed case-studies of telecommuting in the United Kingdom, Italy, the USA and France; analysis of technologies and jobs that can be dispersed.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2985, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1984. 324p. 91 ref. Price: BEF 1100; GBP 16.30; USD 23.50.
Health hazards assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic fields emitted by video display terminals
This report reviews and summarises the findings of the literature, assesses the validity of the data, and analyses the possibilities of biological effects due to non-ionising radiation from VDTs. Discussed are: characterisation of the VDT operator environment; current safety standards; dosimetry and quantitative methods of exposure evaluation; reports associating VDTs and health problems; reported biological effects; mechanisms and thresholds for the interaction of non-ionising radiation energy and biological systems energy; conclusions and recommendations.
IBM Office of the Director of Health and Safety, Corporate Headquarters, Old Orchard Road, Armonk, N.Y. 10304, USA, 2 Dec. 1984. 172p. Illus. 68 ref. Appendices.
Dreyer V., Jensen S., Pedersen V., Petersen E., Richter A.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The working environment at visual display units - A field study
Study of the working conditions in the offices of the Copenhagen (Denmark) telephone company, equipped with VDUs. Description of the methods used; evaluation of the attitude of workers towards VDU work; measurement; lighting; visual fatigue; temperature; ergonomic and psychological aspects.
Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 108p. Illus.
Zelený A., Matoušek O., Hladký A.
Health and ergonomic aspects of work at visual display units. II. Ergonomic aspects
Zdravotní a ergonomická hlediska práce u vizuálně displejových terminálů. II. Ergonomické aspekty [en checo]
An analysis of the literature and the authors' own experience. The most frequent ergonomic shortcomings in video terminal workplaces are mentioned. The effects of radiation and electric and magnetic fields are not responsible for health impairments or fatigue. Parameters are given for good alpha-numeric symbols, arrangement of keyboards, modification of documents, dimensions and shape of work tables and seats, lighting, climatic conditions, limitation of noise level and organisation of work and rest schedules.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.1, p.17-23. Illus. 49 ref.
Report of the working group on visual display terminals and workers' health
Rapport du groupe de travail sur les terminaux à écran de visualisation et la santé des travailleurs [en francés]
Aspects covered by this report: the environment (work stations, equipment, potential hazards); health problems (visual and eye problems, cataracts, biological effects, dermatitis, stress); recommendations; bibliography.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec, 505, boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, 1984. 77p. 251 ref.
Are there harmful health effects of radiation from VDUs?
Gesundheitsschäden durch Strahlung am Bildschirm? [en alemán]
Critical study of the scientific literature on the health effects of radiation from visual display units (VDUs); the nature of electromagnetic radiation, measurement of x-rays, biological effects of ionising radiation, types of radiation produced by VDUs, x-ray emissions by VDUs. A comparison with naturally occurring radiations demonstrates that the risk from radiation produced by VDUs is actually lower than the risk from radiation due to natural sources. There is no scientific justification for claiming that radiation from VDUs can have harmful consequences for health.
Angewandte Arbeitswissenschaft, 1984, No.101, p.33-42. Illus. 13 ref.
Grandjean E., Hünting W., Nishiyama K.
Perferred VDT workstation settings, body posture and physical impairments
In a field study, an adjustable VDT experimental workstation was given to each of 68 operators for 1 week. The preferred settings, body postures and subjective evaluations were assessed during normal working activities. The preferred ranges were: keyboard height (home row above floor): 71-87cm; screen height (centre above floor): 92-116cm; viewing angles (eye to screen centre): +2 to -26°; visual distance (eye to screen); 61-93cm. There was no correlation between preferred settings and anthropometric data of body length or eye levels above floor. The great majority of operators tended to lean backwards with trunk inclinations between 97 and 121°.
Applied Ergonomics, 2 June 1984, Vol.15, No.2, p.99-104. Illus. 11 ref.
Video display terminals and health: a technical and medical appraisal of the state of the art
This report evaluates the present knowledge regarding the technical, occupational hygiene, safety and medical aspects of work with VDTs. It appears that the only specific problem which can be clearly related to work on VDTs is eye discomfort.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1984, Vol.10, Supplement No.2, 87p. Illus. 138 ref.
VDT work and occupational health - A provisional guideline
Contents of this basic guideline on health protection of VDT workers: general provisions; training; illumination and lighting; prevention of glare; ergonomics of the workpost; medical examinations. The publication is translated from the Japanese original.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Shiba Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108 Japan, Feb. 1984. 25p.
Harvey S.M., Starecky L.
Survey of electric and magnetic fields at Ontario hydro VDU work stations
This research report describes the methodology and instrumentation used in measuring electric and magnetic fields produced by VDTs at 54 different workstations. The frequency range investigated went from d.c. to a.c. beyond 1MHz. At 30cm from the VDT, the maximum equivalent environmental d.c. field was 1500V/m and the electric and magnetic fields at 17kHz were respectively 2.7V/m rms and 0.16A/m rms. These levels are thought to be too low to present a biological risk to the operators.
Ontario Hydro Research Division, 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5S4, Canada, 1 Mar. 1984. 18p. Illus. 6 ref. Appendices.
Elias R., Audran R., Barré P., Héreau P., Rohr D., Vogt J.J.
Visual display units - Manual for the occupational physician
Les écrans de visualisation - Guide méthodologique pour le médecin du travail [en francés]
This multidisciplinary guide provides the information necessary for the implementation of French regulations relating to work on visual display units. Its aim is to help the occupational physician in reducing attendant health problems of operators, and in deciding questions of aptitude. Summary: display of information (on cathode-ray terminals and others); vision and lighting, visual comfort, physiological mechanisms of eye adaptation, the luminous environment, basic ergonomic rules, recommendations; electromagnetic radiation, thermal environment and noise; visual fatigue; postural stress, design of the workstation and of the workplace in general; psychological factors due to the contents and organisation of the work involved; aptitude tests, monitoring, questionnaires.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cédex 14, France, Dec. 1984, 71p. Illus. 24 ref.
Kurppa K., Holmberg P.C., Rantala K., Nurminen T.
Birth defects and video display terminals
A case-referent study of 183 mothers of babies born with congenital malformations, and of 203 controls. No association was found between video display terminal work (minimum 4h a day) and birth defects.
Lancet, 8 Dec. 1984, Vol.2, No.8415, p.1339. 6 ref.
Bennett J., Case D., Sandelin J., Smith M.
Visual display terminals - usability issues and health concerns
Section 1 deals with ergonomic aspects of visual display terminals (VDTs) connected to computer systems. Section 2 covers health aspects of VDTs, including a major review of the literature, and discussions of visual fatigue, stress due to VDT use, lighting, posture, and faulty design of the environment, of the workstation and of the job. The physiology of eye movements is discussed in detail. Suggested control measures include improved workplace design and limitation of worktime spent at VDTs.
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA, 1984. 297p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$37.80.
Shute S.J., Starr S.J.
Effects of adjustable furniture on VDT users
An 8-week study focussed on advanced video display terminal (VDT) workstation tables and a 5-week study focussed on advanced chairs and 4 combinations of advanced and conventional telephone operator workstation components were compared. Although on-the-job discomfort was reduced when either conventional component was replaced with an advanced component, the effect was greater when the advanced table and chair were used together. The adjustments of the advanced furniture were reported to be easy to use, and advanced furniture was rated more highly than conventional furniture.
Human Factors, Apr. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.157-170. 14 ref.
Smith A.B., Tanaka S., Halperin W., Richards R.D.
Correlates of ocular and somatic symptoms among video display terminal users
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees of a newspaper company to define the type of ocular and somatic complaints reported by video-display terminal (VDT) users and to identify their relationship to VDT use, to determine the association between symptoms and the participants' adequacy of correction of refractive errors for their jobs and to assess the prevalence of eye abnormalities, especially cataracts, and their relation to VDT use. Poor visual clarity of the VDT screen explained the plurality of work-associated symptoms. 1 qualitative and 2 quantitative VDT-use variables suggested that lesser skill or experience were associated with headaches. No associations were found between adequacy of the participants' refractions, including the wearing of glasses with bi- or multifocal lenses, and the reporting of work-associated symptoms, nor between VDT use and the prevalence of eye abnormalities.
Human Factors, Apr. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.143-156. 30 ref.
Ergonomics and health in modern offices
This book is a comprehensive review of current research on office work with VDTs and comprises 76 papers by different authors (presented at a conference held in Turin, Italy, on 7-9 Nov. 1983) under the following main headings: office environment (air quality, noise, visual conditions, hazards); field studies on VDT operators (health aspects, stress and strain); cognitive aspects, software and job design; visual functions; viewing VDTs and reading tasks (lighting, visual performance, prolonged viewing); positive/negative and coloured displays; evaluation and design of VDT workstations; opthalmology; postures at VDT workstations.
Taylor & Francis Ltd, 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, United Kingdom, 1984. 510p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £35.00.
Work involving visual display units
Werken met beeldschermen [en holandés]
Contents of this data sheet: technical aspects (radiation, noise, letters and figures (risk of confusion), lighting, reflection); human aspects (viewing distance, sitting posture, reach distance, furniture, the eye, periodic examinations); the task (task content, speed of work, training).
Arbeidsinspectie, Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Zeestraat 73, 2518 AA Den Haag, Netherlands, Mar. 1984. 6p. Illus.
Shahnavaz H., Hedman L.
Visual accommodation changes in VDU-operators related to environmental lighting and screen quality
Study on the possible relations between operator's accommodation changes after 6h work at a display unit and workstation lighting and screen characteristics. For 29 operators, the visual accommodation before and after work, workplace lighting, luminance, contrast and screen qualities were measured during day and night shifts. The state of visual accommodation was determined by laser optometry. The relation between lighting conditions and accommodation changes was low but significant. The influence of screen characteristics was more evident during the night shift.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1984, Vol.27, No.10, p.1071-1082. Bibl.
Lee E., Whalen T., McEwen S., Latrémouille S.
Optimizing the design of menu pages for information retrieval
A series of 6 experiments are presented which address the use of menu indexes in Videotex computerized information retrieval systems. Conclusions: menu indexes should be tested empirically for ease of use prior to presentation to the general public; they can be significantly improved in terms of ease of use through detection and correction of design faults and the addition of descriptors; untrained Videotex users were very consistent in their perceptions of good and poor index structures, whereas experts were unable to agree.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1984, Vol.27, No.10, p.1051-1069. Bibl.
Rey P., Bousquet A.
Towards a strategy of optical examination of CRT operators
Vers une stratégie de l'examen visuel des opérateurs sur écran cathodique [en francés]
This article will help doctors to set up eye examinations, to interpret their results, and to establish aptitude requirements for CRT work. Subjects covered: characteristic eye complaints of operators; the relation between subjective complaints and the results of certain tests; basic principles for the choice of a screening method; validity of screening tests (sensitivity and specificity); cause determination and cost evaluation; actual examples.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1st quarter 1984, Vol.24, No.93, p.5-27. Illus. 16 ref.
Lighting up the CRT screen - problems and solutions
3 award-winning lighting design systems which provided a working environment responsive to new functional tasks performed at CRT screens are described.
Lighting Design and Application, Jan. 1984, Vol.14, No.1, p.14-17. Illus.
(Comités techniques nationaux des commerces non alimentaires et des industries et commerces de l'alimentation, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Improvement in working conditions at "VDU-keyboard" type workplaces
Amélioration des conditions de travail sur les postes du type "terminal écran-clavier" [en francés]
Technical data sheet adopted on the 19 and 29 Nov. 1983. Advice is given to users to guide them in the choice, installation and use of VDUs and keyboards. Subjects covered: work organisation, staff training, medical supervision; the physical environment: artificial and natural lighting, layout of the workstation, noise and thermal environment; the workstation itself: layout of the working surface, the screen, the keyboard and the document holders; design and arrangement of seats and footrests; screen characteristics: legibility, dimensions (the use of screens with diameters <38cm is not recommended), contrast and luminance, flicker, character size.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1498-116-84, p.405-414.
Consequences of presbyopia for visual dynamics and work with visual display units
Folgen der Presbyopie für die Sehdynamik und die Arbeit am Bildschirm [en alemán]
Description of methods and results of examinations to determine the accommodation period of the eye, and the orientation and diameter of the pupil in 100 persons of different ages. Results are represented graphically for accommodation reaction time, accuracy of dynamic accommodation and maximum rate of accommodation as functions of age. The speed and amplitude of orientation of the eye did not depend on age, whereas a decrease in accommodative ability was seen in subjects ≥40yrs old. Subjects in this age group tend to maintain a fixed posture when working with visual display units, in order to keep their eyes at a constant distance from the screen.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, 1984, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.190-191. Illus. 3 ref.
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