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  • Mental stress and burnout


CIS 90-1398 Kawakami N., Haratani T., Kaneko T., Araki S.
Perceived job stress and blood pressure increase among Japanese blue collar workers: One-year follow-up study
To investigate the relationship between job-stress and blood pressure increase, 373 male blue collar workers without hypertension were followed for one year. Five kinds of perceived job-stress were assessed by means of questionnaires. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine significant determinants of blood-pressure increases during follow-up. Job-stress due to complicated machine operation was a significant predictor of diastolic blood-pressure increase independent of other significant factors, i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of the follow-up, age, total serum cholesterol, alcohol consumption, type A behaviour and family history of hypertension. Job-overload, physical discomfort, human relations and job-dissatisfaction, on the other hand, bore no significant relation to systolic and diastolic blood pressure increases. The results suggest that the use of production machines involving complicated operations and newly developed technology might be a risk factor for high diastolic blood pressure.
Industrial Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.27, No.2, p.71-81. 26 ref.

CIS 90-1382 Lees R.E.M., Laundry B.R.
Comparison of reported workplace morbidity in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts in one plant
A retrospective study of the minor morbidity diagnoses of 775 workers during two 10-year periods was undertaken. During the first, they worked an 8-hour rotating shift, during the second, a 12-hour shift system. Stress related symptoms were identified from medical reports kept by the plant health service. By age-sex standardisation and the calculation of morbidity ratios and confidence intervals, it was shown that the introduction of the 12-hour shift system was accompanied by a statistically significant fall in the incidence of stress-related complaints such as headaches, gastrointestinal upsets and alcohol-related complaints. No reduction was found in the incidence of other illness complaints, considered to be unrelated to stress.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1989, Vol.39, No.3, p.81-84. 15 ref.

CIS 90-1394 Rahman M.
Job stress, satisfaction and mental health of factory workers in Bangladesh
This study examined the relationship between job stress, job satisfaction and mental health, and attempted to assess the effects of job stress on different parameters of satisfaction and mental health in the context of two groups of Bangladeshi factory workers. There were 26 subjects in a high-stress group and 33 in a low-stress group. Individual data were collected by using the Stress and Arousal Checklist, the Job Satisfaction Scale, the General Health Questionniare, absenteeism by sick leave, a self-esteem at work scale and a heart rate monitor. The results showed that a greater number of high-stress subjects were dissatisfied and had poorer mental health than low-stress subjects and that low-stress subjects were significantly more satisfied and possessed better mental health than were the high-stress subjects. It would appear that the experience of stress plays an important role in determining the quality of working life of Bangladeshi factory workers, having similar consequences in terms of health and well-being to those observed in developed countries.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.3, No.2, p.155-162. 43 ref.

CIS 90-1393 Lundberg U., Granqvist M., Hansson T., Magnusson M., Wallin L.
Psychological and physiological stress responses during repetitive work at an assembly line
The association between psychological and physiological stress responses was examined in 20 male workers at an assembly line. Each worker was studied during a 2h period on two consecutive days in their normal job and during a corresponding paid 2h period off the job on the third day. Self-reports of work demands, mood, etc., measurements of catecholamine and cortisol excretion and of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained at the end of each of the three 2h periods. Work induced a significant elevation in almost all psychological and physiological measurements. Correlations between self-reports and physiological values showed that catecholamine and cortisol responses, respectively, tended to be associated selectively with different psychological conditions, catecholamine values being associated with feelings of time pressure and pressure by demands, cortisol values with irritation tenseness and tiredness. The results show that perceived stress at an assembly line is consistently reflected in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine functions of the workers.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.3, No.2, p.143-153. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 90-1392 Krueger G.P.
Sustained work, fatigue, sleep loss and performance: A review of the issues
The physiological and psychological stressors associated with sustained work, fatigue, and sleep loss affect worker performance. This review describes findings relating to sustained work stresses commonly associated with advanced technology. Researchers report reductions in sustained performance as a function of fatigue, especially during and following one or more nights of complete sleep loss, or longer periods of reduced or fragmented sleep. Sleep loss appears to result in reduced reaction time, decreased vigilance, perceptual and cognitive distortions, and changes in affect. Sleep loss and workload interact with circadian rhythms in producing their effects. These interactions are a major source of stress in work situations requiring sustained work in continuous operations and have implications for theoretical models of sustained perceptual and cognitive functioning.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.3, No.2, p.129-141. 100 ref.

CIS 90-1391 Saeki K., Yasumori Y., Oiso M.
Nurses' stress and coping process I - The role of a self-help group
Kangosha no sutoresu kōpingu katei (1) - Kangosha no serufu herupu gurūpu no keisei ni mukete [en japonés]
Many nurses have a positive reaction to the stress caused by acquiring information necessary for nursing care, coping with patients' psychological needs, and sharing their concerns with their colleagues. Many nurses, however, react negatively to the stress caused by caring for dying patients, fear of being infected by their patients and of overwork-related illness, a shortage of nurses, and revealing their own feelings about their patients to their co-workers. Nurses suffer more easily from burnout than do midwives and public health nurses. The relation of burnout to a nurse's profile on the Tokyo University "ego-gram" is discussed.
Bulletin of the Osaka Prefectural College of Nursing, Mar. 1989, Vol.11, No.1, p.49-58. 20 ref.

CIS 90-1035 Rosa R.R., Colligan M.J., Lewis P.
Extended workdays: effects of 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift schedules on performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychosocial variables
A newly instituted 3-4 day/12h rotating shift schedule was compared with the previous 5-7 day/8h schedule using standard laboratory-type measures of performance and alertness, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits. After 7 months adaptation to the new schedule, there were decrements in the laboratory-type tests of performance/alertness which could be attributed to the extra 4h of work per day. There were also reductions in sleep and disruptions of other personal activities during 12h workdays. However, increases in self-reported stress were attenuated by the shortened workweek. These results are discussed in terms of trade-offs between longer workdays and shorter workweeks.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1989, Vol.3, No.1, p.21-32. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 90-341 Linton S.J., Kamwendo K.
Risk factors in the psychosocial work environment for neck and shoulder pain in secretaries
The relationship between psychological work variables and reported neck and shoulder pain was examined among secretaries. A battery of questionnaires concerning the psychological work environment experienced by the secretaries, as well as musculoskeletal pain symptoms, was completed by 420 secretaries at a large medical centre. A relatively "poor" psychological work environment was compared with an environment that was experienced as "good". A "poorly" experienced psychological work environment was related to a higher frequency of neck and shoulder pain. The relative risk for frequent neck pain was 2.85 and for frequent shoulder pain 3.32. Furthermore, the subindexes of work content and social support at work were found to be related to pain, whereas no clear relationship was found for work demands.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1989, Vol.31, No.7, p.609-613. 12 ref.

CIS 90-347 Johnson J.V., Hall E.M., Theorell T.
Combined effects of job strain and social isolation on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in a random sample of the Swedish male working population
This study examined a random sample of 7219 male Swedish workers. A multiplicative measure was constructed to model the combined effects of psychological job demands, work-related social support and work control. Highly strained and isolated workers had a higher age-adjusted prevalence ratio for CVD morbidity and a higher age-adjusted risk ratio for CVD mortality when compared with those working under less strained and more collective conditions. Blue-collar workers showed the greatest risk for both morbidity and mortality when groups with highly isolated and strained conditions were compared to those in more collective and less strained conditions. Strained and isolated workers also had a substantially higher probability of developing and dying of CVD at a younger age than did those in less adverse environments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1989, Vol.15, No.4, p.271-279. 47 ref. Illus.

CIS 90-345 Hall E.M., Johnson J.V.
A case study of stress and mass psychogenic illness in industrial workers
Outbreaks of fainting, nausea, and weakness among several hundred workers led to an investigation of industrial conditions. Repeated and extensive monitoring failed to detect levels of any substance that might explain these reactions. In a subsequent investigation of the psychosocial environment, the authors used a combination of observations, inventories, and interviews to determine whether psychosocial factors might explain this phenomenon. A multiple regression analysis identified (in order of importance) work intensity, mental strain, work/home problems, education, and sex as independent predictors explaining 33% of the overall severity of illness. The work was high-pressure, repetitive, monotonous, and noisy. This profile is consistent with reports of mass psychogenic illness and with research indicating that such work can be distressing and unhealthy.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.31, No.3, p.243-250. 18 ref.

CIS 90-339 Landau K., Rohmert W.
Recent developments in job analysis
Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the University of Hohenheim, Federal Republic of Germany, on 14-15 March 1989. Aspects covered: comparison of methods; psychological job analysis methods and practical applications; job analysis, occupational health and safety; job analysis and physiological aspects; job analysis and technological change; examples for analysis in job design.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, United Kingdom, 1989. 360p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-165 Kuhn K.
Working conditions and new technologies
Arbeitsbedingungen und neue Techniken [en alemán]
New technologies have little influence on working conditions and mental stress in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is shown by a survey of representative cross sections of the working population in 1979 and 1985/86. Some findings: approx. 5.2 million working people are still exposed to noise, 4.8 million carry or lift heavy loads, 4.3 million are exposed to heat or cold stress, humidity, moisture or draughts 4.1 million handle oils or dirty substances and 3.1 million perform work in forced postures.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1989, Vol.20, No.1, p.20-23. Illus.

CIS 89-2099 Levi L.
Stress in industry - causes, effects and prevention
Stress in der Industrie - Ursachen, Auswirkungen und Prophylaxe [en alemán]
Translation of ILO publication - OSH Series No. 51 (CIS 85-885). Contents: definition and symptoms; stress factors in industry (impact of noise, automation, environmental factors, physical and psychological stressors); individuals who are vulnerable to stress; prevention and treatment; principles of prevention of stress-related diseases.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Str. 1, 8020 Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 1989. 97p. Bibl. Price: DDM 6.50.

CIS 89-1530 Kristensen T.S.
Cardiovascular diseases and the work environment - A critical review of the epidemiologic literature on nonchemical factors
This is the first of 2 articles reviewing the epidemiologic research on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the work environment. It deals with a number of non-chemical factors, i.e. physical inactivity at work, stressors at work, shift work, noise, cold, heat, and electromagnetic fields and waves. First the methodological quality of each of the empirical studies is assessed on the basis of epidemiologic criteria. The research literature on each of the aforementioned factors of the work environment is then evaluated. It is concluded that the hypothesis of a causal relationship between physical inactivity at work and risk of CVD is substantially supported by the literature. As regards work stressors and shift work, several good studies have been published during the last 10yrs strongly suggesting a causal relationship. Other studies have shown a relationship between noise and elevated blood pressure, but the quality of this literature is low. Heat and cold appear to have an acute effect on the incidence of CVD, but the possible chronic effect has seldom been investigated. As concerns electromagnetic fields and waves, it is concluded that more research is needed. The study of CVD and work ought to play a greater role in research in the fields of occupational medicine and cardiovascular epidemiology in the future.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.165-179. 213 ref.


CIS 91-430 Burnout
English-language version of a videotape defining the "burnout" syndrome as it appears in the workplace and suggesting ways of dealing with it.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. Videotape (PAL/SECAM/NTSC, VHS/Betamax/U-matic). 30min. Price: SEK 2800.00.

CIS 91-336 Kahabka G., Rohmert W.
Physiological measurement strategy for mixed psychological/physical work. Example: driving a commercial vehicle
Physiologische Messtrategie bei psychophysischer Mischarbeit. Exemplarische Analyse: Führen eines Nutzfahrzeuges [en alemán]
Assessment of the psychophysical stress involved in driving a commercial vehicle comprises simulation of the task on the computer and performing it in reality on a motorway, a country road and an urban street. During driving under laboratory and field conditions a series of physiological parameters (e.g. vital capacity, tremor, breathing rate) are measured. In addition, questions concerning subjective well-being are answered and multiplication tasks are performed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.9, p.262-273. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 90-2098 Hurrell J.J., Murphy L.R., Sauter S.L., Cooper C.I.
Occupational stress: issues and developments in research
This book provides an up-to-date overview and examination of methods for occupational stress assessment and aims to stimulate improvements in the resolution of issues of stressful job environments. The volume is divided into two parts - chapters in the first part deal with work stressors whilst the second part concentrates on the physiological consequences of stress.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke Hants RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1988. 214p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 90-700 Larsen R.C., Felton J.S.
Occupational medicine - Psychiatric injury in the workplace
Collection of major review articles, each accompanied by many references. Contents: occupational stress; workers' compensation and psychiatric disability; cumulative injury in workers' compensation; assessing the effect of psychiatric disorders on work function; psychological testing of the psychiatrically injured worker; stress reactions in the job setting; the psychiatric epidemic in the American workplace; social support and coping with stress: implications for the workplace; violence and trauma response; role of the occupational physician in mental health services; ethical issues in psychiatry and occupational medicine.
Hanley and Belfus, Inc., Medical Publishers, P.O. Box 1377, Philadelphia, PA 19105-9990, USA, Oct.-Dec. 1988. p.587-730. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 29.00 (outside the US: USD 34.00, airmail: USD 40.00).

CIS 90-690 James A.
Perceptions of stress in British ambulance personnel
This paper reports upon an investigative study of stress in the Ambulance Service. The aims of the research were in part methodological and in part substantive. Methodologically, the study sought to validate as measurable constructs the perceptions of sources of stress reported by ambulance staff in response to questionnaire items. Substantively, it sought to identify these possible sources of stress and to measure the relationship as personality characteristics, length of service, and urban or rural location of operation and rank. Both aspects of the study are reported.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1988, Vol.2, No.4, p.319-326. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 90-685 Douglas R.B., Blanks R., Crowther A., Scott G.
A study of stress in West Midlands firemen, using ambulatory electrocardiograms
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a fireman's work may subject him to cardiovascular stresses and to identify those areas of a fireman's duties which are most stressful. The West Midlands Fire Brigade (United Kingdom) was selected as being suitable for the study because it has a large number of full-time men (over 2000) engaged in various degrees of activity. A stratified sample of 100 officers and men was drawn from 12 stations to include busy and less busy stations. Long runs of ECG (63 hours each for the men, 48 hours each for the residential officers) were examined for ventricular ectopic beats and classified for severity according to a modified Lown grade scale (Lown and Wolf 1971) and then integrated over time to reflect frequency of occurrence as well as severity. This was called the ventricular cardiac strain score (VCSS). Higher scores were found in those under stress due to number of call-outs, level of seniority and diary-recorded stressful events.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1988, Vol.2, No.4, p.309-318. 8 ref.

CIS 90-689 Smith T.
Pilot study: Cardiac measures of stress in British Prison officers
This paper considers the experience of stress in British prison officers and in particular the physiological effect of work activity on them. It reviews the evidence provided by some international studies as well as the recent occupational mortality statistics produced by the Office of Population Census and Surveys (OPCS) of the United Kingdom (1986). In particular, the paper concentrates on the benefits of using ambulatory measures of heart rate as a measure of stress and illustrates this with the initial data of a study carried out at HM Prison, Gartree. Results are described in terms of mean heart rate by time and by work activity.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1988, Vol.2, No.4, p.301-308. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 90-688 Rutter D.R., Fielding P.J.
Sources of occupational stress: An examination of British prison officers
The purpose of this paper is to identify the major sources of occupational stress experienced by British prison officers and to examine their effects on job stress and job satisfaction. 81 officers from HM Prison, Maidstone (United Kingdom), took part in a questionnaire study, and three main findings emerged. First, lack of staff and resources were ranked as the most likely sources of stress, and areas of the prison where confrontations with inmates were most likely to occur were ranked as the most stressful locations. Second, officers who reported the highest levels of job stress had the lowest job satisfaction and the greatest wish for more emphasis on control and security of inmates. Third, when the sources of stress were factor-analysed and used to predict overall job stress and job satisfaction, the single most important predictor of job stress was found to be the factor labelled "confrontations with inmates" and, for dissatisfaction with the job, it was "poor morale and resentments". The paper discusses the theoretical implications of the findings.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1988, Vol.2, No.4, p.291-299. 15 ref.

CIS 90-687 Härenstam A., Palm U.B., Theorell T.
Stress, health and the working environment of Swedish prison staff
A random stratified sample of just over 2000 was drawn from staff working in 67 different prisons in Sweden. Questionnaires on working conditions and symptoms of ill health were administered and subjects were given health examinations. Biochemical plasma tests were made and factual information on the prisons was collected for use in the analyses. There were differences between prisons in terms of both objective and self-reported working conditions which appeared to affect health status, physiological state and sick leave rate. Cardiovascular and hypertensive conditions were found more often among prison staff than among a large reference group. Sick leave rates among prison staff were very high compared with this reference group. The data allowed the identification of several factors which might counteract the effects of stress at work: a supportive management style, goal consensus among staff, a high degree of decision latitude, satisfaction with work performance and a supportive psychosocial climate.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1988, Vol.2, No.4, p.281-290. 16 ref.

CIS 90-344 Jha S.S.
Job stress and employee strain in Indian executives
This paper reports on a study examining the effects of job stress on strain, the pattern of stress and strain in 3 different work groups, and differences in the levels of job stress and strain at various occupational levels. The respondents consisted of executives of a large steel manufacturing enterprise. Regression analysis indicated that job future ambiguity had a significant negative effect on job satisfaction in each group of executives. Furthermore, role overload (in the case of production executives) and role ambiguity (in the case of data processing executives) had negative effects on job satisfaction. Role overload accounted for fatigue among the personnel as well as among production executives. The data indicated that the patterns of stress and strain were different in the three groups of employees. The examination of differences due to occupational level indicated that middle-level executives had more role ambiguity than those at the higher levels. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1988, Vol.2, No.3, p.233-237. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 90-343 Hollingworth C., Matthews G., Hartnett O.M.
Job satisfaction and mood: An exploratory study
Fifty-eight male white-collar workers provided questionnaire-based data on their job satisfaction, demographic variables, and mood in the workplace. Stress and arousal dimensions of mood were measured, on each of the 5 days of the working week, using the stress arousal checklist (SACL). A strong association between job satisfaction and stress was found, with low job satisfaction being associated with high stress. This association did not reflect the confounding of job satisfaction with demographic variables, and was not modified by day of week. Possible causal relationships accounting for this correlation are discussed. No relationship was found between job satisfaction and arousal.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1988, Vol.2, No.3, p.225-232. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 90-342 McLaney M.A., Hurrell J.J.
Control, stress, and job satisfaction in Canadian nurses
The main effects of four domains of control (task, decision, resource, physical environment) on job satisfaction and their interactions with three types of job stressors (task demands, role conflict, interpersonal conflict) were examined in 765 Canadian nurses. The results indicated that the proportion of variance in job satisfaction increased with the addition of control for the composite scores and for task, resource, and physical environment control. Decision control did not account for additional variance in job satisfaction above that for any of the job stressors. None of the stressor control interactions were significant. The results suggest that control is not simply a moderator of job stress but rather that it has a direct influence. The relevance of the different domains of control for nurses is discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1988, Vol.2, No.3, p.217-224. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 90-338 Evaluation of requirements and stress related to computer-aided work
Bewertung von Anforderungen und Beanspruchungen bei rechnergestützten Tätigkeiten [en alemán]
Ten papers deal with problems concerning VDU-workplaces: psychological workload, design of work functions, examination of employees at VDU-workplaces, ergonomical design of software, possibilities for active relaxation during VDU-work. Finally, the standard on the ergonomic design of VDU-workplaces (TGL 44690) is discussed.
Arbeitsmedizinische Praxis, Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin, Nöldnerstr. 42-44, 1134 Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 123p. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 89-2100 Occupation and mental health. Proceedings of a workshop held in Marseille, 5-6 February 1988
Travail et santé mentale. Actes des journées d'études des 5 et 6 février 1988, Marseille [en francés]
Reprint of the papers presented during the symposium.
Technologies, idéologies, pratiques, 1988, Vol.VII, No.3, 143p. Illus.

CIS 89-1172 Stress at work: The trade union response
Training guide aimed at trade union members.
Labour Research Department, 78 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HF, United Kingdom, Feb. 1988. 24p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 9,00.

CIS 89-1230 Middlestadt S.E., Fishbein M.
Health and occupational correlates of perceived occupational stress in symphony orchestra musicians
Results of a survey of 2,212 musicians from 47 symphony orchestras revealed a significant relationship between perceived occupational stress and prevalence of a number of psychological as well as physical medical problems. Age and occupational factors, such as the orchestra in which the musician plays, the instrument played, and status as a soloist, were also found to be significant correlates of perceived stress.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1988, Vol.30, No.9, p.687-697. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 89-1396 Netterstrřm B., Juel K.
Impact of work-related and psychosocial factors on the development of ischemic heart disease among urban bus drivers in Denmark
From 1978 to 1985, 2,465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed with regard to hospital admission due to myocardial infarction (MI) and death due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD). In all 2,045 (83%) of these men responded in 1978 to a questionnaire on psychosocial well-being and work conditions. The respondents did not differ from the nonrespondents regarding hospital admissions and death in the follow-up period (1978-1984). Sixty-two cases of MI were registered among the 2,045 bus drivers in 1978-1984. High work load (driving in heavy traffic) was significantly associated with the occurrence of MI. Of the psychosocial factors, "no social contact with colleagues" and "increased work pace" were also significantly associated with the occurrence of MI. Smoking habits tended to be associated with the occurrence of MI, while stress symptoms and job dissatisfaction did not. The mental burden on bus drivers working in heavy traffic seems a possible explanation for the findings.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1988, Vol.14, NO.4, p.231-238. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 89-1218 Arnetz B.B., Andreasson S., Strandberg M., Eneroth P., Kallner A.
Comparison between surgeons and general practitioners with respect to cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors among physicians
A random sample of 36 male surgeons and 30 male general practitioners was selected. The results showed no clear-cut differences in physiological risk factors. Overall mental strain was greater among the surgeons, as was the inability to relax after work, perceived work tempo, and total number of workhours. There were significant associations between psychosocial work characteristics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and the study gives further support to the validity of using long-term glucose markers, such as fructosamine, as indicators of metabolic stress.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1988, Vol.14, No.2, p.118-124. 17 ref.

CIS 89-1029 Cox T.
AIDS and stress
This editorial discusses the relationship between stress and AIDS, under the headings: stress, immune system competence and AIDS; diagnosis; implications for work; design and management of work.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1988, Vol.2, No.2, p.109-112. 6 ref.

CIS 89-1048 Girodo M.
The psychological health and stress of pilots in a labour dispute
This study investigated the psychological stress and psychiatric symptomatology in a representative sample of pilots involved in a labour dispute with management. Standardised epidemiological psychometric instruments revealed that one quarter of the pilots could be labelled "psychologically at risk" showing elevated symptoms of anger-hostility, paranoia, and obsessive-compulsiveness. A certain combination of personality scores with stress reactions was found to correctly classify pilots who were healthy vs "at risk" with 92% accuracy. Interviews with pilots revealed both general causes of stress associated with a labour dispute as well as specific sources of disturbances threatening safety in the air.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1988, Vol.59, No.6, p.505-510. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 89-807 Dennett X., Fry H.J.H.
Overuse syndrome: A muscle biopsy study
Biopsy specimens were taken from the affected first dorsal interosseous muscle in 29 women with painful chronic overuse syndrome and from 8 volunteer controls. Structural differences in samples from the women with overuse syndrome included increased type 1 fibres with type grouping, decreased type 2 fibres, type 2 fibre hypertrophy, increased internal nuclear count, mitochondrial changes, and various ultrastructural abnormalities. These changes were related to clinical severity, and point to an organic cause for the syndrome.
Lancet, 23 Apr. 1988, Vol.1, No.8591, p.905-908. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 89-462 The process of stress - Part I (Myths, legends and hazards); Part II (Guidelines)
Two-part series published by an Australian trade union OSH unit. It is meant to inform and train workers on the various aspects of stress in the workplace. Contents: Part I - general aspects; measures of the stress-process; points for consideration in developing ACTU (Australian Council of Trade Unions) policy. Part II - guidelines for dealing with stress; a strategy implementation kit.
Health and Safety Bulletin, May and June 1988, No.53-54, 30p. (No.53), 42p. (No.54). Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 89-495 Van Ameringen M.R., Arsenault A., Dolan S.L.
Intrinsic job stress and diastolic blood pressure among female hospital workers
The present study of 375 female hospital workers assesses the impact of two specific dimensions of vocational stress on standing diastolic blood pressure. Both intrinsic (pertaining to job content) and extrinsic (associated with job context) stressors were examined in this study. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly related to scores on an intrinsic stress measure, but not to extrinsic stressors, even after the contribution of obesity and age levels were controlled. However, the effect of intrinsic stress was only significant among women younger than 35. Perceived dimensions of chronic intrinsic role stressors could be significant psychosocial predictors of diastolic blood pressure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1988, Vol.30, No.2, p.93-97. 35 ref.

CIS 89-346 Haas J., Dziambor G.
Data collected by industrial physicians as evidence of workplace stress
Betriebsärztliche Daten als Hinweis auf Belastungen am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Evaluation of 90,000 health statements issued between 1982 and 1984 by industrial physicians in the Federal Republic of Germany revealed eye, ear, circulatory, metabolic and movement disorders to occur most frequently in the manufacturing and services industries. For 29 occupations the relationship between the identified health problems and mental or physical stress factors encountered at the workplace was studied. Statistically significant relationship were found, for instance, between eye problems and wire drawing.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, Jan. 1988, Vol.10, No.1, p.14-16. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 89-128 Tackling teno: A GMB guide to tenosynovitis and repetitive strain injury
Booklet providing information and training material for workers. Contents: description of tenosynovitis as an occupational health problem; checklist designed to identify the problem in workers; causes, reporting and compensation; treatment and prevention; how to get further information.
General, Municipal, Boilermakers' and Allied Trades Union, Thorne House, Ruxley Ridge, Claygate, Esher, Surrey KT10 OTL, United Kingdom, 1988. 7p. Illus.

CIS 89-345 Abbas J.
Working conditions and health in a clothing factory
Les conditions de travail et la santé dans une usine de confection [en francés]
This study was conducted at the request of the factory's safety and health committee. There was a question as to the possible connection between working conditions and the occurrence of psychosomatic problems and the consumption of medicinal drugs. A questionnaire answered by 284 employees led to an analysis of general conditions in the factory. It was concluded that all of the medical or psychological problems could not be attributed to working conditions: non-occupational factors also played an important role.
Médecine et travail, 1988, Vol.136, No.2, p.31-36.


CIS 09-995 Quick J.C., Bhagat R.S., Dalton J.E., Quick J.D.
Work stress - Health care systems in the workplace
While there are many studies demonstrating the effects of stress on employees and organizations, there is little evidence that research findings are being appropriately used in corporate health care systems. This publication consists of a compilation of original, multidisciplinary papers by academics and practitioners, which examine the current knowledge of work stress, preventive management strategies, and therapeutic healing techniques used in occupational health programs.
Praeger Publishers, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 11010, 1987. xvii, 329p. Illus. Bib.ref. Index.

CIS 90-698 Dewe P.J.
Identifying the causes of nurses' stress: a survey of New Zealand nurses
A nationwide survey of 2,500 general and obstetric nurses identified 5 potential sources of stress. These included work overload, difficulties relating to other staff, the difficulties involved in nursing the critically ill, concerns over the treatment of patients, and dealing with difficulty or helplessly ill patients. These findings support earlier work which suggested that a number of stressful situations are commonly encountered by all nurses. In terms of intervention strategies these results point to a number of important issues which are discussed in this paper. They include the difficulties and conflicts inherent in the nurses' role, the multidimensional nature of the different stressors, aspects of the work environment which give rise to different stressors and the relationship between stressors.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1987, Vol.1, No.1, p.15-24. 30 ref.

CIS 90-697 Cox T.
Stress, coping and problem solving
This paper outlines the developing consensus on the nature of stress. It offers a definition of stress as a psychological state derived from the person's apparaisal of their ability to cope with the demands which are made of them. The paper then examines the concept of coping and explores its role in stress theory. It contrasts 2 different approaches to the study of coping: the classification of coping strategies, and the investigation of the process of coping - coping as "problem solving". The paper focuses on the latter and in doing so it describes the nature of rational models of problem solving, considering their utility and application to stress management.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1987, Vol.1, No.1, p.5-14. 51 ref.

CIS 90-692 Leather P.J.
Safety and accidents in the construction industry: a work design perspective
This paper presents a synoptic view of construction safety from a behavioural science perspective. It considers the different influences that have a bearing upon the formation and maintenance of the attitudes and motivations of workers towards safety and risk-taking at work. It summarises these influences in terms of a 'Potential Accident Subject' model. The implications of this model for the development of practical measures to improve construction safety are then discussed in terms of a series of work design principles which might better aid the reinforcement of safety as a primary goal throughout the industry.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1987, Vol.1, No.2, p.167-174. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 90-691 Agervold M.
New technology in the office: attitudes and consequences
This study examines the attitudes of office workers towards the introduction of new technology, the evaluation of the impact of that technology and the connection between work with new technology and stress. It is based on an investigation of a representative sample of 907 white-collar workers. Results showed that factors concerning both the quality of work and work load increased or remained the same as a consequence of the introduction of new technology. They showed, furthermore, that the incidence of mental fatigue, and stress and psychosomatic complaints was the same among those working with and without new technology. But where new technology had had a negative influence on factors such as work quality, personal influence, etc., there was a higher incidence of stress and stress related complaints. It is concluded that new technology cannot be considered in isolation, but has to be seen as a part of the total psychological working environment.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1987, Vol.1, No.2, p.143-153. 35 ref.

CIS 89-1560 Fähnrich K.P., Raether C.
Design of NC/CNC systems
Gestaltung von NC/CNC-Systemen [en alemán]
The historical development of NC/CNC (Numerical Control/Computerised Numerical Control) systems is described. The change of work organisation caused by these systems is pointed out. An overview on German standard 66290, which contains regulations on the design of man-computer interfaces in using these systems is followed by a summary of the main open questions in using NC/CNC systems: training of all employees who may use these systems, mental stress and problems of work organisation.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Dec. 1987, No.12, p.13-17. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-1047 Ergonomics - Adapting workplaces to man
Ergonomie - Arbeitsplätze den Menschen anpassen [en alemán]
Contents of this booklet on ergonomics: organisation of work; work tasks; work equipment; the working environment; workload; occupational strain; work posture; safe distances; reach distances; operating elements; lighting, noise, and vibrations; comfort; heat. In an annex: legislation in Austria and relevant standards.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 36p. 20 réf.

CIS 89-1039 Fürstenberg F., Glanz A., Steininger S.
Health problems caused by social strain during two-shift work? Results of an empirical survey of workers in alternating-shift systems
Gesundheitliche Beschwerden durch soziale Beanspruchung bei Wechselschichtarbeit? Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Schichtarbeitern im 2-Schicht-Betrieb [en alemán]
A study in the electrical and automobile industries shows that not only intestinal and nervous problems but also sleep disturbances are caused by physical, psychic and social strain on workers in 2-shift systems. There are characteristic interrelations among the perception of social strain among shift workers, their relative workload and special burdens due to their general life situation.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.7, p.213-220. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 89-347 Working conditions and heart attack
Arbeitsbedingungen und der Herzinfarkt [en alemán]
Myocardial infarction is the result of a combination of several factors. Type A behaviour (marked by, e.g. a defensive attitude and avoidance of conflict situations) plus pressure at work (e.g., demand for high quality, non-routine work within short time periods) lead to chronic, self-induced overworking and consequently to irreversible health impairment. Performance drops due to the weaker physical state. A sudden high workload may trigger myocardial infarction.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, Dec. 1987, Vol.9, No.10, p.16-18. 1 ref.

CIS 89-339 Conrady P., Krueger H., Zülch J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Investigation of strain at workplaces with magnifying glasses and microscopes
Untersuchung der Belastung bei Lupen- und Mikroskopierarbeiten [en alemán]
A description of typical workplaces with optical aids is presented. Basic knowledge of optical problems is reviewed. Advice is given for the use of optical aids for the organisation of workplaces and for the user. Optical and mechanical ratings of magnifiers and microscopes are listed. Posture and movement during work were recorded by using photographic and electroacoustical methods. Subjective complaints were compiled from a questionnaire. Field studies were complemented by laboratory analyses. Instrument myopia, strabismus fault, head postures at the microscope and the illumination in the field of view were investigated. Recommendations for users and producers are given in order to achieve minimal strain and optimal performance by users of optical aids.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 293p. Illus. Appendix. 119 ref. Price: DEM 34.00.

CIS 88-1939 Strasser H.
Conditions when working with new technologies from the viewpoint of occupational physiology and occupational medicine
Arbeitsbedingungen bei neuen Technologien aus arbeitsphysiologisch-arbeitsmedizinischer Sicht [en alemán]
The use of new technologies to achieve a high degree of flexibility in production leads to higher visual strain and perceptional demands. It increases the need for working in shifts and at irregular hours. The gap between job requirements and skills of older employees widened. Mental and emotional stress increase with higher levels of responsibility. The working conditions created by new technologies are illustrated by the example of producing a live television show.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1987, Vol.41, No.4, p.196-206. Illus. 34 ref.

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