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  • Mental stress and burnout

1991

CIS 92-685 Turnage J.J., Spielberger C.D.
Job stress in managers, professionals, and clerical workers
The intensity and frequency of occurrence of 30 job stressors were examined in 308 white-collar employees of a large manufacturing firm, consisting of managers, professionals and clerical personnel. The highest levels of stress intensity were attributed to 'lack of opportunity for advancement' and 'poor or inadequate supervision'. Individual stressors rated as occurring most often during the past 6 months were 'frequent interruptions', 'meeting deadlines', and 'dealing with crisis situations'. Factor analyses of the ratings of individual job stressors identified 2 job-stress factors, job pressure and lack of support, which were differentially related to age, sex, occupational level, locus of control, and job tenure and satisfaction. All 3 occupational groups attributed greater intensity to stressors that reflected lack of organisational support than to job pressures. Managers reported experiencing job pressures more often than professionals/engineers, but attributed less stress intensity to these pressures. 'Lack of opportunity for advancement' and 'inadequate salary' were the most salient stressors for the clerical workers. Implications of the findings for the design of stress management and organisational change programmes are discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.5, No.3, p.165-176. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 91-2084 Amick B.C., Celentano D.D.
Structural determinants of the psychosocial work environment: Introducing technology in the work stress framework
An analysis is made of data from a 1978 national survey of the working conditions in post offices in order to demonstrate how technology can influence worker health. The study considers the health of postal clerks engaged in sorting mail. The use of machine-paced technological systems is seen to structure the job such that a combination of conditions is created (high job demands, low autonomy and low social support) which places the worker at greater risk for the development of stress-related diseases. The research suggests that there are organisational characteristics to be considered in discussions of workplace psychosocial stress.
Ergonomics, May 1991, Vol.34, No.5, p.625-646. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 91-1744 Pickett C.W.L., Lees R.E.M.
A cross-sectional study of health complaints among 79 data entry operators using video display terminals
This paper reports on the findings of a cross-sectional study of 79 data entry clerks employed by a Canadian organisation in 5 separate offices. The study was conducted to identify factors associated with physical complaints experienced by these office workers. A large percentage of the data entry clerks reported chronic physical complaints (eyestrain, musculo-skeletal pains, headache) as well as emotional or mental stress which they felt were associated with their occupation. Poorly designed overhead lighting systems in all offices contributed to both eyestrain and headache. Highly significant associations between occupational stress levels and some physical complaints were observed. The existence of such associations indicates that the management of physical and stress complaints in office environments should be tackled simultaneously.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.113-116. 10 ref.

1990

CIS 92-1725 Léonard R., Claisse J.L., De Jonghe C., Corbey R., Hallot R.
Work on pylons
Le travail sur pylônes [en francés]
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and nervous load of workers on pylons. Stress was quantified by means of continuous registration of heart-beat, followed by computerised analysis. Nervous load was evaluated by measurement of blood and urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines. The results of the measurements allowed both to propose adaptations in the rhythm of climbing (ascending speed and use of platforms to rest), and to recommend elements pertaining to the concept and the construction of future pylons. Minimal standards were also established to serve as a guideline for the occupational physician during periodical follow-up examinations as well as during the pre-employment examination of workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.7, p.489-495. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 92-1742 Nadeau D., Vézina M., Vinet A., Brisson C.
Piecework and mental health alterations among female sewing-machine operators
Travail parcellaire et altérations de la santé mentale chez les opératrices de machines ŕ coudre [en francés]
This article describes the impact of piecework and of piecework pay on the mental health of 267 female sewing-machine operators, working in the Montreal area. Women were considered at risk if they had occupied a piecework work-station and/or received piecework pay for more than half of their total time of work. Mental distress was measured using a self-report questionnaire. Piecework tended to be associated with a high level of mental distress (crude odds ratio: OR = 1.80). This trend became significant after adjustment for total length of employment and number of children (OR = 2.78). The results of this study are compatible with the adverse effects (reported elsewhere) of piecework on the mental health of female sewing-machine operators. Annex: example of self-report questionnaire.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.7, p.479-487. 38 ref.

CIS 92-1400 Logeay P., Gadbois C.
Mental strain due to dangerous work situations
Les astreintes psychiques des situations dangereuses de travail [en francés]
The question of dangerous work situations has been dealt with mainly from the point of view of their physical consequences, i.e. occupational accidents. This article takes another approach, by taking into account the complexities of real-life situations, in particular the severity of the danger and its repercussions on the individual. The evaluation of the psychological effects of dangerous work situations poses some theoretical and practical problems which are dealt with successively: appreciation of the danger of a situation, expressions and non-expressions of fear in dangerous situations (concept of the defensive attitudes of a profession).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.397-401. 23 ref.

CIS 92-599 Münch R.
Problems facing fire brigades: Stress and qualifications of firemen
Probleme im Alltag der Feuerwehren: Belastbarkeit und Tauglichkeit von Feuerwehrleuten [en alemán]
This outline of the selection process of firemen in the Federal Republic of Germany reveals that professional firemen have to undergo tests of their physical and mental capacity. The aptitude of volunteer firemen is, however, left to their own judgement. The physical workload of firemen includes lifting and carrying tasks under adverse conditions (e.g. wearing heavy respirators) and back-straining postures. Mental stress of firemen involves anxiety in dangerous situations, fear of death and coping with human tragedies.
Brandschutz, Nov. 1990, Vol.44, No.11, p.633-635.

CIS 92-683 Müller B.H., Peters H., Hettinger T.
Tabular surveys as a method of evaluating stress at work
Übersichtstabellen als Mittel für die zusammenfassende Bewertung der Belastungssituation [en alemán]
The methods of determining stress at work, environmental conditions at the workplace and the work organisation are outlined. They comprise measurements, objective observations and subjective assessments of the health risks, the job satisfaction and the physical workload. An evaluation of stress factors encountered at various jobs in the iron and steel industry is presented in tabular form as an example.
Die BG, Nov. 1990, No.11, p.670-674. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 92-694 Little L.F., Gaffney I.C., Rosen K.H., Bender M.M.
Corporate instability is related to airline pilots' stress symptoms
A symptoms of stress questionnaire was administered to 3 random samples of commercial airline pilots. The group of pilots employed by an airline company with a history of corporate instability reported significantly more stress and depression symptoms and a greater accumulation of symptoms than did the pilot groups employed by stable airlines. It is concluded that the relationship between corporate instability within the aviation environment and the subjective distress reported by pilots suggests the need for further investigation into the implications for health and safety.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1990, Vol.61, No.11, p.977-982. 30 ref.

CIS 92-693 Freeman Z.S.
Stress and hypertension - A critical review
Recurrent psychosomatic stress has been popularly thought to cause permanent hypertension by repeated reactive blood pressure elevations. Recent work has questioned some of the concepts behind this hypothesis. With the more widespread use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, information has accumulated which suggests that only the mean daily blood pressure level is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies of the relationship between stress and hypertension are considered and it is concluded that there is no satisfactory evidence that psychosocial stress leads to the elevation of the mean daily blood pressure with its pathogenic connotations.
Medical Journal of Australia, 19 Nov. 1990, Vol.153, No.10, p.621-625. 56 ref.

CIS 91-2098 Occupational stress: A workshop
Le stress relié au travail: un atelier [en francés]
These proceedings of a workshop held November 29 and 30, 1989, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada), include presentations by panelists and reports on discussions and by work groups. Topics discussed: workplace stress and illness, work environment, job design, training and counselling and compensation. List of participants.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 37p.

CIS 91-2095 Brown J.M., Campbell E.A.
Sources of occupational stress in the police
This paper describes an empirical study (n=954) of occupational stress conducted in a large provincial English police force. Conceptual distinctions were made between stressors, i.e., potential external sources of adverse reactions; felt stress, i.e., self-perceived negative impact; and distress, i.e., self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, social dysfunction, and somatic disturbance. Findings indicates that overall exposure rates are highest for organisational and management stressors rather than routine operational duties. Differential rates of exposure, felt stress, and distress are reported for different ranks of officers. The paper confirms the nature of postulated sources of police stress from earlier studies and extends analysis to differentiate between exposure to stressors and experience of distress.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1990, Vol.4, No.4, p.305-318. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 91-1750 Schwesinger S.
Pulse-respiration quotient as an indicator of the type of stress
Zur Frage des Puls-Atem-Quotienten als Indikator zur Beurteilung der Beanspruchungsart [en alemán]
Pulse-respiration quotients were determined for 23 fighter pilots, 19 applicants for the job of military pilot and 17 student pilots. The 1st group operated a bicycle ergometer. The 2nd and 3rd groups performed mental tasks (concentration and tracking tasks). In addition, pulse rate and respiratory rate were measured in 17 fighter pilots during aerobatics. The pulse-respiration quotient does indicate whether stress is of a mental or physical nature.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Sep. 1990, Vol.40, No.9, p.276-279. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 91-1745 Ott E.
The strain of commuting to work
Belastungsdimensionen arbeitsbedingten Pendelns [en alemán]
Census data of 1988 are used to show that in the Federal Republic of Germany about 10.5 million employees commute more than 50km and/or more than 60min to work. This represents an increase of 90% within the last ten years. The stress and strain aspects are discussed in the light of an empirical regional study. Of 308 commuters using the train from Fulda to Frankfurt 63% rated the perceived strain unbearable or heavy. Details are given on: profession; reasons for commuting; physical, mental, social, temporal and economic implications of commuting.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1990, Vol.44, No.4, p.234-239. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1371 Çakir A.
Light and health - Impairment through artificial illumination
Licht und Gesundheit - Beeinträchtigung durch künstliche Beleuchtung [en alemán]
The influence of artificial and natural lighting at the workplace on irritability, fatigue, eye strain, vision, headaches, and concentration ability of 1000 randomly selected employees was studied in Germany on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Recommendations taken from existing German standards were used as a basis for establishing the questions used in the survey. Based on the responses it is concluded that there is no substitute for natural lighting. Recommendations in the standards were not found to be always relevant.
Fortschrittliche Betriebsführung und Industrial Engineering, 1990, Vol.39, No.5, p.269-271. Illus.

CIS 91-1191 Frieling E., Derisavi-Fard F.
Does computer-aided-design (CAD) change the work of design engineers?
Ändert die CAD-Technik die Arbeitstätigkeit von Konstrukteuren [en alemán]
The heart rate of 45 computer-aided-design (CAD) engineers and 10 designers using the conventional board method was determined. The designers worked in the research and development departments of an automobile and an aircraft manufacturer. Analysis of the measurements, together with interviews, revealed no higher stress due to CAD as long as work duration did not exceed four hours and designers were familiar with the system.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 1990, Vol.34, No.3, p.135-148. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 91-1400 Manninen O.
Changes in subjective stressfulness under various combinations of noise, vibration, temperature and work tasks
In two experimental studies, subjects were exposed to noise, whole body vibration, physically strenuous work, psychically strenuous work and different illumination levels at a temperature of 35°C. Subjective stressfulness of the exposure situation was evaluated on a five step scale. Scores were found to vary greatly depending on the type of exposure combination. In general, the stressfulness increased with the duration of exposure. In particular, young persons rated the additional stress caused by noise higher when doing physically strenuous work and were simultaneously exposed to a whole body vibration. The illumination level together with smoking affected the experienced stressfulness.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.25-30. 7 ref.

CIS 91-1399 Sandover J., Porter C.S., Vlachonikolis I.G.
The effects of combinations of heat, noise and vibration on task performance
Subjects, skilled in the performance of complex tasks representative of those carried out by crews of military vehicles, were exposed to combinations of heat, noise and vibration. It was found that consistency of performance, as well as performance level, was an important factor and that complex tasks, especially dual tasks, were less resistant to environmental stressors than simple tasks. Only after exposures lasting several hours exposure were there any indications of deterioration in performance over time. No consistent pattern of interaction between the environmental stressors was found. Some antagonistic effects of practical relevance were observed.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.1-9. 11 ref.

CIS 91-1385 Nilsson B., Kemmlert K., Kilbom Ĺ., Andersson R., Bjurvald M.
Prevention of overexertion injuries by means of directed investigations of reported occupational injuries - Interim report: The Labour Inspectorate's investigations of reported occupational injuries
Prevention av belastningsskador genom riktad arbetsskadeutredning - Delrapport: Yrkesinspektionens arbetsskadeutredningar [en sueco]
In a joint project the National Institute of Occupational Health, the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and the Labour Inspectorate in Sweden evaluated whether reported occupational overexertion injuries can be used as starting points for prevention. In this report the risk evaluations in 92 cases, performed by 15 labour inspectors (LI) are presented. The risk factors identified most frequently were manual handling of loads and workplace lay out. Inspection notices were given in 20 of 92 inspections only. A majority of the LI found a reported occupational injury to be a valuable starting point for inspection work. At an evaluation after 15-18 months, the employer had taken measures and successfully reduced ergonomic risk factors at 21 individual work places.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 33p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 91-1040 Hasegawa A.
Physicians' stress in emergency care
Kyūkyū iryō ni tazusawaru ishi no sutoresu [en japonés]
A review. Critical-care medical centres exert different types of stress, such as hard work and problems about patient care, the physician's own identity, human relationships, ethics, etc. Physicians often fall into exhaustion, aggressive behaviour, or "burn-out syndrome". Some of them show inappropriate adaptation or defense against such stress; insisting on staying at the hospital day and night without taking care of their own families, or behaving cynically and concealing their own feelings. Physicians may be able to cope with the stress by making a clear separation between work and other area of life, and spending time with their families or close friends. Rational efforts to establish a more acceptable working system would also help them.
Igaku no Ayumi, 5 May 1990, Vol.153, No.5, p.247-250. 8 ref.

CIS 91-1033 Hopkins A.
Stress, the quality of work, and repetition injury in Australia
Widespread concern developed in the 1980s in Australia about repetition injuries among keyboard operators, particularly in the Australian Public Service. Government departments were found to vary in their injury rates and this research seeks to explain the variation. It is hypothesised that it is associated with differences in job stress or, more generally, the quality of work. A survey was carried out using the Insel and Moo Work Environment Scale and certain other job stress variables and the hypothesis was confirmed. The paper draws conclusions about the need to redesign jobs in order to reduce the risk of repetition injuries.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1990, Vol.4, No.2, p.129-138. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 91-698 Eilers K., Nachreiner F., Böning E.
Subjective scaling of mental workload. Part 2: Testing the validity of standardised judgements in a field study
Zur subjektiven Skalierung psychischer Beanspruchung. Teil 2: Überprüfung der Validität verankerter Relativurteile in einer Felduntersuchung [en alemán]
The usefulness of rating scales in assessing the mental workload was studied with 40 persons performing 4 different sorting and inspection tasks. The ratings by the test persons did not agree with the ratings by experts of the workload involved in the assigned tasks. A simultaneously used questionnaire assessing 4 aspects of mental strain (fatigue, tension, capability and motivation) did not provide any better agreement. The reasons are discussed.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1990, Vol.44, No.1, p.24-29. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 91-697 Bachmann W.
Approaches to the assessment of mental workload and mental work-related stress
Zugangswege zur Bewertung psychischer Belastungen und Beanspruchungen im Arbeitsprozess [en alemán]
Technological innovations have increased mental workload and mental stress. This has led to a need for assessment methods taking account of this fact. The development of such methods is described. Psychological methods which have proved useful are listed.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1990, Vol.44, No.1, p.1-5. 32 ref.

CIS 91-700
Health and Safety Executive
Managing occupational stress: A guide for managers and teachers in the schools sector
Contents of this guidance: the nature of stress at work and why it is a cause of concern; effects on individuals and organistions; causes of stress in the education sector; strategies for dealing with stress at work; the management role; individual factors in coping; recommended action. Case studies illustrate causes and effects of stress and methods of treatment.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 28p. 6 ref. Price: GBP 2.00.

CIS 91-691 Duffy C.A., McGoldrick A.E.
Stress and the bus driver in the UK transport industry
This study was carried out to identify potential sources of stress for bus drivers working for the established operator in a major UK city, six months after the deregulation of bus transport. The focus was to assess the mental health and job satisfaction of the drivers. An interview programme was followed by a questionnaire survey of 376 male bus drivers. Major problem areas related to health and home-related concerns, problems intrinsic to the job, lack of involvement and support during the organisational changes occurring and fears regarding physical assault. The bus drivers were found to demonstrate lower levels of job satisfaction and unfavourable scores on mental-health indices when compared to normative samples, which was associated with their work-related stressors. The impact was significantly reduced for those men driving the newer minibuses in contrast to the traditional 72-seater double-decker buses.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1990, Vol.4, No.1, p.17-27. 21 ref.

CIS 91-694 Gulian E., Glendon A.I., Matthews G., Davies D.R., Debney L.M.
The stress of driving: a diary study
A study of daily behaviour and feelings while driving was carried out with a sample of drivers to ascertain driving stress levels and changes in these as a function of time of day and day of the week. The analysis of responses to a specially designed diary/checklist showed that drivers experience more stress in the evening than in the morning, and in mid-week than either at the beginning or end of the week. Daily driving stress varies with age and experience as well as with health condition and sleep quality. It is also related to driving conditions and depends upon people's overall perception of driving as a stressful activity.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1990, Vol.4, No.1, p.7-16. 19 ref.

CIS 91-493 Beerman B., Kylian H., Schmidt K.H., Klimmer F., Kramer H., Runtenfranz J.
Stress and strain of letter sorting in an air mail head office
Belastung und Beanspruchung bei der Briefverteilung in einer Luftpostleitstelle [en alemán]
Mail sorting requires rapid and accurate information processing. This was revealed by a job study of female postal employees in Germany. Questionnaires, time-and-motion study and physiological measurements were used. Heart rate, oral temperature and musculoskeletal complaints were slightly higher during night shifts than during day shifts. No differences existed in the excretion of the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) between day and night shifts. Higher amounts of mail did not affect any of these physiological parameters.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.5, p.202-204. 213-219. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 91-129 Hilla W., Tiller R.E.
Automation in the body shop from the viewpoint of occupational medicine
Automatisierung im Karosserierohbau aus arbeitsmedizinischer Sicht [en alemán]
The switch to automated car-body production is used as an example to illustrate the procedure of stress evaluation by industrial physicians. Tasks performed by two types of assembly-line workers in a car-body shop were used in the selection of appropriate medical examinations. Digestive disorders dominated among workers controlling and monitoring assembly-line operations, while workers introducing material into and removing parts from the assembly line were found to suffer from nervousness. Heart rate, fatigue and spinal strain were within normal bounds.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1990, Vol.40, No.4, p.94-100. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-2089 Chidester T.R.
Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul flight operations
A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-day trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. Examination of the impact of 2 personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.61, No.2, p.132-138. 20 ref.

CIS 90-1384 Ayoub M.A.
Ergonomic deficiencies: I. Pain at work
This is part I of a 3-part series that examines various aspects of ergonomic deficiencies at work. This paper deals with pain at work and the association between such pain or discomfort and a poorly designed workplace or poorly poorly structured job. Neglect of ergonomic principles brings inefficiency and pain to the workplace. An ergonomically deficient workplace may not cause immediate pain, because the human body has a great capacity for adapting to a poorly designed workplace or poorly structered job. However, in time, the compounding effect of job and/or workplace deficiencies will surpass the body's coping mechanisms, causing the inevitable: physical symptoms, emotional stress, low productivity and poor quality of work.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1990, Vol.32, No.1, p.52-57. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 90-1050 Estryn-Behar M., Kaminski M., Peigne E., Bonnet N., Vaichčre E., Gozlan C., Azoulay S., Giorgi M.
Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers
The relationship between the working conditions and the mental health status of female hospital workers was studied in a sample of 1505 women. Five health indicators were considered: a high score in the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and, especially, high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1990, Vol.47, No.1, p.20-28. 48 ref.

1989

CIS 94-1440 Wolfe M.L.
Correlates of adaptive and maladaptive musical performance anxiety
A survey of 193 musicians examined the relationship between several measures of musical performance anxiety and personal factors. Results suggest that such anxiety may consist of both positive components (arousal, intensity) and negative components (apprehension, distractibility). Musicians with professional playing experience scored higher on the positive components and lower on the negative components. The disabling effects of certain symptoms of autonomic arousal were instrument-specific (dry mouth, finger tremor). Therapeutic intervention for anxious musicians should ideally promote relaxation and yet allow concentration and arousal to be maintained.
Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Mar. 1989, Vol.4, No.1, p.49-56. 25 ref.

CIS 92-1747 Bradley G.
Computers and the psychological work environment
This book summarises the results and experience gained from the project "The effects of rationalisation on the work environment and working conditions in some salaried employee groups" carried out at the Department of Sociology, University of Stockholm, from 1975 to 1985. The aim of this project was to make a more detailed analysis of the psychological work environment and its link with administrative rationalisation, primarily with changes brought about by advances in electronic data processing technology.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke Hants RG 24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1989. xiii, 254p. Illus. Appendices. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 32.00.

CIS 92-681 Rodahl K.
The physiology of work
This major new manual focuses on the application of physiology to the assessment of stress encountered in a wide variety of occupations. It reviews the biological basis for human work and the development of the academic study of work physiology, and describes methods for the assessment of individual work capacities and work loads, and for the evaluation of working environments. Special attention is given to: mental and emotional stress, including case studies from management and air-traffic controllers; industrial heat and cold stress, with studies of polar and sea-going workers; problems encountered in polluted atmospheres.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, United Kingdom, 1989. vi, 290p. Illus. ca. 480 ref. Index. Price: GBP 17.00

CIS 91-1844 Frankenhaeuser M.
Stress, health, job satisfaction
This report, useful also for training purposes, provides a summary of research projects carried out in a large Swedish company. The objective was to study stress, health, work satisfaction and attitudes toward work among white-collar workers, all of whom had a high workload, but with different levels of responsibility and influence over their work situations. Workers were studied in the workplace, in the laboratory and at home with particular interest in men's and women's total workload (demands from paid work combined with demands related to household and other activities). Questionnaire and interview answers were compared with physiological stress reactions (levels of stress hormones, heart rate, blood pressure) both during and after days at work and at home.
Swedish Work Environment Fund, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1989. 19p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-1048 Masuko E., Yamagishi M., Kishi R., Miyake H.
Burnout syndrome among doctors, nurses and other human services professionals. 1. Analysis of the factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and its relation to the SDS scale
Ishi, kangofu nado taijin sābisu shokugyō jūjisha no "moetsuki shōkōgun". 1. Maslach Burnout Inventory ni yoru inshi kōzō no kaiseki to SDS utsu sukēru to no kanren [en japonés]
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate the burnout state of workers in the human services professions (doctors, nurses, hospital aides, teachers and clerks). The available data were also subjected to factor analysis, reliability analysis, and multiple regression analysis using Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The factor loading pattern was similar to that of Maslach's but 2 different factors emerged in addition to the standard factors in the intensity subscale. Burnout is closely related to Depression but also has its own factors. This suggests that burnout is not a subtype of the depressive state.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1989, Vol.31, No.4, p.203-215. 21 ref.

CIS 91-692 Makowiec-Dabrowska T., Bortkiewicz A.
Relationship between perceived psychic workload and heart rate reactivity in industrial women managers
The paper presents the results of an investigation into the physiological cost of psychic load of industrial managers. The psychic workload was estimated on the basis of an evaluation of work requirements and the ability to meet them in terms of mental difficulty, monotony, risk, responsibility, interpersonal conflicts and time pressure. The physiological cost was estimated on the basis of heart rate at work, during leisure time and sleep. Heart rate at work indicated that occupational tasks carried significant psychic load. The analysis of requirements involving risk showed them to be the most important factor affecting heart rate. Physiological effects of psychic load at work persisted round the clock, which is reflected by a correlation between heart rate during leisure time and sleep and some measures of load and/or working time.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1989, Vol.2, No.4, p.397-406. 22 ref.

CIS 91-344 Kawakami N., Araki S., Hayashi T., Masumoto T.
Relationship between perceived job-stress and glycosylated haemoglobin in white-collar workers
A questionnaire study on job-stress and health-related behaviour together with measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin (GH) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for 102 male white-collar workers showed that the score of job-dissatisfaction was significantly correlated with their GH level (p<0.05). No possible confounders, i.e., age, job-overload, overtime, number of cigarettes per day, alcohol consumption, obesity and blood tests other than FPG, were significantly correlated with GH; the score of job-dissatisfaction was not significantly correlated with the FPG level. Thus, GH may be a sensitive measure of job-dissatisfaction; further studies are needed to clarify psychophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of job-dissatisfaction on the GH level.
Industrial Health, Mar. 1989, Vol.27, No.4, p.149-154. 13 ref.

CIS 90-1900
World Health Organization
Health promotion in the working world
Papers from an international conference (Oct. 1985, Cologne, Germany) organised by the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung in collaboration with the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization. Contributions are grouped under the headings "a conceptual framework", "stress and stressors", "coping and managing stress", "approaches to health promotion in the workplace" and "shaping our future".
Springer-Verlag, 17 Tiergartenstrasse, W-6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany, 1989. 268p. Illus. 272 ref. Price: DEM 76.00.

CIS 90-2078 Libert J.P.
Data sheet on healthy working conditions - 2. Environmental factors, work and quality of sleep
Fiche d'hygične de vie au travail - 2. Nuisances de l'environnement, travail et qualité du sommeil [en francés]
Physical workload and daytime exposure to environmental factors can disturb sleep the subsequent night. This induces impairment of the body recovery processes following a physical or a mental task, and could have a negative effect on safety at work. The present paper recommends what is to be done in order to protect or improve the sleep of workers. These recommendations deal with the protection of workers' health against physical hazards at the workplace (mainly heat and noise), and work organisation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th Quarter 1989, No.137, Note No.1754-137-89, p.607-611. 28 ref.

CIS 90-2096 Becker-Carus C., Günthner G., Hannich H.J.
Stress and situation specific coping behaviour in intensive care unit nursing staff
The relationship between situation specific stressors and the coping behaviour of intensive care nursing staff was analysed. The results were discussed with regard to additional data relating to 'contentment with coping' and 'psychosomatic reactivity (FPI)'. It was observed that the majority of stress situations in intensive care are tackled by staff members using 'active external coping strategies', whereas coping with personal stress involves passive strategies. Relationships between 'contentment with coping', 'psychosomatic reactivity (FPI)' and type of stressor and coping behaviour were found.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1989, Vol.3, No.4, p.353-358. 15 ref.

CIS 90-2095 Payne R., Lane D., Leahy M.
Work and non-work factors as perceived causes of symptoms of psychological strain
Two studies are reported in which the respondents were asked to attribute causes to their experienced symptoms of stress as measured by the General Health Questionnaire. The results show that most respondents can do this, that there are differences in attributions by symptoms, and that the pattern of attributions is similar for 2 different occupational groups, even through nurses reported more stress-related symptoms than did laboratory workers. It is argued that this simple addition to symptom questionnaires might have useful diagnostic value, but that further research with different populations and other symptoms is desirable.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1989, Vol.3, No.3, p.347-351. Bibl.

CIS 90-2094 Harris P.E.
The nurse stress index
This paper describes the development of the Nurse Stress Index (NSI): a self-report method of identifying sources of stress for groups of senior nurses. The 30-item Index was shown to have an acceptable level of reliability. Content validity was ensured by involving nurses throughout the development; a number of weaknesses in content were identified however. Scores on the NSI were positively correlated with a valid measure of mental health (r = 0.38; p<0.001), although the direction of causation was unclear, and the Index was shown to discriminate between groups of nurses who might be expected to differ in their sources of stress. The application and further development of the NSI is discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1989, Vol.3, No.4, p.335-346. Bibl.

CIS 90-2093 Martin R., Wall T.D.
Double machine operation and psychological strain
This study examines the effects of double machine operation on psychological strain. The reactions of computer numerically controlled drilling machine operators to their job were monitored as they rotated between 3 different work conditions: single machine operation, double machine operation, and double machine operation with additionally high responsibility for products. Results showed no effect of double machine operation on strain where responsibility was low. Double machine operation under the condition of high responsibility, however, was found to increase strain.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1989, Vol.3, No.4, p.323-326. 18 ref.

CIS 90-1537
World Health Organization
Promoting health in the world of work
Gesundheitsförderung in der Arbeitswelt [en alemán]
Papers presented at an international conference in Cologne, Germany, 7-10 Oct. 1985, under the auspices of the German Federal Centre for Health Education and the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The 31 contributions are classified under the headings: conceptual framework, stress and stressors, overcoming and managing stress, approaches to health promotion in the world of work, shaping the future.
Springer-Verlag, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-W-6900 Heidelberg, Germany, 1989. 298p. Illus. 272 ref. Price: DEM 76.00.

CIS 90-1700 Spencer G.T.
Radio headsets in the workplace
Les écouteurs radio en milieu de travail [en francés]
The main health and safety concerns about using radio headsets in the workplace include distraction from warnings, inability to hear and hearing damage. As well as preventing a worker from hearing important messages and alarms, wearing a headset is particularly hazardous around moving equipment and automated devices. High sound levels also cause hearing damage and non-auditory health effects.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, June 1989. 5p. Bibl.

CIS 90-1749 Imbernon E., Warret G., Roitg C., Chastang J.F., Goldberg M., Pons H., Blanc C.
Epidemiological study of workers who are on call in their home and repercussions of such duties on their health
Etude épidémiologique de la prise d'astreinte ŕ domicile et des répercussions sur l'état de santé [en francés]
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 1988 among male employees of the electric and gas distribution companies in the Toulouse (France) region who were on permanent call duty in their homes. The study examined sleep disorders, digestive function and psychological status among these employees. An increase in nervousness, sleep disorders and nervous fatigue was found. Although this did not result in serious health impairment, it does suggest that there are problems of adaptation in this kind of work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.7, p.651-658. 13 ref.

CIS 90-1747 Evans G.W., Carrere S., Johansson G.
A multivariate perspective on environmental stress
Most environmental stress research has examined the direct effects of physical environmental stressors on human health. However, human responses to environmental stressors are more complex, since differences in coping strategies can change the way in which a stressor affects an individual, and the coping processes themselves can also affect health. Examples are given of various types of physical stressors and psychosocial factors and their interactions.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Dec. 1989, Vol.1, No.1, p.1-5. Bibl.

CIS 90-1746 Sutherland K.M., Flin R.H.
Stress at sea: A review of working conditions in the offshore oil and fishing industries
This paper reviews the literature available on the psychosocial aspects of the offshore oil and fishing industries. Both work sectors present unique problems for their employees and these are discussed with reference to risk and safety, accidents and injuries, occupational stressors, marriage and family life, noise, alcohol and drug abuse and personality. The paper concludes that although both occupations are intrinsically different, some psychosocial similarities can be observed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1989, Vol.3, No.3, p.269-285. Bibl.

CIS 90-1745 Manning M.R., Osland J.S.
The relationship between absenteeism and stress
This study explores the relationship between stress and absenteeism with a non-managerial white collar sample (n = 147). Various measures of absence were employed: frequency, hours, and length of absence (1 day, 2 days, > 2 days). Stress was measured with variables representing stressors and strain from both work and non-work domains. Results found small but consistent relationships between previous absence (1 day, > 2 days, and total absence) and many of the stress measures (work events, work conditions, life events, life conditions, job satisfaction, strain and negative effect). Two sets of variance were identified from the measures of previous absence, short and long-term, that were both related to stress. No relationship was observed between stress and subsequent absence.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1989, Vol.3, No.3, p.223-235. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 90-1398 Kawakami N., Haratani T., Kaneko T., Araki S.
Perceived job stress and blood pressure increase among Japanese blue collar workers: One-year follow-up study
To investigate the relationship between job-stress and blood pressure increase, 373 male blue collar workers without hypertension were followed for one year. Five kinds of perceived job-stress were assessed by means of questionnaires. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine significant determinants of blood-pressure increases during follow-up. Job-stress due to complicated machine operation was a significant predictor of diastolic blood-pressure increase independent of other significant factors, i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the beginning of the follow-up, age, total serum cholesterol, alcohol consumption, type A behaviour and family history of hypertension. Job-overload, physical discomfort, human relations and job-dissatisfaction, on the other hand, bore no significant relation to systolic and diastolic blood pressure increases. The results suggest that the use of production machines involving complicated operations and newly developed technology might be a risk factor for high diastolic blood pressure.
Industrial Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.27, No.2, p.71-81. 26 ref.

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