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Coping with stress at work
Articles in this special issue cover: work stress and coping - common pathways for future research; review of individual strategies for coping with stress at work; the measurement of coping with stress - construct validity of the Ways of Coping Checklist and the Cybernetic Coping Scale; the three functions of self-control behaviour - redressive, reformative and experimental; coping with daily work problems - contributions of problem content, appraisals and person factors; individual and organisational strategies for coping with organisational change; review of organisational-level interventions to reduce occupational stressors; stress and coping in US organisations and the role of the Employee Assistance Programme.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-102. Illus. Bibl.ref.
World Labour Report 1993
This is the second in a new annual series of the World Labour Report. Each year the report devotes a chapter to each of five main areas: human rights at work, employment, labour relations, social protection and working conditions. One of the chapters of the 1993 Report focuses on stress at work and covers: diseases of stress; the costs of stress in terms of absenteeism, labour turnover, accidents, job burnout and compensation; stressful occupations (manual workers, police officers, nurses, postal workers, teachers, waiters, bus drivers, VDU operators); personal and organisational stress management; summaries of a series of case studies in stress reduction in various countries. Possibilities for constructive change are highlighted.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. vi, 99p. 68 ref. Price: CHF 22.50.
Hurrell J.J., Lindström K.
Comparación de la carga de trabajo, la autonomía profesional y las dolencias psicosomáticas de diversos puestos de gestión en Finlandia y Estados Unidos
Comparison of job demands, control and psychosomatic complaints at different career stages of managers in Finland and the United States [en inglés]
Se realizaron estudio sobre el estrés en el trabajo entre 708 gestores dentro del sector finlandés de la construcción y 664 gestores que trabajaban en la función pública estadounidense. La relación existente entre la carga de trabajo, la autonomía profesional y la frecuencia de las dolencias psicosomáticas parecía variar en función de la etapa de desarrollo profesional. Entre los gestores americanos, sólo aquéllos en una etapa intermedia se veían afectados por algunas variables relacionadas con la carga de trabajo y la autonomía profesional. Los trabajadores finlandeses que iniciaban su carrera profesional se resentían de los horarios prolongados de trabajo, pero tenían gran autonomía profesional. En el medio y al final de la carrera profesional estas variables no tenían ningún impacto sobre la declaración de los síntomas.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, vol.18, supl.2, p.11-13. 3 ref.
Elo A.L., et al.
Cuestionario sobre el estrés en el trabajo : manual de usuario
Occupational Stress Questionnaire: User's instructions [en inglés]
En este folleto se describe el método utilizado por el Instituto Finlandés de Higiene en el Trabajo para estudiar el estrés profesional. El método comprende el análisis de los factores percibidos de estrés profesional, las reacciones frente al estrés en función del individuo y el potencial para actuar contra el estrés profesional, tanto a nivel individual como de organización. Se exponen los objetivos y las aplicaciones del cuestionario, así como un análisis de los datos y un ejemplo de cómo utilizar los resultados. El cuestionario se presenta en dos versiones, completa y abreviada.
Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41aA, 00250 Helsinki, Finlandia, 1992. 62p. 42 ref. Precio: USD 20,00.
Smith M.J., Carayon P., Sanders K.J., Lim S.Y., LeGrande D.
Estrés y dolencias aparecidas entre empleados en puestos de trabajo con y sin monitorización electrónica de la actividad
Employee stress and health complaints in jobs with and without electronic performance monitoring [en inglés]
Cuestionario realizado sobre 745 empleados en empresas norteamericanas de telecomunicaciones, con el que se analizó el estrés laboral entre operadores electrónicos, empleados del servicio post-venta y empleados de oficinas. Aquellos empleados que tenían una monitorización electrónica de su actividad, percibían sus condiciones laborales como más estresantes, y mostraban unos niveles mayores de aburrimiento profesional, tensión psicológica, ansiedad, depresión, malhumor, problemas de salud y fatiga. Debido al bajo nivel de respuesta (25%), estos resultados han ser interpretados con precaución.
Applied Ergonomics, feb. 1992, vol.23, n°1, p.17-27. 25 ref.
Perrez M., Reicherts M.
Estrés, adaptación y salud - Procedimiento situación-comportamiento: teoría, métodos, aplicaciones
Stress, coping, and health - A situation-behaviour approach: Theory, methods, applications [en inglés]
La 1ª parte de este manual presenta de forma teórica un procedimiento situatio-comportamental diseñado para hacer frente al estrés y controlarlo. La 2ª parte describe nuevos métodos de evaluación del estrés y de adaptación: un cuestionario de estimulos-respuestas; el impacto de la situación y de éste método sobre el estrés y su control; un sistema de autocontrol informatizado; la previsión del estrés y su control en circunstancias normales. La 3ª parte describe las aplicaciones en psicología clínica y médica: adaptación de las personas que sufren una depresión ante situaciones adversas, las desgracias y fracasos; infección por el VIH y estrés; salud mental y control de los factores cotidianos de estrés; estrés profesional en los centros médicos; comportamiento apropiado de adaptación.
Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, P.O. Box 2487, Kirkland, WA 98083-2487, USA, 1992. vi, 233p. 216 ref. Indice. Precio: USD 24,00.
Psicología de la salud: estrés, comportamiento y enfermedad
Health psychology: Stress, behaviour and disease [en inglés]
Contenido de este trabajo: introducción al estrés, el comportamiento y la enfermedad; comportamiento de tipo A y enfermedades coronarias; hipertensión y reacciones cardiovasculares al estrés; cáncer y sistema inmunitario; el reto del SIDA; gestión del estrés y reducción del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria; gimnasia, forma física y salud; seguimiento de las recomendaciones terapéuticas; dolor y tratamiento psicológico; sexo, raza, clase social y salud.
The Falmer Press, 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, Reino Unido, 1992 (reeditado en 1995). viii, 129p. 248 ref. Indice. Precio: GBP 12,50.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Diversificación de las tareas en las oficinas y en la administración
Mischarbeit in Büro und Verwaltung [en alemán]
El trabajo con pantallas de ordenadores provoca estrés mental y fatiga ocular, tensión muscular a nivel del cuello y de la espalda. Los modelos de optimización de las tareas y de rotación en los puestos de trabajo que se exponen están destinados a empleos tales como el secretariado, y tienden a reducir la carga física provocada por una tarea efectuada exclusivamente en un ordenador. El ejemplo del servicio central propuesto combina las tareas de tratamiento de textos con las demás actividades típicas de una secretaria. Tres grupos de tareas efectuadas en tres puestos diferentes son repartidas entre varias secretarias que pasan de una tarea a otra en función de un programa predeterminado.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Alemania, 1992. 93p. Ilus. 16 ref. Precio: DEM 21,50.
Agotamiento ansioso-depresivo ("Burnout") en el sector sanitario: Una perspectiva europea - Informe sobre la jornada de estudio EUROFEDOP del 4 de marzo de 1992 en Luxemburgo
L'épuisement anxio-dépressif ('Burnout') dans le secteur des soins de santé: Une perspective européenne - Rapport sur la journée d'étude EUROFEDOP du 4 mars 1992 à Luxembourg [en francés]
Informe publicado con motivo de una jornada de estudio sobre el agotamiento ansioso-depresivo (burnout) en el sector sanitario, que tuvo lugar en Luxemburgo el día 4 de marzo de 1992. Principales temas del sumario: introducción (alteraciones psicológicas de etiología profesional); definición de "burnout"; causas del "burnout" (factores sociales, factores individuales, factores relacionados con la tarea, factores ligados a la organización); consecuencias del "burnout"; frecuencia de casos de "burnout"; posibles medios de prevención (estrategias orientadas hacia el individuos, estrategias orientadas hacia la organización); conclusión.
Psychologisch Laboratorium, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Países Bajos, 1992. 22p.
Electronic performance monitoring
This special issue of Applied Ergonomics contains seven papers dealing with the important problems of electronic performance monitoring (EPM). Contents: electronic performance monitoring (Schleifer L.M.); stress, computer-based work monitoring and measurement systems - a conceptual overview (Amick III. B.C.; Smith M.J.); employee stress and health complaints in jobs with and without EPM (Smith M.J.; Carayon P.; Sanders K.J.; Lim S.Y.; LeGrande D.); operator stress and monitoring practices (DiTecco D.; Cwitco G.; Arsenault A.; André M.); two key factors that belong in a macroergonomic analysis of electronic monitoring - employee perceptions of fairnees and the climate of organization trust or distrust (Westin A.F.); a multi-level incentive model for service organizations (Shell R.L.; Allgeier R.G.); a review and reappraisal of EPM, performance standards and stress allowances (Schleifer L.M.; Shell R.L.); a review of research on EPM (Lund J.).
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 1992, Vol.23, No.1, p.1-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.
XIVth France - Switzerland Symposium of Occupational Medicine (6 and 7 June 1991 sittings)
XIVes Journées Franco-Suisses de Médecine du travail - Séances des 6 et 7 juin 1991 [en francés]
Subject of the main papers presented at the XIVth Swiss-French Symposium of Occupational Medicine (6-7 June 1991): fatal poisoning by freon 113; hygiene safety and working conditions in road work; study of various types of construction sites and work stations; role of the occupational physician in health education for early breast-cancer screening; occupational asthma and airflow measurements; contribution of computer science to the definition of indices useful for diagnosis; back-pain, depressive symptoms and occupation; risks associated with the use of laser, safety rules, etc.; survey of risk factors for occupational diseases in the canton of Vaud (Switzerland); study of the physical workload of stretcher-bearers through heart rate measurement; use of epoxy resins in the construction industry; overuse syndrome in cello players; heart condition and exposure to fluorochlorinated solvents; hearing tests in a wire drawing plant; quartz dust exposure among stonecutters.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.200-226. Illus.
Daniels K., Guppy A.
Control, information-seeking preferences, occupational stressors and psychological well-being
This study tested three sets of hypotheses relating psychological well-being to belief in control. A sample of 221 academic and support staff at a British university were administered a questionnaire that measured stressors, psychological well-being, work-related locus of control and information-seeking preferences. Hypotheses relating to the stress-moderating effects of a belief in control and information seeking were not supported by the data. However, the results did support a main effects model of locus control, suggesting that psychological well-being in the workplace may be increased by providing control, which in turn should increase the employees' belief in control.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1992, Vol.6, No.4, p.347-353. 37 ref.
Preventing stress at work
This issue of the ILO's Conditions of Work Digest examines stress at the workplace and the different approaches to preventing and combating this problem. Part I introduces the subject of occupational stress from a preventive point of view and identifies trends and issues in an international perspective, emphasising stress prevention through work reorganisation. Part II presents resources for the prevention of stress at work, consisting of a selection of manuals and guidelines and videos on stress, describing their features and comparing the advice they offer on the best way to combat stress, and an annotated bibliography containing over 90 abstracts of books and articles on occupational stress. Part III analyses 19 case studies on preventive anti-stress programmes in various countries (Canada, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States). These cases illustrate positive examples of how stress is tackled within the workplace, the different types of intervention, the role of the parties involved and the impact of the programmes.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1992, Vol.11, No.2, 275p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 45.00.
Berg M., Arnetz B.B., Lidén S., Eneroth P., Kallner A.
Techno-stress - A psychophysiological study of employees with VDU-associated skin complaints
Little is known about the causes of health complaints associated with work with video display units (VDUs). The symptoms are to a large degree similar to those of "multiple chemical sensitivity." We observed 47 white-collar employees with and without VDU-associated skin complaints during a regular workday and a day of leisure. VDU workers with skin symptoms had higher levels of the stress-sensitive hormones thyroxin and prolactin compared with employees without symptoms. They also had lower levels of the anabolic hormone testosterone during work. VDU workers with skin complaints also reported more occupational mental strain. A model is proposed in which physiological signals act as unconditioned stimuli and the VDU environment as the conditioned stimulus.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1992, Vol.34, No.7, p.698-701. 18 ref.
Organizational issues in hospitals
This special number of Work Stress is devoted in its integrity to organisational issues in health care systems in Europe. It is not simply concerned with theoretical frameworks and research studies, but also with practical interventions. The authors strongly urge those responsible for the design and management of European health care systems to consult with organisational psychologists. They also argue for more trans-European initiatives to share experience in this important area and harmonise future actions. Finally, they strongly advice the transfer of relevant knowledge and skills developed in West Europe to health care systems in Central and Eastern Europe. Each article is accompanied by a Spanish-language summary.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.6, No.3, p.211-343. Bibl.ref.
Improvement of midnight driving operations
This editorial presents the results of research on the fatigue issues of long-distance truck driving and it describes major factors in the workload of driving at night. Immediate improvement of safety and working conditions for night and long-distance truck driving is suggested.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-2.
Relationship of ergonomic stressors to birthweight and gestational age
Women in many occupations are exposed to ergonomic stressors (eg, prolonged standing, physical exertion, and long work weeks). After a consideration of the major methodological problems encountered in studying effects of ergonomic stressors on birthweight and gestational age, epidemiologic studies that have addressed this issue are reviewed. No individual ergonomic stressor has been consistently associated with effects on gestational age. However, most studies which have attempted to look at the cumulative effect of several stressors report that women in the highest exposure category are at higher risk of giving birth prematurely. In contrast, data regarding an association with birthweight are more variable, and firm conclusions cannot be drawn. While future studies that assess exposure to ergonomic stressors with a more comprehensive and quantitative approach are needed, current evidence is sufficient to suggest that clinicians should take ergonomic stressors into account in the assessment of their patients' risk for preterm delivery.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.73-83. 36 ref.
Kawakami N., Haratani T., Araki S.
Effects of perceived job stress on depressive symptoms in blue-collar workers of an electrical factory in Japan
This three-year prospective study on the effects of job stress on depressive symptoms over time was conducted among male blue-collar workers in an electrical factory in Japan. Data were collected at yearly intervals by means of postal questionnaires. Initially ten job stress variables, five major covariates, and depressive symptoms (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were measured. In the yearly examinations, depressive symptoms were measured for a total of 468 respondents. The results indicated that job unsuitability was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in the second and third year, after control for the initial covariates and depressive symptoms. Lack of control over workplace and poor human relations at the workplace were significantly associated with depressive symptoms after one and two years, respectively. Job unsuitability and poor human relations at the workplace seem to be risk factors for long-lasting depressive symptoms in Japanese blue-collar workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.195-200. 26 ref.
Brandt L.P.A., Nielsen C.V.
Job stress and adverse outcome of pregnancy - A causal link or recall bias?
A population of 214,108 commercial and clerical workers was investigated to examine the relationship between increasing job stress and the risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. There was an increased relative risk of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.57) and term low birth weight (odds ratio=1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04) for women experiencing high job stress. For other cases, the odds ratios were as follows: congenital malformation, 1.23 (95% CI 0.93-1.63); preterm delivery, 1.03 (95% CI 0.77-1.39); light-for-date birth weight, 1.08 (95% CI 0.83-1.40); and stillbirth/death within the first year of life, 1.42 (95% CI 0.90-2.24). No substantial response bias was found. When occupational titles were used as an exposure matrix, no increased risk was found, except for term low birth weight. Recall bias is one possible explanation. Thus, the results must be interpreted with caution.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Feb. 1992, Vol.135, No.3, p.302-311. 24 ref.
Eliashof B.A., Streltzer J.
The role of "stress" in workers' compensation stress claims
Twenty-six cases of workers' compensation "stress" claims were examined to delineate the nature and causes of psychiatric illness in relation to psychological stress in the workplace. Correlations were made among demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, categories of complaints, psychological themes, and role of litigation. Findings showed that most subjects could be classified into one of two major groups. For the larger group (56%), symptoms were precipitated by interpersonal issues. Within this group, 86% of subjects believed that unfair treatment caused their symptoms, 79% fulfilled criteria for a personality disorder diagnosis, and 71% were more focused on issues related to their claim than on symptom relief. A smaller group (24%) encountered significant stress at work. This group had more severe psychiatric illness and fewer personality disorders.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.297-303. 21 ref.
Death from overwork
The Government of Japan has announced a set of initiatives to combat the increasing problem of karoshi, the phenomenon of death from overwork, which was first identified in Japan. Karoshi is characterised by sudden death, usually among adults in their 30s and 40s after a period of prolonged intensive work. The immediate cause of death is usually stroke. During the past three years, 110 deaths have been attributed to over-demanding work schedules and the incidence of reported cases is increasing as the methods of testing for karoshi become more accurate.
Lancet, 5 Sept. 1992, Vol.340, No.8819, p.598.
Boumans N.P.G., Landeweerd J.A.
The role of social support and coping behaviour in nursing work - Main or buffering effect?
In the field of stress research it is often assumed that social support as well as coping behaviour contributes to feelings of health and well-being. This paper describes a research project in which both the direct and indirect effects of social support and coping were studied in the work situation of nurses. The results offer more support for a main-effect model than for a buffer or moderating-effect model, especially with regard to the coping strategies 'active problem-solving' and 'palliative behaviour'. Some moderating effects on nurses' reactions to their work situation were found for social support and for 'comforting cognitions' as a coping strategy.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.191-202. Illus. 36 ref.
Kirkcaldy B.D., Cooper C.L.
Cross-cultural differences in occupational stress among British and German managers
A total of 255 managers (133 German and 123 British), predominantly from middle and upper management and working in various companies throughout the two countries, responded to a survey assessing occupational stress and job satisfaction and leisure preferences. National differences were observed on several of the OSI subscales. German managers expressed higher sources of job-related pressure, and significantly better mental health than their British counterparts. Overall job pressure was associated with job dissatisfaction, low internal locus of control, and inferior psychological and physical health. Type-A behaviour scores were correlated negatively with external locus of control and positively with job satisfaction. Internal locus of control was associated with high job-related pressure, high job satisfaction and mental and physical health. All these findings were true for both national groups.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.177-190. 41 ref.
Preventing short-term strain through time-management coping
Report on a project investigating the effectiveness of time-management coping in the prevention of strain due to role overload. Structural regressions, a form of causal-correlational analysis, were used on repeated-measures questionnaire data from 96 working adults attending evening degree classes in business administration. Results showed that time-management techniques significantly lowered anxiety, but not depression or somatic symptoms. In addition, the effect of coping on axiety remained significant when social desirability was controlled. Anxiety did not influence subsequent coping, and no significant moderator effects were found.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.169-176. 21 ref.
Retrospected and anticipated fits - An exploration into their differential effects in a sample of Indian managers
This study attempts to investigate the effects of present person-environment fit along with the retrospective and anticipated fits on the job performance and job satisfaction of middle-level executives (n=106). It also examines the stressful effects of interpersonal conflicts and of social support. The results of regression analyses showed that the interactive effects of present and anticipated fits were important predictors of job satisfaction. Work-related support was found to be more important as a moderator variable than family-related support.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.153-162. 48 ref.
Cooper C.L., Bramswell R.S.
A comparative analysis of occupational stress in managerial and shopfloor workers in the brewing industry - Mental health, job satisfaction and sickness
This study assessed the mental health, job satisfaction and sickness absence of comparative groups of 236 managers and 377 shopfloor workers in the brewing industry in Scotland and northern England. Results showed significant differences between the groups' scores on type A behaviour, locus of control, job satisfaction, and number of incidents of sickness absence. Multiple regression was used to elucidate similarities and differences between managers and shopfloor workers in the predictors of stress outcomes.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.127-138. 18 ref.
Occupational health - Past, present and future
This editorial presents a critical view of the traditional two-factor model which places the concepts of work and health in juxtaposition. Past and present models of occupational health, theory, practice, conflict of interests and their contexts are discussed. It is concluded that the social and organisational context for occupational health needs to be more fully recognised and a new, three-factor model of occupational health needs to be proposed. This model would place related concerns in their true psychological and organisational context, and relationships would then be among work, organisation and health.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.99-102. 6 ref.
Management of post-incident trauma: A fire service perspective
Post-incident trauma has specific features relating both to the incident and to the symptoms it produces. Reactive symptoms occur in most people in the immediate after-period but rising or persisting anxiety towards the end of the first week indicates a risk of a serious disorder developing. Immediate management involves debriefing and peer group support of the participants in the incident. For those who continue to experience persisting anxiety after the first week, referral to occupational health advisers or general practitioners is necessary and, if symptoms persist or recur, referral to specialist advisers such as psychologists or psychiatrists may be required. The most important factor in the treatment of post-incident trauma is to acknowledge its existence. Whilst the coping mechanisms are well established in theory, they require widespread implementation in practice.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.42, No.3, p.163-166. Illus. 4 ref.
Ergonomics - Adapting workplaces to man
Ergonomie, Arbeitsplätze den Menschen anpassen [en alemán]
Revised version of this safety guide abstracted under CIS 89-1047 (previous Merkblatt M 50). Aspects covered: strain factors at the workplace, working environment; work posture; safe distances; reach distances; operating elements; lighting; noise; vibration; comfort; hot workplaces. Relevant legislation and standards applicable in Austria are given in the Annex.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1992. 36p. Illus. 20 ref.
Risk perception and safety on offshore petroleum platforms - Part II: Perceived risk, job stress and accidents
Part II of a survey among petroleum personnel on the Norwegian Continental Shelf drew respondents from 5 companies and 8 installations with a response rate of 92% (n=915). Respondents were asked to evaluate potential sources of risk, job stress factors, physical working conditions, and safety and contingency factors. Results show that risk perception and job stress contribute considerably to the frequency of injuries and human errors and that good safety and contingency conditions are particularly important in risk perception. Physical working conditions were among the factors causing an increase in perceived lack of safety and in strain. Implications of the results are discussed.
Safety Science, May 1992, Vol.15, No.1, p.53-68. 41 ref.
Hillhouse J., Adler C.
Estres, salud y sistema inmunológico: Revisión bibliográfica y dificultades en la enfermería
Stress, health, and immunity: A review of the literature and implications for the nursing profession [en inglés]
La pneumoneuroimmunología (PNI) es el estudio de la asociación entre el estrés psicosocial, el funcionamiento del sistema inmunológico y la salud. Este artículo revisa la información publicada sobre PNI, así como el estrés psicosocial en las enfermeras, y se estudian las posibles implicaciones del estrés en la salud de las enfermeras. Algunos estudios sugieren que el estrés psicológico, los factores de estrés crónicos y el estrés agudo pueden ocasionar una depresión del sistema inmunológico. La enfermería es una profesión estresante, con sobrecarga de trabajo, repetición de experiencias de preparación y muerte y un entorno de trabajo en constante evolución. La exposición prolongada a tales factores estresantes puede dar lugar al deterioro físico y emocional y al síndrome de burnout. Las enfermeras son por tanto buenos casos para la exploración de la relación entre el estrés, el funcionamiento del sistema inmunológico y la salud.
Holistic Nursing Practice, jul. 1991, vol.5, n°4, p.22-31. 72 ref.
Sexo de los trabajadores, autonomía profesional y estrés: discusión teórica y test empírico
Gender, work control, and stress: A theoretical discussion and an empirical test [en inglés]
En este artículo se estudian las diferencias asociadas al sexo que aparecen en la relación entre el estrés profesional y la salud, especialmente las referidas al impacto de la autonomía profesional. Incluye un repaso bibliográfico en materia de sexo y estrés profesional, y se presentan datos sobre la autonomía profesional en función del sexo, la clase social y la segregación sexual en Suecia. Los resultados indican que en Suecia, tanto las mujeres como los hombres se encuentran en su mayorías limitados al desarrollo de determinadas actividades profesionales, con la segregación sexual que ello conlleva; las mujeres encuentran menos oportunidades profesionales entre las que elegir que los hombres; las mujeres tienen menos autonomía profesional que los hombres, incluso dentro de actividades segregadas en favor del sexo femenino; los empleados de oficinas de ambos sexos tienen mayor autonomía profesional que los obreros.
En: The psychosocial work environment: Work organization, democratization, and health: Essays in memory of Bertil Gardel, édité par J.V. Johnson y G. Johansson. Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., Amityville, NY 11701, USA, 1991, p.89-108. Ilus. 57 ref.
Endresen I.M., et al.
Correlación entre el estrés profesional y los parámetros psicológicos e inmunológicos en un grupo de empleados de banca en Noruega
Stress at work and psychological and immunological parameters in a group of Norwegian female bank employees [en inglés]
Un estudio realizado sobre 96 empleados de banca permitió analizar el estrés, el estado emocional, la confianza en uno mismo y los mecanismos de defensa (evaluados por los propios sujetos) en función de los parámetros de la inmunidad celular: actividad de las células T (reacción a la concanavalina A), número de células T, tasa de inmunoglobulinas (Ig) y tasa de componentes de complemento. Las principales causas de estrés eran la carga de trabajo y el esfuerzo exigido por la postura de trabajo. Los síntomas depresivos eran los problemas asociados más frecuentes. Los episodios de estrés guardaban una alta correlación con las variables inmunológicas: el número de células T, la tasa de Ig y la tasa de componentes de complemento C3 dependían tando del estrés profesional como de los problemas emocionales, mientras que las capacidades de adaptación quedaban reflejadas en la actividad de las células T.
Work and Stress, jul.-set. 1991, vol.5, n°3, p.217-227.
Nogareda Cuixart C.
Carga mental en el trabajo hospitalario: guía para su valoración
En el sumario de esta nota informativa sobre la evaluación de la carga mental entre el personal sanitario: concepto de carga mental y técnica de evaluación; factores de la carga mental en el trabajo hospitalario (factores relacionados con la actividad laboral, con la organización del trabajo y con los horarios); lista de control para la evaluación de la carga mental; aplicación del método. Tablas ilustrativas sobre este tema.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 6p. 12 ref.
Dupuis H., Hartung E., Haverkamp M.
Acute effects of transient vertical whole-body vibration
The question as to whether shock-type whole-body vibration causes increasingly acute strain was investigated. Random vibrations were superimposed with shocks differing in amplitude and in number per unit of time in a systematic manner. A total of 17 men were exposed to vibration from an electrohydraulic simulator. The following strain criteria were used: biodynamic behaviour of the trunk and the head, electrical activity of the muscles of the back and the neck, subjective sensation, skin temperature in the lumbar area and visual and tracking performance. It was found that increasing shock amplitude and, in some experiments, also increasing numbers of shocks led to increasingly acute effects that varied, depending on the kind of shock used. New methods should be developed for the assessment of transient vibration that are better than the existing standards.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.63, No.4, p.261-265. Illus. 8 ref.
Daltroy L.H., Larson M.G., Wright E.A., Malspeis S., Fossel A.H., Ryan J., Zwerling C., Liang M.H.
A case-control study of risk factors for industrial back injury: Implications for primary and secondary prevention programs
Data were collected on 228 consecutive back injuries in Boston's General Mail Facility and 228 non-injured controls drawn randomly from each case's work unit, matching on craft (clerk, mailhandler, maintenance), shift, and general supervisor. Data were collected on age, sex, duration of employment, 3 year history of injury claims, overtime work in the past 2 weeks, job change in the past 60 days, and machine vs. manual job. Risk factors for back injury were examined. They included history of back injury claim, younger age, shorter duration of employment, recent job change, and history of non-back injury claim. Among heavy lifters (vs. clerks) overtime and being female increased the risk of injury.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.4, p.505-515. 26 ref.
Lázaro Borja C., Mayor Martínez L.
(Motivación para la seguridad de los trabajadores e incidencia del estrés en la siniestralidad del sector de la construcción)
It is assumed that work safety motivation plays an essential role in the number of accidents. In order to assess the perception of employees towards hazardous or high-risk situations and actions, their motivation in the direction of safety, and their perception of work stressors, a questionnaire responding to the specific features of the building industry was developed and distributed to a number of workers in this industry. A direct relationship was found between perception of risks and safety motivation. In addition, perception of work stressors is not correlated with safety motivation. The need for adequate safety schemes to be controlled and planned both by company management and the public administration is pointed out.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1991, No.44, p.23-29. Illus. 10 ref.
Nakao H., Itani T., Aoyama H.
Recognition of stress in workers (Report 1) - Relationship between recognition of causes of stress and reaction
Kinrōsha no sutoresu no ninshiki ni kansuru chosa (dai ichi hō) - Sutoresu gen-in no sonzai kasho no ninshiki to jotai ya hannō ni kansuru ninshiki no kanren to sono ruikei [en japonés]
Three aspects of the recognition of stress in 665 workers were investigated, namely, causes of stress, stress reaction and modifying factors. The workers who recognised that the causes of their stress were mainly in "daily irritations" or "minor events which happened occasionally" accounted for 82.5% of all subjects, and the workers who recognised that their stress was caused mainly by "major life events" recognised the stress reaction mainly as "irritability", and their actual stressor was "business in work". On the contrary, the recognition of stress reaction of the "major life events" group was represented by "depression/anxiety", and their actual stressors were not only major events such as "promotion or transfer" but also pyschological factors such as "low emotional support by family members". The mean age and rank of the "major life events" group were significantly higher than those of the other groups. The workers therefore had different types of recognition depending on such factors as age and rank.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 15 June 1991, Vol.46, No.2, p.688-698. 20 ref.
Work, stress, disease and life expectancy
This book provides a major evaluation of the role of psychological factors in disease and life expectancy and bridges the gap between the psychomedical literature and research on occupational stress. It investigates the role of stress as a cause of disease and presents new evidence to support the view that psychological factors can be of causal importance in determining disease propensity and life expectancy.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO22 9SA, United Kingdom, 1991. xi, 255p. Illus. ca.900 ref. Index. Price: GBP 39.50.
Serxner S., Catalano R., Dooley D., Mishra S.
Tobacco use: Selection, stress, or culture?
The effects of selection (personal characteristics), job stress, and culture models on the association between occupation and smoking were empirically estimated on a random sample of 2,362 employed adults in Orange County (California, USA), using data collected through the Orange County Health Survey. The largest proportion of smokers were blue-collar workers (32.4%). The logistic regression analysis results indicated that age, sex, education, ethnicity, job stress, and the industry in which employees work had significant impact on the risk of smoking. The findings imply that all three models contribute to smoking behaviour. Smoking cessation and prevention programmes may include elements that address both stress and environment in intervention design. Stress models imply that such programmes should focus on change in individual coping mechanisms; social environment models imply that change in group norms and attitudes is necessary.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1035-1039. 25 ref.
Work stress in emergency medical technicians
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) participated in a union-sponsored study to better understand the dynamics underlying their high turnover rate. Three questionnaires were used: the Occupational Stress Index, which assesses stress, strain, and coping; the Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals; and a job satisfaction survey. The sample had high stress, strain, and burnout scores. Coping skills were within the normal range. Burnout, stress, strain, and coping were significantly related to job satisfaction, worry about infectious diseases, and perceptions of poor treatment by emergency room personnel and fire fighters. The areas of greatest job dissatisfaction were: low pay; lack of comfortable quarters; inadequacy of equipment; administrators' unfamiliarity with the work-related demand and stressors faced by EMTs; the risk of developing health problems.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.991-997. 15 ref.
Stress and health in UK organizations: A trade union case study
This paper presents an account of a recent project at the Stress Research and Control Centre, Birkbeck College, University of London, concerned with problems of occupational health and organisation stress, and draws attention to some key issues in the management of such problems and the implementation of related programmes.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.5, No.4, p.325-329. 10 ref.
Guppy A., Gutteridge T.
Job satisfaction and occupational stress in UK general hospital nursing staff
This study investigated factors associated with the perceptions of stress reported by nurses in a general hospital environment in the UK. The levels and sources of stress experienced by nursing staff were examined in relation to the type of ward or department, and nursing grade. The association between reported stress and job satisfaction was also examined. By means of a self-completion questionnaire survey, data were collected from 234 nurses (92% female) from 24 wards in a single general hospital. The factor analysis identified two main factors concerned with sources of stress: interpersonal relations and resource problems, and dealing with death. Although there were no differences found across wards, the analyses of variance revealed that reported stress varied over different nursing grades. It was also found that job satisfaction was correlated with nursing experience and negatively related to stress.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.5, No.4, p.315-323. Illus. 12 ref.
Richardsen A.M., Burke R.J.
Occupational stress and job satisfaction among Canadian physicians
The present paper examines occupation stress in a national sample of Canadian physicians. Data was collected from 2584 physicians representing all ten Canadian provinces using questionnaires. Results showed that major sources of stress indicated by physicians were largely related to time pressures, and that ability to help patients and relationships with colleagues were major sources of satisfaction. A number of stressors and work demands contributed to overall stress, and satisfaction with several aspects of practice contributed to overall satisfaction. Results indicated that physicians who experienced greater levels of occupational stress were less satisfied with their practices and had more negative attitudes about the health care system.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.5, No.4, p.301-313. Illus. 19 ref.
Bhalla S., Jones B., Flynn D.M.
Role stress among Canadian white-collar workers
The incidence of various stressors at work and outside work was examined in a group of public service workers within a large Canadian federal government department. Workers were either in clerical, technical and supervisory ('officers'), or management positions. Measures of work stress included role stressors (load, insufficiency, conflict, ambiguity and responsibility), as well as stress due to the physical environment. Both life events (death, divorce etc) and daily life problems were included as measures of non-work stress. The results showed that clerical workers were distinguished by higher levels of insufficiency, officers by higher levels of conflict and the lowest levels of job satisfaction and organisational commitment, and managers by higher levels of perceived responsibility for others. The results are discussed in terms of social role theory.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.5, No.4, p.289-299. Illus. 18 ref.
Ellis J.L., Gordon P.R.
Farm family mental health issues
This literature review addresses the behavioural and mental health problems in rural farm families in the context of social changes in the 20th century. The manifestations of increased mental stress in the farming environment are explored, including psychological and medical complaints. Special problems encountered by the elderly, women, and adolescents are addressed. Innovative mental health services and programmes are offered as examples of successful solutions.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.493-502. 35 ref.
Earnshaw J., Cooper C.L.
Workers' compensation in stress-related claims: Some thoughts for employers in the UK
This article looks at the extent to which the Workmen's Compensation Laws in the USA and Canada accommodate stress-related claims. It questions the extent to which a similar pattern may follow in the UK and the potential implications for employers.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.5, No.3, p.253-257. 8 ref.
Nelson D.L., Sutton C.D.
The relationship between newcomer expectations of job stressors and adjustment of the new job
This study examined the relationship between unrealistic expectations of any organisation's newcomers regarding job stressors and subsequent adjustment to the new job. Using a sample of 91 new employees, measures of expected stressors (gathered prior to the first day of work) were compared with stressors reported after 6 months on the job. The study examined the relationship between the accuracy of expected stressors (demands) and 3 indicators of job adjustment: job satisfaction; job involvement; and distress symptoms. The results provided partial support for the hypothesis that newcomers who underestimate job stressors have more difficulty adjusting on the new job than do newcomers who overestimate job stressors.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.5, No.3, p.241-251. Illus. 30 ref.
Seidman S.A., Zager J.
A study of coping behaviours and teacher burnout
This study investigated whether or not factors of teacher burnout were associated with adaptive and maladaptive coping behaviour. It was found, in a sample of 365 US (north Texas) school teachers, that many physical and psychological problems (e.g., stomach aches and depression) were related to teacher burnout factors. The data also showed that certain maladaptive coping mechanisms (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption) were associated with higher teacher burnout, while adaptive coping strategies (e.g., hobbies) were related to lower burnout levels among school teachers. An association was also revealed between certain demographic factors (e.g., sex) and coping behaviour.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.5, No.3, p.205-216. 80 ref.
Hyytiäinen K., Uutela A.
Work factors related to stress and recurrent low back pain among Finnish planners and workers
Factors related both to the experience of prolonged stress and to recurrent low back pain were analysed by means of questionnaire responses of planners (clerical employees) (n=146) and workers (manual workers) (n=315) in the Finnish metal industry. Job factors and overall satisfaction turned out to be related independently to stress in both groups. The strongest relation was found between stress and organisational job characteristics. Among the workers physical exhaustion and defects in ergonomy were also related to the experience of stress. Factors related to low back pain were mainly physical in origin, although organisational factors also made some contribution to such pain.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.5, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 24 ref.
Turnage J.J., Spielberger C.D.
Job stress in managers, professionals, and clerical workers
The intensity and frequency of occurrence of 30 job stressors were examined in 308 white-collar employees of a large manufacturing firm, consisting of managers, professionals and clerical personnel. The highest levels of stress intensity were attributed to 'lack of opportunity for advancement' and 'poor or inadequate supervision'. Individual stressors rated as occurring most often during the past 6 months were 'frequent interruptions', 'meeting deadlines', and 'dealing with crisis situations'. Factor analyses of the ratings of individual job stressors identified 2 job-stress factors, job pressure and lack of support, which were differentially related to age, sex, occupational level, locus of control, and job tenure and satisfaction. All 3 occupational groups attributed greater intensity to stressors that reflected lack of organisational support than to job pressures. Managers reported experiencing job pressures more often than professionals/engineers, but attributed less stress intensity to these pressures. 'Lack of opportunity for advancement' and 'inadequate salary' were the most salient stressors for the clerical workers. Implications of the findings for the design of stress management and organisational change programmes are discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.5, No.3, p.165-176. Illus. 43 ref.
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