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- Mental stress and burnout
Stress prevention at work checkpoints
This manual includes easy-to-apply checkpoints for identifying stressors in working life and mitigating their harmful effects. It also provides guidance on linking workplace risk assessment with the process of stress prevention. These checkpoints consist of good practices for enterprises and organizations in general, and are especially useful for companies and organizations that wish to incorporate stress prevention into their overall occupational safety and health policy and management systems. The checkpoints are grouped under the following headings: job demands; job control; social support; physical environment; work-life balance and working time; recognition at work; protection from offensive behaviour; job security; information and communication. Each of the checkpoints describes an action, indicates why it is necessary and how to carry it out, and provides further hints and points to remember.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2012. xvi, 119p. Illus. Price: CHF 35.00; USD 35.00; GBP 25.00; EUR 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Stress_prevention_at_work_checkpoints_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Bagaajav A., Myagmarjav S., Nanjid K., Otgon S., Chae Y.M.
Burnout and job stress among Mongolian doctors and nurses
This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of burnout among doctors and nurses in Mongolia. A self-administered questionnaire addressed to 180 doctors and 212 nurses resulted in a response rate of 87%. Burnout was measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) in three scales: personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout. Job stress was measured by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Compared with the prior studies of hospital staffs in other countries, doctors and nurses in Mongolia had relatively higher burnout rates, with personal, work-related and client-related average scores of 45.39, 44.45, and 32.46, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ERI significantly influenced all dimensions of burnout, while over-commitment significantly influenced personal and work-related burnout.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.582-588. 26 ref.
Burnout_and_job_stress_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Innstrand S.T., Langballe E.M., Falkum E, ., Aasland O.G.
Exploring within- and between-gender differences in burnout: 8 different occupational groups
The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in burnout within and between occupations. Burnout was measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. A total of 4965 workers (50.5% women) from eight occupational groups in Norway were investigated: lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers, church ministers, bus drivers and people working in advertising and information technology. Significant latent mean differences in the two dimensions of burnout between men and women were demonstrated. In general, the analyses indicate that overall, women report more exhaustion, but not more disengagement, than men. However, separate analyses indicate that the gender differences vary across occupational groups, especially for the disengagement dimension. Within-gender analyses suggest an approximately similar burnout profile across occupational groups for men and women.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2011, Vol.84, No.7, p.813-824. Illus. 58 ref.
Exploring_within_and_between-gender_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Salmela-Aro K., Rantanen J., Hyvönen K., Tilleman K., Feldt T.
Bergen burnout inventory: Reliability and validity among Finnish and Estonian managers
This study introduces a short measure for burnout (the Bergen Burnout Inventory, BBI) and examines its validity and reliability among managers in Finland and Estonia by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Burnout comprises three dimensions: exhaustion at work (emotional component); cynicism toward the meaning of work (cognitive component); sense of inadequacy at work (behavioral component). A total of 742 young Finnish managers and 414 Estonian managers responded to burnout and effort-reward imbalance scales. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that the BBI can be used for the measurement of burnout in both research and occupational health contexts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.635-645. Illus. 42 ref.
Bergen_burnout_inventory_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Langevin V., François M., Boini S., Riou A.
Psychosocial hazards: Evaluation tools
Risques psychosociaux: outils d'évaluation [en francés]
This document analyses four frequently-used questionnaires for the diagnosis and prevention of occupational stress and psychosocial hazards according to the criteria defined in the article analyzed under (see CIS 11-0587). These questionnaires are the template for identifying psychosocial hazards at work of Quebec Institute for Public Health (INSPQ), the Working conditions and control questionnaire (WOCCQ), the positive and negative occupational stress (SPPN) and the INRS questionnaire for the evaluation of occupational health (SATIN).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.297-316. 24 ref.
FRPS_5.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_6.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_7.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_8.pdf [en francés]
Bridger R.S., Brasher K., Dew A., Kilminster S.
Job stressors in naval personnel serving on ships and in personnel serving ashore over a twelve month period
Sixty one percent of United Kingdom Navy respondents to a questionnaire survey of occupational stress (Phase I) returned follow-up questionnaires twelve months later (Phase II). The questionnaires measured psychological strain resulting from exposure to occupational stressors and measured the presence of stress buffers and demographic, psychological and lifestyle-related confounding factors, including age, rank and gender, mood state and the occurrence of stressful life events outside of work. The prevalence of strain was 31% at Phase I and 33% at Phase II. Fifty percent of personnel had no strain on either occasion, 15% had strain on both occasions and the remainder had strain on one occasion. The main stressor associated with strain at Phase I was an inability to disengage from work and this stressor accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in strain in personnel serving on ships than those serving ashore. The twelve-month follow-up questionnaire (Phase II) re-assessed psychological strain. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors measured at Phase I that predicted strain at Phase II in previously strain-free individuals. A lack of autonomy and control and dissatisfaction with living conditions predicted strain twelve months later in those serving on ships. Of the living conditions assessed, lack of privacy was the most strongly associated with strain twelve months later in those serving on ships. These stressors were not associated with strain twelve months later in those serving ashore. The findings suggest that improvements to the design of the environment on ships may have benefits for the psychological health of personnel.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.710-718. Illus. 28 ref.
Wu S.Y., Li H.Y., Tian J., Zhu W., Li J., Wang X.R.
Health-related quality of life and its main related factors among nurses in China
The present study is to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and analyze the effect of occupational stress, job burnout and coping resource on the HRQOL among nurses in China. A total of 1,012 nurses were recruited from eight hospitals of two provinces in 2008. Data on HRQOL, burnout, occupational stressors, personal strain and coping resources were obtained by means of questionnaires. HRQOL in the nurses was lower than that in the general population. Occupational stressors, personal strain and job burnout correlated negatively with the HRQOL while coping resources was positively related to the HRQOL. Among the predictive factors for HRQOL, occupational stressors (indicated by role insufficiency and physical environment), personal strain (indicated by physical strain and psychological strain), job burnout (indicated by emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy), length of work hours (≥10h per day), diet irregularity and age were the main risk factors for HRQOL, while recreation and self-care were the main protective factors for HRQOL. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.49, No.2, p.158-165. 45 ref.
Health-related_quality.pdf [en inglés]
Wang L.J., Chen C.K., Hsu S.C., Lee S.Y., Wang C.S., Yeh W.Y.
Active job, healthy job? Occupational stress and depression among hospital physicians in Taiwan
The objective of this study was to assess the levels and association of occupational stress and depression rate among physicians, and to compare physicians' occupational stress with that of Taiwanese employees in other occupations. The subjects were physicians employed at 14 participating regional hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires capturing data on demographics, occupational characteristics, occupational stress measured using Job Content Questionnaire and health status measured using Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire were sent to eligible physicians. Results revealed that the depression rate (13.3%) was higher than that found in the general population (3.7%) of Taiwan. The mean scores of the dimensions "work demands" and "job control" were both much higher than for most occupations in Taiwan. Higher depression scores were found in subjects with higher work demands, 8-10 days of being on duty per month and more frequent alcohol consumption, while lower depression scores were found in subjects working in the east Taiwan area, with higher job control and with greater workplace social support. Gender, smoking and working hour were not independently correlated with depression, but the interaction of gender and job control also had an independent effect on depression.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.173-184. Illus. 52 ref.
Active_job.pdf [en inglés]
Langevin V., François M., Boini S., Riou A.
Psychosocial hazards: Evaluation tools
Risques psychosociaux: outils d'évaluation [en francés]
This document analyses the four most frequently-used questionnaires for the diagnosis and prevention of occupational stress and psychosocial hazards according to the criteria defined in article TC 134 (see INS 1111836). These questionnaires are the INRS psychosocial hazards screen, the job content questionnaire (or "Karasek questionnaire"), the effort-rewards imbalance questionnaire (or "Siegrist questionnaire") and the perceived stress level questionnaire.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.101-120. Bibl.ref.
FRPS_1.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_2.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_3.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_4.pdf [en francés]
Langevin V., François M., Boini S., Riou A.
Questionnaires for occupational stress prevention interventions
Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail [en francés]
Questionnaires are often used for the diagnosis and prevention of occupational stress and psychosocial hazards. This article explains that the structure and use of these questionnaires require that certain rules be followed, in particular with respect to the validity, consistency and sensitivity of the psychometric parameters. The article also describes a project currently underway aimed at comparing the most frequently-used evaluation tools available in French for studying occupational stress and psychosocial hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.23-35. 12 ref.
TC_134.pdf [en francés]
Albini E., Zoni S., Parrinello G., Benedetti L, Lucchini R.
An integrated model for the assessment of stress-related risk factors in health care professionals
This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the risk from exposure to occupational stress and burnout in health care workers, and to compare objective data that can represent potential job stressors in hospital wards and subjective symptoms reported by the workers. A total of 230 medical doctors, nurses and ancillary workers of several internal medicine wards of a large public hospital in Northern Italy participated in the study. Data were collected by means of several questionnaires. The average scores of subjective and objective parameters resulted significantly higher in the same sub-units. The correlation analysis showed that the subjective questionnaires were highly inter-related. The multivariate analysis showed that the days of sick leave were significantly related to the subjective questionnaires, and the subjective subscales of emotional exhaustion, job demand and decision latitude were significantly related to some of the objective parameters. These results support the integrated use of multiple subjective and objective assessment tools as the most appropriate approach for the evaluation of occupational stress.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.15-23. 35 ref.
An_integrated_model.pdf [en inglés]
Compassion fatigue: experiences in occupational health, human resources, counselling and police
This study examines the impact that working with distressed employees, clients and members of the public has on four caring professions: occupational health advisors (OHAs), human resource advisors (HRs), counsellors (CLs) and family liaison officers (FLOs). Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 276 professionals (64 HRs, 53 OHAs, 114 CLs and 45 FLOs). There were few differences in the level of negative beliefs between groups, although CLs were found to experience more feelings of isolation and FLOs and CLs were more likely to believe that there was no justice in the world. OHAs, CLs and FLOs were significantly more likely to demonstrate personal growth than HRs. Reflection on the work facilitated through professional or peer supervision and a healthy lifestyle was found to be associated with higher levels of personal growth and satisfaction with their performance at work.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.60, No.2, p.133-138. 19 ref.
Compassion_fatigue_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Collins S., Karasek R.
Reduced vagal cardiac control variance in exhausted and high strain job subjects
The objectives of this study were to propose methodological strategies for analyzing vagal cardiac control based on the Stress Disequilibrium Theory (SDT) using high frequency power of heart rate variability (HFP) and short term variance of HFP, as well as to provide evidence of reduced vagal cardiac control range and variability in high strain job and exhausted subjects. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, diary reports and a standardized occupational code linkage in 36 healthy mid-aged males with varying strain jobs. Subjects were Holter-monitored for 48 hours, including a work and rest day. Comparisons were made between 10 high and 22 low job strain jobs. Furthermore, four subjects categorized as exhausted were analyzed separately. Findings support the hypothesis that job strain is associated with reductions in cardiac vagal variance, and that reduced system variability may be a characteristic of exhaustion.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.267-278. Illus. 26 ref.
Reduced_vagal_cardiac_control.pdf [en inglés]
Cowlishaw S., Evans L., McLennan J.
Work-family conflict and crossover in volunteer emergency service workers
A growing body of literature indicates that organizational and work demands place pressure on the partners and families of volunteer workers, as it does on paid workers. This study evaluated a conceptual model integrating work-family conﬂict and stress crossover theoretical frameworks, to investigate the mechanisms by which emergency service volunteer work predicts outcomes for the partners of volunteers. Matched data from 102 couples in which one partner was an Australian emergency services volunteer (fire-fighter, ambulance officer or emergency rescue volunteer) were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Findings suggested that one mechanism by which inter-role conflict related to partner adjustment was through elevated withdrawn marital behaviour and decreased intimacy reported by the couple, which indirectly affected partners' distress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.24, No.3, p.342-358. Illus. 59 ref.
Work-family_conflict.pdf [en inglés]
Wadsworth E.J., Chaplin K.S., Smith A.P.
The work environment, stress and well-being
Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is concluded that it is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.635-639. Illus. 18 ref.
Bevan A., Houdmont J., Menear N.
The management standards indicator tool and the estimation of risk
The indicator tool of the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) in the United Kingdom offers a measure of exposure to psychosocial work conditions that may be linked to stress-related outcomes. The HSE recommends that indicator tool data should be used as a basis for discussions concerned with the identification of psychosocial work conditions that might warrant prioritization for intervention. However, operational constraints may render discussions difficult to convene and when they do occur, the absence of information on risks associated with exposures can make it difficult to identify intervention priorities. The objective of this study was to examine the utility of the indicator tool for the identification of a manageable number of psychosocial work conditions as intervention candidates and to assess whether administration of a measure of stress-related outcomes alongside the indicator tool can facilitate the identification of intervention priorities. One thousand and thirty-eight employees in the London region of the Prison Service completed the indicator tool and a measure of psychological well-being. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk of impairment to well-being associated with exposure to psychosocial work conditions. The indicator tool identified 34 psychosocial work conditions as warranting improvement. Intervention priority was given to those working conditions that were both reported to be poor by ≥50% of respondents and associated with risk of impairment to well-being. This method allowed for the identification of four areas for priority intervention.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.7, p.525-531. 24 ref.
Autoridade para as condições do trabalho (ACT)
Manual - Stress in work premises
Manual - Stresse nos locais de trabalho [en portugués]
This CD-ROM includes a training manual for the prevention of stress at the workplace, together with related documents. The manual is divided into five modules: definition of stress; mechanisms and effects of stress on health; stressors at the workplace; consequences of stress; stress prevention and diagnosis. This course is aimed at managers, human resources staff and trade union representatives.
CGTP-IN, Rua Victor Cordon 1, 1249-102 Lisbon, Portugal, 2010. CD-ROM.
Tucker P., Brown M., Dahlgren A., Davies G., Ebden P., Folkard S., Hutchings H., Åkerstedt T.
The impact of junior doctors' worktime arrangements on their fatigue and well-being
Many doctors report working excessively demanding schedules. This study compared groups of junior doctors working on different schedules in order to identify which features of schedule design most negatively affected their fatigue and well-being in recent weeks. Completed by 336 doctors, the questionnaires focused on the respondents' personal circumstances, work situation, work schedules, sleep, and perceptions of fatigue, work-life balance and psychological strain. Working seven consecutive nights was associated with greater accumulated fatigue and greater work-life interference, compared with working just 3 or 4 nights. Having only one rest day after working nights was associated with increased fatigue. Working a weekend on-call between two consecutive working weeks was associated with increased work-life interference. Working frequent on-calls (either on weekends or during the week) was associated with increased work-life interference and psychological strain. Inter-shift intervals of <10 hours were associated with shorter periods of sleep and increased fatigue. The number of hours worked per week was positively associated with work-life interference and fatigue on night shifts.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.458-465. Illus. 34 ref.
Jaworek M., Marek T., Karwowski W., Andrzejczak C., Genaidy A.M.
Burnout syndrome as mediator for the effect of work-related factors on musculoskeletal complaints among hospital nurses
The present study tested the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of work-related factors, factors such as work demands and work stimuli, on the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 237 nurses from various wards across four hospitals located in southwestern Poland. Data was collected through three questionnaires. One of the questionnaires measured work-related factors and contained elements that afforded factor analysis. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that work demands were positively related to burnout syndrome and musculoskeletal complaints, higher work stimuli were associated with lower burnout, but with higher musculoskeletal complaints, and burnout was positively associated with musculoskeletal complaints.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.368-375. Illus. 59 ref.
Stress: The motor of life having become the new workplace killer
Stresse: de motor da vida a novo assassino no trabalho [en portugués]
This article on stress addresses its dual nature: on one hand a motor of life and on the other a "killer at the place of work" (burnout, occupational accidents). It examines the various factors influencing the development of occupational stress, its consequences and coping mechanisms, together with prevention and intervention strategies.
Segurança, Mar.-Apr. 2010, Vol XLV, No. 195, p. 14-17. Illus. 9 ref.
Wu H., Zhao Y., Wang J.N., Wang L.
Factors associated with occupational stress among Chinese doctors: A cross-sectional survey
The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with occupational stress among Chinese doctors in public hospitals. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of May/June 2008. The study population comprised 1989 doctors registered and working in the 20 national hospitals in a Chinese province, who were given a questionnaire pertaining to occupational stress that was assessed based on the Chinese Version Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), demographic characteristics, work situations, occupational roles and personal resources. The response rate was 79.8% (1587 respondents; 673 men, 914 women). The general linear model (GLM) was employed to explore the factors related to occupational stress. All data analysis was performed separately in men and women. Findings are discussed. The results indicate that the major factors associated with occupational stress differ between male and female doctors in China.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.155-164. 42 ref.
Hansen Å.M., Blangsted A.K., Hansen E.A., Søgaard K., Sjøgaard G.
Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers
The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers. Physical activity during the previous week was assessed during work and leisure time by a Danish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and saliva samples were collected. The study group comprised 389 white-collar workers, aged 25-67 years, of which 257 were women. Physical activity during leisure time was associated with higher perceived energy, and for men also with lower perceived stress. Furthermore, physical activity at leisure time affected the association between salivary cortisol and perceived stress and energy, so that respondents being physically active at leisure time and perceiving higher energy showed higher evening saliva cortisol. It is concluded that physically active employees perceive less stress and more energy and that the association between stress-energy and salivary cortisol is affected by vigorous physical activity. Based on these results, it is recommended that office workers exposed to high job strain and inactivity at the job perform physical activity, preferably of high intensity, in order to reduce stress and increase energy.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.143-153. Illus. 50 ref.
Tsai F.J., Chan C.C.
Occupational stress and burnout of judges and procurators
The Chinese versions of the job content questionnaire (JCQ), the Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) were administered to examine occupational stress and personal, work-related and client-related burnout among 211 judicial officers, comprising 87 judges and 98 procurators, in Taiwan. Logistic regression was applied to determine the association between burnout and occupational stress among judges and procurators, adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, marriage, number of children, work experience and working hours). The judicial officers with average age of 36.84 years and work experience of 8.57 years had high averaging scores of job control (70.31), psychological demand (32.23), effort (18.98), reward (48.37), and overcommitment (17.04) as well as personal (49.97), work-related (51.36) and client-related (43.57) burnout. The high psychological demand, effort and overcommitment were significantly associated with both personal and work-related burnout, while the low workplace social support was significantly associated with client-related burnout among the judicial officers. The judges had a significantly higher risk of client-related burnout than the procurators.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.133-142. 21 ref.
Nishitani N., Sakakibara H.
Job stress factors, stress response, and social support in association with insomnia of Japanese male workers
The aim of the present study was to examine the relation of insomnia with job stress factors, stress response and social support. A self-completed questionnaire survey was conducted in 212 male Japanese workers at a synthetic fibre plant. With regard to insomnia, subjects were asked the first five of the eight questions on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Job stress factors, stress response and social support were assessed using the Job Stress Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses showed that psychological job stress factors of poor appropriateness of work and high qualitative workload were associated with insomnia. The psychological stress response of depression and physical stress responses were also related with insomnia. Depression was also related to appropriateness of work. The present results showed that insomnia was closely related with the psychological job stress factor of appropriateness of work and the psychological response of depression. These mutual relationships between insomnia and poor mental health need be investigated further.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.178-184. 32 ref.
Job_stress_factors.pdf [en inglés]
Encuesta europea de empresas sobre riesgos nuevos y emergentes - Resumen
European survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks - Summary [en inglés]
Enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents - Résumé [en francés]
The European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER) asks managers and workers' safety and health representatives about how health and safety risks are managed at their workplace, with a particular focus on the newer psychosocial risks, such as work-related stress, violence and harassment. This summary of the report analyzed under ISN 110712 highlights a selection of the main results from a first analysis of the data, which is drawn from 36,000 interviews carried out in 31 countries. Contents: background; key findings; OSH management; psychosocial risks and their management; drivers and barriers; employee participation; survey methodology.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 16p. Illus.
European_survey.pdf [en inglés]
Enquête_européenne.pdf [en francés]
Encuesta_europea.pdf [en español]
Rial González E., Irastorza X., Cockburn W.
European survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks - Managing safety and health at work
The European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks asks managers and workers' safety and health representatives about how safety and health risks are managed at their workplace, with a particular focus on the psychosocial risks such as work-related stress, violence and harassment. This report highlights a selection of the main results from a first analysis of the data, which is drawn from 36,000 interviews carried out in 31 countries. EU-OSHA's Europe-wide establishment survey aims to assist workplaces to deal more effectively with safety and health and to promote the health and well-being of employees. It provides policy makers with cross-nationally comparable information relevant for the design and implementation of new policies in this field. A summary of the report is published as a separate document and is analyzed under ISN 110713.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 156p. Illus. 57 ref. Price (excluding VAT): EUR 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
European_survey.pdf [en inglés]
Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [en francés]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.
Chouanière D., François M., Guillemy N., Langevin V., Pentecôte A., Ven de Weerdt C., Weibel L., Dornier G., Montagnez A.
Current knowledge concerning occupational stress
Le point des connaissances sur le stress au travail [en francés]
Occupational stress is a problem faced by enterprises of all sizes. 22% of European workers claim to be suffering from health problems caused by occupational stress. This information sheet on occupational stress addresses the following topics: precise definition of occupational stress; factors that give rise to occupational stress; physiological mechanisms involved in the onset of stress; health effects; effects on the productivity of enterprises; how to organize work so as to avoid or limit stress; occupational stress research programmes undertaken by the INRS. Replaces CIS 03-1000.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2010, No.704, 4p. Insert. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/4A7C92097628CD0BC1256DC2002C8CF3/$FILE/ed5021.pdf [en francés]
Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.
Hintsa T., Hintsanen M., Jokela M., Pulkki-Råback L., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Divergent influence of different Type A dimensions on job strain and effort-reward balance
This study examined whether different Type A behaviour dimensions have divergent influence on work stress. The sample comprised 752 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Data were collected by questionnaires. Type A behaviour was reported in subjects' adolescence and adulthood, and work stress was reported in adulthood. Work stress was measured according to Karasek's job demands-job control model and Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance (ERI). High leadership predicted lower job strain. High hard-driving predicted higher job strain. High leadership predicted lower ERI and higher reward at work. High aggression, hard-driving and eagerness-energy predicted ERI. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, Vol.52, No.1, p.1-7. 52 ref.
Lin Y.H., Chen C.Y., Hong W.H., Lin Y.C.
Perceived job stress and health complaints at a bank call center: Comparison between inbound and outbound services
This study investigated how perceived job stress and health status differ, as well as the relationships to inbound (incoming calls) versus outbound (outgoing calls) calling activities, for call center workers in a bank in Taiwan. The bank employed 289 call center workers aged from 19 to 54 years. Data were obtained on individual factors, health complaints, perceived level of job stress and major job stressors by means of questionnaires. Overall, 33.5% of outbound operators and 27.1% of inbound operators reported frequently or always experiencing high stress at work, however, the differences between inbound and outbound operators were insignificant. "Having to deal with difficult customers" was the most frequent job stressor for all workers. Musculoskeletal discomfort, eye strain, and hoarse or sore throat were the most prevalent complaints. Workers who perceived higher levels of job stress had significantly increased risks of multiple health problems, including eye strain, tinnitus, hoarse or sore throat, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, irritable stomach or peptic ulcers, and musculoskeletal discomfort (with odds ratios ranging from 2.13 to 8.24).
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.349-356. 20 ref.
Lee K.H., Yoon K., Ha M., Park J., Cho S.H., Kang D.
Heart rate variability and urinary catecholamines from job stress in Korean manufacturing workers according to work seniority
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between job stress and indicators of autonomic nervous system activity among manufacturing industry workers. It involved 140 employees from a manufacturer of consumer goods. Job stress was assessed using Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured using a heart rate monitor, and urinary catecholamines were measured by an HPLC-ECD. Information on demographic characteristics, previous job history, smoking status and alcohol consumption was also collected by means of questionnaires. Job stress did not have a significant effect on HRV or catecholamines. However, low-frequency HRV was significantly higher in the high-strain group of subjects with a short duration of employment. The results also show that HRV can be used as an indicator of job stress in employees with a short duration of employment.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.331-338. 46 ref.
Marchand A., Boyer R., Martin M., Nadeau C.
Predictive factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder following a traumatic event for police officers - Retrospective component
Facteurs prévisionnels du développement de l'état de stress post-traumatique à la suite d'un événement traumatique chez les policiers - Volet rétrospectif [en francés]
Frequently exposed to traumatic events, some police officers are subject to post-traumatic stress disorder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors as well as the coping factors that facilitate the adaptation of these workers following their involvement in such events. It involved 169 volunteers from the Police Department of the City of Montreal, among whom 132 had been exposed to at least one traumatic event. Data were collected by means of interviews and questionnaires, and subjected to multivariate statistical analyses aimed at highlighting the main predictive factors. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xi, 109p. Illus. 152 ref. Price: CAD 11.55. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Vézina M., eds.
Matrix for the identification of psychosocial risks at work
Grille d'identification des risques psychosociaux au travail [en francés]
Occupational health professionals are increasingly concerned by the extent of work-related mental health problems. A growing number of cases relate to psychological distress, burnout, depression or, more generally, to occupational stress. Within this context, an important need has arisen for a tool allowing a simple evaluation of the probability of high psychosocial risks in certain occupational settings, thus allowing judging whether a further investigation of the case is warranted. This document presents a simple quantitative tool which also includes educational features, aimed at assisting professionals in identifying actions to be implemented or targets to be reached within the enterprise.
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 94, avenue Wolfe, Quebec G1V 5B3, Canada, 2009. 38p.
Grille_d'identification.pdf [en francés]
Estrés laboral y evaluación de riesgos
Main topics covered in this practical data sheet on occupational stress and hazard evaluation: definition of occupational stress; symptoms; responsibilities of employers; hazard evaluation; hazard classification; preventive actions to be taken; implementation of the measures; control of the effectiveness of the measures taken.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2009, No.54, p.54-57. Illus. 1 ref.
Estrés_laboral.pdf [en español]
OSH in figures: Stress at work - Facts and figures
According to the fourth European Survey of Working Conditions, carried out in 2005 in all Member States of the European Union, stress was experienced by an average 22% of working Europeans. In 2002, the annual economic cost of work-related stress in 15 EU countries was estimated at EUR 20 billion. Contents of this report on stress at work in Europe: introduction; prevalence of stress at work; stress by age; stress by gender; stress by sector and occupation; stress by employment status; expert survey on emerging psychosocial risks; cost of stress-related health problems; legislation.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 132p. Illus. 76 ref.
Manufacturing work and organizational stresses in export processing zones
This survey investigated the interaction between organizational and management factors among workers and supervisors in manufacturing units in export processing zones in the Philippines. The survey involved 23 establishments, 630 workers, and 47 supervisors. Both workers and supervisors reported health problems and job dissatisfaction. The most prevalent issues among workers were the need to upgrade skills, being pressured at work, fast paced work, repetitive work, and that work is both physically and mentally tiring. Supervisors described their work as challenging and stimulating, needing regular upgrading of skills and needing literacy in information technology.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.543-550. 31 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_543.pdf [en inglés]
Tei-Tominaga M., Akiyama T., Miyake Y., Sakai Y.
The relationship between temperament, job stress and overcommitment: A cross-sectional study using the TEMPS-A and a scale of ERI
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between temperament, job stress, and overcommitment. Self-administered questionnaires were obtained from 730 employees of a Japanese IT services company. Data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis. Findings showed that depressive and anxious temperaments attenuated the influence of working hours on stress, and influenced the effects of effort and rewards independently.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.509-517. 34 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_509.pdf [en inglés]
Urakawa K., Yokoyama K.
Sense of coherence (SOC) may reduce the effects of occupational stress on mental health status among Japanese factory workers
To examine if sense of coherence (SOC) can reduce the adverse effects of job stress on mental health status, self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 740 workers in a manufacturing industry (participation rate 62.8%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that for both men and women, mental health status was adversely related to job demand whereas it was positively associated with SOC. Similarly, the mental health status was affected adversely by managerial work in males, whereas was positively by co-workers support in females. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.503-508. 29 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_503.pdf [en inglés]
Gimeno D., Amick B.C., Barrientos-Gutiérrez T., Mangione T.W.
Work organization and drinking: An epidemiological comparison of two psychosocial work exposure models
To examine the relationship between psychosocial work exposure and drinking behaviours, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 3,099 workers in the United States. Factors assessed included job stress and alienating job conditions. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. High strain work showed no associations, while workers in passive jobs had an increased likelihood of heavy drinking (odds ratio (OR) 1.29) and a lower likelihood of frequent drinking (OR 0.71). Jobs with low complexity and low constraint related to more frequent drinking (OR 1.60). No associations with drinking at work were observed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.305-317. 75 ref.
Boscolo P., Di Donato A., Di Giampaolo L., Forcella L., Reale M., Dadorante V., Alparone F., Pagliaro S., Kouri M., Magrini A., Fattorini E.
Blood natural killer activity is reduced in men with occupational stress and job insecurity working in a university
The objective of this study was to examine the immune response to job strain and insecurity among men working in an Italian university. Anxiety, job strain, job insecurity and subjective symptoms were measured by questionnaires. Blood NK cytotoxic activity was determined by an in vitro method and lymphocyte subpopulations by flow-cytometry analysis. Library workers aged over 40 showed higher values of job strain, anxiety and subjective symptoms and lower blood NK activity. Young temporary employees also had reduced blood NK activity. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that not only anxiety and depression but also high levels of job strain and/or insecurity may present risks to health by reducing blood NK activity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.787-794. Illus. 30 ref.
Kristiansen J., Mathiesen L., Nielsen P.K., Hansen Å.M., Shibuya H., Petersen H.M., Lund S.P., Skotte J., Jørgensen M.B., Søgaard K.
Stress reactions to cognitively demanding tasks and open-plan office noise
To investigate the effects of cognitively-demanding work tasks and office noise on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular responses and electromyography (EMG) activity in the trapezius muscles, 10 female volunteers were exposed to simulated open-plan office noise for 35 min while engaged in cognitively demanding tasks. Cognitively demanding work tasks were associated with changes in HRV, systolic blood pressure and EMG that reflects increased sympathetic activity in the autonomic nervous system. No effect of noise was observed, except for a higher rating of perceived exertion in cervical region and, contrary to expectations, a 4% lower diastolic blood pressure in the noise conditions.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.631-641. Illus. 42 ref.
Elovainio M., Ferrie J.E., Singh-Manoux A., Gimeno D., De Vogli R., Shipley M.J., Vahtera J., Brunner E.J., Marmot M.G., Kivimäki M.
Cumulative exposure to high-strain and active jobs as predictors of cognitive function: The Whitehall II study
A high-strain job (a combination of high job demands and low job control) is expected to increase the risk of health problems, whereas an active job (high demands and high control) can be hypothesised to be associated with a greater capacity to learn. This study tested associations between high-strain and active jobs and cognitive function using data on 4146 civil servants (2989 men and 1157 women) in the United Kingdom, aged 35-55 years at baseline. Cumulative exposure to both high-strain and active jobs was assessed at various points in time (1985-1988, 1989-1990 and 1991-1993). Cognitive performance was assessed in 1997-1999 and 2003-2004 using several tests. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that associations between high-strain or active jobs and cognition are mostly explained by socioeconomic position.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.32-37. 36 ref.
Berset M., Semmer N.K., Elfering A., Amstad F.T., Jacobshagen N.
Work characteristics as predictors of physiological recovery on weekends
This study investigated whether work characteristics predict physiological recovery on a rest day. Some researchers have indeed hypothesized that high demands and low control at work would lead to higher cortisol values and thus poor recovery on a rest day. A total of 69 individuals participated in this study. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and analyses of salivary cortisol on two workdays and on a subsequent Sunday (rest day). Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. It was found that individuals with less job control had higher cortisol levels and consequently poorer recovery on the rest day than those with more control. Neither job demands nor the interaction of demands and control predicted a change in cortisol levels from workday to rest day. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.3, p.188-192. 28 ref.
Bonde J.P., Munch-Hansen T., Agerbo E., Suadicani P., Wieclaw J., Westergaard-Nielsen N.
Job strain and ischemic heart disease: A prospective study using a new approach for exposure assessment
This cohort study analyzed the association between psychosocial workload and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), using a new approach allocating measures of psychosocial load to individuals based on their estimated average exposure levels. Subjects consisted of 18,258 Danish public service workers in 1106 work units (79% women) who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and were who were followed during the period 2002 to 2007, during which 101 were admitted to a hospital due to IHD. Neither job strain nor general job dissatisfaction was found to be a determinant of IHD risk among this Danish population of predominantly female public service workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.732-738. 42 ref.
Lee M.S., Paek D., Eum K.D., Siegrist J., Li J., Lee H.E., Cho S.I.
Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy
The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. In the chronically stressed group, delayed TTP was associated with an elevated imbalance between effort and reward (OR 0.47). A similar but somewhat weaker effect was found for the overall group (OR 0.67).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 53 ref.
László K.D., Kopp M.S.
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment at work are associated with painful menstruation: Results from the Hungarostudy epidemiological panel 2006
The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between work stress, defined according to the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model, and painful menstruation. Data on 821 pre-menopausal and non-pregnant working women from a Hungarian epidemiological cohort were analysed. The association between work stress and dysmenorrhoea was investigated using logistic regression. After controlling for age, occupational class, education, marital status, parity, unsuccessfully trying to conceive for at least one year, previous miscarriage, smoking, body-mass index, physical activity and depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were associated with an increased risk of menstrual pain (odds ratios 1.42 and 1.07 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.157-163. 48 ref.
Tokuda Y, Hayano K., Ozaki M., Bito S., Yanai H., Koizumi S.
The interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among hospital physicians in Japan: A path analysis
In Japan, a growing number of physicians are leaving their hospitals because of difficult working conditions in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 for hospital physicians throughout Japan to analyze the interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among physicians using various standardized questionnaires. Of 336 physicians invited to participate in the study, 236 responded (response rate 70%). Sixty physicians (25.4%) were women with a mean age of 41 years. In the path analysis, burnout and poor mental health were related directly to job dissatisfaction and short sleeping time, while they were related indirectly to poor work control and heavy on-call duty. In the multi-group path analysis of both genders, sleeping time was related to job satisfaction more likely among female physicians but less among male physicians. Immediate, extensive and decisive measures need to be implemented to improve work condition and to reduce overwork among hospital physicians.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.166-172. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/166/_pdf/-char/ja/ [en inglés]
Halvani G.H., Zare M., Mirmohammadi S.J.
The relation between shift work, sleepiness, fatigue and accidents in Iranian industrial mining group workers
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the rate of fatigue and sleepiness among shift and non-shift workers and its relation to occupational accidents. The study included 137 shift workers of Iranian Industrial Mining Group and 130 non-shift workers as controls. A multi-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, Piper Fatigue Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were applied. The mean of PFS scores in the two groups was significantly different, but the difference in the mean of ESS scores was not significant. Shift workers who reported accidents had a higher score on fatigue than shift workers reporting no accidents whereas the difference in the number of accidents in the two groups was not significantly related to the rate of sleepiness. The rate of fatigue and the number of the work accidents were higher in shift workers. Fatigue was also more strongly associated with occupational accidents than with sleepiness. Results seem to indicate that the evaluation of fatigue as compared to sleepiness is a more accurate factor for preventing occupational accidents.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.134-138. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/134/_pdf/-char/ja/ [en inglés]
Phelps A., Lloyd D., Creamer M., Forbes D.
Caring for carers in the aftermath of trauma
The potential impact on psychological well-being of working in the caring professions in the aftermath of trauma and disaster has been recognized for many years. These stress-related conditions include burnout, compassion fatigue and vicarious traumatization. Although prevalent, these conditions do not affect all workers in the field. Various studies have investigated potential risk and protective factors. It is argued that the outcomes of this research should be used to guide practical interventions in the workplace designed to minimize stress-related problems. A framework that incorporates interventions at the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels is outlined, and research investigating the efficacy of interventions at each of these levels is recommended.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.18, No.3, p.313-330. 72 ref.
Otsuka Y., Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Mori I.
Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers
This study examined the relationships between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly-selected sample of 2000 workers, among whom 1821 responded (a response rate of 91.1%). Data were subjected to covariance analyses. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration levels. High levels of social support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue and concentration difficulty levels. These findings suggest that improving coping skills such as using social support or positive reframing may mitigate the adverse health effects of long working hours.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_22.pdf [en inglés]
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