Vibration - 974 entradas encontradas
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Ayari H., Thomas M., Doré S.
A design of experiments for statistically predicting risk of adverse health effects on drivers exposed to vertical vibrations
An injury risk factor (IRF), which indicates the risk of adverse health effect to lumbar column arising from mechanical vibrations, is developed. Experiments were conducted to measure acceleration levels at the seat of drivers, posture, morphology, density, damping rate and body mass as independent variables. A parametric finite-element model of the lumbar rachis was developed. It is shown that the IRF increases with ageing and an IRF of 30% is proposed as a threshold for fatigue purposes. This level is reached if a peak acceleration level greater than 3 m/s² is applied to a light (55 kg) and an old driver with a low bone density and a damping rate of 20%. This vibration threshold must be reduced to 2.7 m/s² if the driver's weight increases to 75 kg and to 2 m/s² if the driver is heavy (98 kg). Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.3, p.221-232. Illus. 28 ref.
A_design_of_experiments_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Sakaguchi S., Miyai N., Takemura S., Fukumoto J., Tomura T., Shiozaki M., Kurasawa S., Yokoi K., Terada K., Yoshimasu K., Miyashita K.
Morphological classification of nailfold capillary microscopy in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the morphologic classification of nailfold capillary microscopy and the clinical and demographic findings in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration. The subjects were 44 Japanese male forestry workers. The nailfold capillaries (NC) and the mean blood flow velocity were measured on the middle finger of the dominant side by a peripheral capillary observer. Findings suggest that the nailfold capillary microscopy may reflect the effect of the vibration exposure.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.614-618. Illus. 16 ref.
Morphological_classification_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Chatillon J., Donati M., eds.
Noise and vibration at the place of work
Bruit et vibrations au travail [en francés]
This full issue on noise and vibrations at the place of work includes 30 articles selected among the papers presented at a conference organized by INRS in March 2011, grouped under five headings: effects on human health and medical aspects; regulations and application and hazard evaluation strategies; evaluation at the workplace; collective prevention; research needs.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2011, No.223, p.5-188 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Effets_sur_l'homme_et_aspects_médicaux.pdf [en francés]
Réglementation_et_stratégies.pdf [en francés]
Evaluation_au_poste_de_travail.pdf [en francés]
Prévention_technique_des_risques.pdf [en francés]
Besoins_en_recherche.pdf [en francés]
Dupéry M., Fabin C., Le Corre E., Montchamp E., Montléon P.Y., Nicolazzo P., Petitfour R., Vilaine C., Wargon C.
Vibrations, power trucks and earthmoving equipment: epidemiological, ergonomical and metrological surveys
Vibrations, chariots automoteurs et engins de chantier: enquêtes épidémiologique, ergonomique et métrologique [en francés]
An ergonomic observation and measurement survey of whole-body vibration exposure was carried out at six waste treatment facilities on six types of trucks (compactors, bulldozers, excavators, loaders, dump trucks and power trucks). In half of the cases, vibration emissions were above the values triggering preventive actions. Simultaneously, two questionnaire surveys was carried out, the first among employers and workers using construction site equipment, power trucks for materials handling or fork-lift trucks for the purpose of assessing their knowledge of vibration hazards, the other among workers on their state of health. These surveys confirm the widespread ignorance of vibration hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.261-274. Illus. 14 ref.
TF_192.pdf [en francés]
Rosen B., Björkman A., Lundborg G.
Improving hand sensibility in vibration induced neuropathy: A case-series
This study reports a long-term series of nine workers suffering from vibration-induced neuropathy after many years of exposure to hand-held vibrating tools at high or low frequency. They were treated with an anaesthetic skin cream on the forearm repeatedly for a period up to one year (in two cases four years). The aim was to improve their capacity to perceive touch and thereby improve hand function and diminish disability. All participants had sensory hand problems in terms of numbness and impaired hand function influencing. After one year, sensibility (touch thresholds and tactile discrimination) as well as hand function were improved in a majority of the cases. Seven of the participants choose to continue the treatment after the first year and two of them have continued at a regular basis for up to four years.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:13. 18p. 38 ref.
Improving_hand_sensibility.pdf [en inglés]
Cabeças J.M., Milho R.J.
The efforts in the forearm during the use of anti-vibration gloves in simulated work tasks
The objective of this study was to analyze the levels of forearm muscular contraction associated with the use of anti-vibration gloves. Two vibrating tools (multi-cutter and rotary hammer) were used in a simulated work environment. Standard operations were performed by each of the 14 subjects using the two tools. Forearm muscular efforts were measured by surface electromyography (EMG) in four muscles: flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU). For the flexor muscles (FDS and FCU), a decrease tendency in the measured EMG was observed when the operations are performed with gloves relative to the bare hand (a reduction of 5-23% in the percentage of maximum voluntary exertion (%MVE)). For the extensor muscles (ECU), a tendency toward increased muscular contraction was observed when the operations were performed with gloves (an increase of 3-20% in the %MVE). No such tendency was found in the ECRL muscle. It is concluded that anti-vibration gloves may increase forearm fatigue in the posterior forearm (ECU muscle) and decrease forearm fatigue in the FDS muscle during operations with the vibrating tools.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.289-297. Illus. 29 ref.
Ainsa I., Gonzalez D., Lizaranzu M., Bernad C.
Experimental evaluation of uncertainty in hand-arm vibration measurements
The objective of this study was to investigate which factors cause uncertainty in hand-arm vibration evaluation and to what extent they contribute to the total uncertainty of the measurements. Experiments were carried out in order to evaluate separately the factors relating to instrumentation and the methods of fixing accelerometers. The experiments were performed with handles from real machines while being handheld by an operator. Findings show that the fixing method and the accelerometer behaviour are the two main sources of uncertainty. The total uncertainty of the measurements in this work, considering both instrumentation and fixing method, reaches up to 8% of the values measured. Recommendations are made for improving the reliability of the measurements.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.167-179. Illus. 25 ref.
A prospective cohort study of exposure-response relationship for vibration-induced white finger
The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the relation between vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and measures of cumulative (lifetime) exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). Two hundred and forty-nine HTV workers and 138 control men of the same companies participated in a three-year follow-up study. The diagnosis of VWF (Raynaud's phenomenon in the controls) was based on the medical history, the administration of colour charts and the results of a cold test. Tool vibration magnitudes were expressed as root-mean-square acceleration, frequency-weighted according to international standard ISO 5349-1 and also unweighted over the frequency range 6.3-1250 Hz. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, alternative measures of cumulative vibration dose were calculated for each HTV worker. The incidence of VWF varied from 5 to 6% in the HTV workers versus 0 to 1.5% in the controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, measures of cumulative vibration dose derived from total operating hours and high powers of unweighted acceleration gave better predictions of the occurrence of VWF than dose measures calculated from frequency-weighted acceleration. These findings were observed in the entire sample of HTV workers, in those with no VWF at the initial investigation, and in those with normal cold test results at baseline. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, vol.67, No.1, p.38-46. Illus. 27 ref.
Thompson A.M., House R., Krajnak K., Eger T.
Vibration-white foot: A case report
Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) refers to the neurological, vascular and musculoskeletal problems that may arise due to exposure to segmental vibration to the hands. An analogous syndrome may occur in the lower extremities of workers exposed to foot-transmitted vibration. This report describes the case of a worker with a history of foot-transmitted vibration exposure presenting with cold intolerance in the feet and blanching in the toes (Raynaud's syndrome). Case report: A 54-year-old Canadian miner presented with a chief complaint of blanching and pain in his toes. The worker had a history of foot-transmitted vibration exposure over his 18 year career as a miner, primarily from the operation of vehicle-mounted bolting machines. Cold provocation digital plethysmography showed cold-induced vasospastic disease in the feet, but not in the hands.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.7, p.572-574. Illus. 10 ref.
Burström L., Järvholm B., Nilsson T., Wahlström J.
White fingers, cold environment, and vibration-exposure among Swedish construction workers
The aim of this study was to examine the association between white fingers, cold environment, and exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV). The hypothesis was that working in cold climate increases the risk of white fingers. The occurrence of white fingers was investigated as a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 134,757 Swedish male construction workers. Exposure to HAV was based on a job-exposure matrix. Living in the north or south of Sweden was, in a subgroup of the cohort, used as an indicator of the exposure to cold environment. The analyses were adjusted for age and use of nicotine products (smoking and snuff). HAV-exposed workers living in a colder climate had a higher risk for white fingers than those living in a warmer climate (odds ratio (OR) 1.71). As expected, it was found that HAV-exposed workers had an increased risk compared to controls (OR 2.02). The risk for white fingers increased with increased level of exposure to HAV and also with age.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.509-513. 18 ref.
Smets M.P.H., Eger T.R., Grenier S.G.
Whole-body vibration experienced by haulage truck operators in surface mining operations: A comparison of various analysis methods utilized in the prediction of health risks
Whole body vibration (WBV) was measured on eight surface haulage trucks in three size classes (35, 100, 150 ton haul capacities). Vibration was measured at the seat/operator interface in accordance with the ISO 2631-1 standard during 1 h of normal operation. Highest acceleration readings were observed in the z-axis (vertical). Estimated equivalent daily exposure values in the range of 0.44-0.82 ms−2 were observed using the frequency-weighted r.m.s method and 8.7-16.4 ms−1.75 using the vibration dose value method. Assessment was carried out using ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. Operators of surface haulage trucks are regularly exposed to WBV levels that exceed safety limits as dictated by the ISO 2631-1 standard. However, according to ISO 2631-5, the probability of an adverse health effect remains low. These findings confirm an apparent disagreement between the two analysis methods.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2010, Vol.41, No.6, p.763-770. Illus. 20 ref.
Whole-body vibration and degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine - Cause and effect
Ganzkörper-Schwingungen und bandscheibenbedingte Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule - Ursache und Wirkung [en alemán]
This review article explains the mechanisms that cause degenerative diseases of the lumbar column among workers exposed to long-term whole-body vibration.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, July 2010, Vol.60, No.17. p.220-232. Illus. 72 ref.
Bondéelle A., Brasseur G., Clergiot J., Larcher C., Ravallec C.
Equipment and backache - Stop harmful vibration
Machines et mal de dos - Sus aux mauvaises vibrations [en francés]
Whole-body vibration from the use of vehicles or earthmoving equipment are responsible for many health complaints affecting workers. This special feature reviews the health hazards caused by vibration as well as the means of addressing these hazards. Contents: recommendations of the "vibration" working group put together by the INRS; interview of the occupational physician of a food processing enterprise: presentation of a questionnaire for evaluating vibration hazards; selection of fork-lift trucks and working methods for limiting vibration exposure adopted by a manufacturer of biscuits and cereal products; damping of shocks due to speed breakers among drivers of an urban public transport authority; measuring the vibration in loaders used in the quarries of an important building industry group.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2010, No.710, p.16-31. Illus. 15 ref.
Machines_et_mal_de_dos.pdf [en francés]
A longitudinal study of vibration white finger, cold response of digital arteries, and measures of daily vibration exposure
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vibration-induced vascular disorders and measures of daily exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). Two hundred and forty-nine male workers exposed to HTV and 138 unexposed controls from the same enterprises participated in a 3-year follow-up study. The diagnosis of vibration induced white finger (VWF) in the HTV workers and that of Raynaud's phenomenon in the controls was based on the medical history, the administration of colour charts and the results of a cold test with measurement of finger systolic blood pressures. Vibration magnitudes from the tools were measured as r.m.s acceleration, frequency weighted according to international standard ISO 5349-1, and also unweighted over the frequency range 6.3-1,250Hz. Daily vibration exposure was expressed in terms of daily exposure duration and frequency-weighted or unweighted r.m.s. acceleration normalized to a reference period of 8h. Findings suggest that a measure of daily vibration exposure calculated from unweighted r.m.s. acceleration over the frequency range 6.3-1,250Hz performs better for the prediction of vascular disorders in users of vibratory tools than a measure derived from r.m.s. acceleration frequency weighted according to ISO 5349-1. This study provides epidemiological evidence that more weight should be given to intermediate and high-frequency vibration for evaluating the severity of hand-transmitted vibration.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.83, No.3, p.259-272. Illus. 41 ref.
Sauni R., Virtema P., Päkkönen R., Toppila E., Pyykkö I., Uitti J.
Quality of life (EQ-5D) and hand-arm vibration syndrome
The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of life of a population of Finnish metalworkers who were exposed to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and who suffered from white fingers, tingling or numbness of the fingers, musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities or symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A questionnaire on vibration exposure in the workplace and symptoms relating to the upper extremities was sent to a sample of 530 members of the local Metalworkers Union. Among those reporting vibration-induced white fingers (VWF), numbness or tingling of the fingers, or symptoms of CTS, 131 men participated in clinical examinations. Their cumulative lifelong exposure to HAV was evaluated, and the health-related quality of life was assessed using EuroQoL(EQ)-5D. There was an inverse relationship between the EQ-5D index score and cumulative exposure to HAV: as exposure to HAV increased, the quality of life became more impaired. The results of the study suggest that symptoms related to HAV exposure significantly diminish the quality of life.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.209-216. 23 ref.
Krajnak K., Miller G.R., Waugh S., Johnson C., Li S., Kashon M.L.
Characterization of frequency-dependent responses of the vascular system to repetitive vibration
The current frequency weighting proposed in the ISO 5349 standard may underestimate the risk of injury associated with exposure to vibrations of frequencies above 100 Hz. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency-dependent responses of the peripheral vascular system to repeated bouts of vibration. The effects of exposure to vibration at 62.5, 125 and 250 Hz (constant acceleration of 49 m/s2) on vascular morphology, oxidative stress, inflammation, and gene expression were examined in the ventral tail artery of rats. Vascular responses indicative of dysfunction (such as remodelling and oxidative activity) became more pronounced as the frequency of the exposure increased.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2010, Vol.52, No.6, p.584-594. Illus. 52 ref.
Nogareda Cuixart S., Salas Ollé C.
Estudio piloto sobre el impacto de los reductores de velocidad en el conductor de autobús. Estudio electromiográfico
The aim of this study was to examine the possible relationship between the frequency of driving over or through speed limiting obstacles and health hazards in bus drivers. An electromyographic recording was made during a one-hour journey using four sensors on the left and right trapezius and quadratus muscles. Results show that the activity of the trapezius muscle increases significantly when passing over or through speed limiting obstacles. A comparison of absenteeism in drivers on lines with a large number or small number of or through speed limiting obstacles also suggests an increase of musculoskeletal diseases in the former group.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2010, No.57, p.28-34. Illus.
Milosavljevic S., Bergman F., Rehn B., Carman A.B.
All-terrain use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock
Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value. Findings are discussed. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure among New Zealand farmers. Practical recommendations to reduce their exposure to WBV are proposed.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.530-535. Illus. 30 ref.
Winery work - Efforts targeted towards strenuousness
Travaux viticoles - La pénibilité est un combat nouveau [en francés]
This article presents the efforts undertaken by a champagne producer with respect to the prevention of strenuous work. Topics addressed: warming-up before work; manual or electrical picking shears; training on the prevention of upper-extremity MSDs; awareness programme on vibration problems aimed at tractor drivers.
Travail et sécurité, June 2010, No.707, p.42-44. Illus.
Pujol Senovilla L.
Exposición a vibraciones mecánicas. Evaluación del riesgo
This information note presents the basic knowledge on vibrations (hand-arm and whole-body vibration) as well as a methodology to assess their risk, which varies according to the value of the vibration acceleration and to the length of exposure. The values for required action and the threshold limit values are provided in a table.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/839%20web.pdf / [en español]
Evanoff B., Kymes S.
Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome
The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with pre-employment nerve conduction testing as a screening tool for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the workplace. A Markov decision analysis model was used to compare the costs associated with a strategy of screening all prospective employees for CTS and not hiring those with abnormal nerve conduction, versus a strategy of not screening for CTS. The variables in the model included employee turnover rate, the incidence of CTS, the prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities, the relative risk of developing CTS conferred by abnormal nerve conduction screening, the costs of pre-employment screening and the worker's compensation costs to the employer for each case of CTS. It was found that the overall cost to employers was higher when screening was used, USD 503 for the screening strategy versus USD 200 for a no-screening strategy. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.4, p.299-304. Illus. 31 ref.
Heaton R., Hewitt S.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of EN 60745 test codes: BS EN 60745-2-3:2007 angle grinders
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has an ongoing programme of research with the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) to investigate the relationship between manufacturers' declared vibration emission, HSL-measured emission and vibration measured during simulated or real use for different categories of tools. The work described in this report assesses the standard test defined in BS EN 60745-2-3:2007 for usability and reproducibility for angle grinders. The vibration emission values obtained according to the provisions of the test code were compared with vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions. The report concludes that the test code produces data suitable for estimating likely workplace exposures. Duty holders should be advised that care still needs to be taken when using existing manufacturers' data for the purposes of exposure assessment, unless it has been measured according to the latest version of the test code, BS EN 60745-2-3:2007. Manufacturers should be encouraged to replace earlier declaration values with values measured according to the provisions in this standard.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, viii, 208p. Illus. 11 ref.
Evaluation_of_EN_60745_test_codes_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of product documentation provided by suppliers of hand held power tools
This project aimed to assess the legibility, readability and clarity of the user documentation provided by suppliers, and to identify examples of good practice in the design of safety and health information for hand held power tools. A sample of ten user documents provided by manufacturers and suppliers of professional hand held power tools were assessed against research-based guidelines for effective written risk communication. This study identified some examples of effective risk communication in the product manuals and leaflets evaluated. However, there were areas where the documentation could be improved concerning legibility, conspicuity, readability, recall and encouraging user compliance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, vi, 29p. Illus. 38 ref.
Evaluation_of_product_documentation_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Poole K., Mason H.
Health and Safety Executive
The value of the WEST monofilaments in detecting neurosensory deficit caused by hand-arm vibration exposure
Hand-arm vibration syndrome is categorized according to the Stockholm Workshop scales. This comprises a rating system for vascular (circulatory system) and sensorineural (touch and sensation) symptoms, which sufferers of this disease can experience. To establish the extent of the sensory component of this disease these scales require the Occupational Health Physician to decide whether they feel an individual has reduced sensory perception. Quantitative tests such as vibrotactile and thermal perception threshold measurements have been used widely for this, but are generally only available in specialist referral centres. Simple techniques such as monofilaments are cheaper to use and could potentially be used more widely than the specialist quantitative tests. However, it is unclear at present what method of application should be used and how diagnostically useful these are. This study investigates the value of monofilaments in defining neurosensory abnormality caused by excessive exposure to hand-arm vibration by establishing their ability to detect abnormality determined by the standard quantitative tests. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, vi, 17p. 36 ref.
The_value_of_the_WEST monofilaments_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
A review of the literature published since 2004 with potential relevance in the diagnosis of HAVS
Health surveillance for those exposed to hand-arm vibration, and the diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is heavily dependent upon self-reporting of symptoms. However, this self-reporting may not be accurate for a number of reasons including the ability of individuals to recall symptoms, misunderstanding or misidentification of symptoms and fears regarding an individual's job, or ongoing litigation. Therefore techniques that could be used to obtain better information or tests that could be applied to obtain a more accurate diagnosis may be useful in this area. In 2004, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine published an evidence-based review of clinical testing and management of individuals exposed to hand transmitted vibration. More recent work, which is the subject of this report, is a short update review of the literature published in this area since 2004. It is the intention that this review is used to inform future research work in the area of assessment for HAVS.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, v, 62p. 141 ref.
A_review_of_the_literature_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Feedback on the noise and hand arm vibration worker involvement pilot project
The Worker Involvement Activity forms part of the Noise and HAV programme. The aim of this activity was to reduce occupational ill health related to noise and HAV exposure by introducing worker participation projects. Twenty eight companies were recruited by HSE to set up worker involvement projects in July 2006. Four of these pilot projects were selected for this feedback study which aimed to: gain views of worker involvement in the decision making process; gain feedback on the usefulness of the support materials; identify processes and difficulties involved in setting up the project; identify the noise and HAV exposure reduction outcomes from the project; and identify lessons that could be learnt for setting up worker involvement projects. This study found that the worker involvement projects were considered to have been effective, beneficial and reasonably successful in identifying and solving noise and HAV problems, raising risk awareness, improving working relationships between workers and managers, and improving risk assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 51p. 5 ref.
Feedback_on_the_noise_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Safety during garbage collection - Health is not a disposable product
Sicherheit bei der Abfallsammlung - Gesundheit ist keine Wegwerfware [en alemán]
Garbage collection involves a high accident risk. In Germany, one out of ten garbage collectors falls victim to an occupational accident every year resulting in an average of 20 lost workdays. The work is also strenuous, especially with regard to the ageing of the working population. This article addresses the main hazards which lead to accidents during garbage collection and their causes. New and temporary workers are especially at risk and should be trained. A qualification in the form of a "garbage collector's certificate" to be acquired before starting to work would improve the professional status.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.2, p.6-9. Illus. 4 ref.
Sauni R., Pääkkönen R., Virtema P., Jäntti V., Kähönen M., Toppila E., Pyykkö I., Uitti J.
Vibration-induced white finger syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among Finnish metal workers
The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population of Finnish metal workers. A questionnaire on vibration exposure at the workplace and symptoms of the upper extremities was sent to a sample of 530 metalworkers' union members. Those reporting VWF or CTS symptoms were also invited to take part in clinical examinations. Their cumulative lifelong exposure to HAV was evaluated. The incidences VWF and CTS were 8.4% and 4.2% respectively, suggesting that VWF is under-diagnosed in Finland. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.445-453. Illus. 31 ref.
Metrics of whole-body vibration and exposure-response relationship for low back pain in professional drivers: A prospective cohort study
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between whole-body vibration and low back pain (LBP) among professional drivers. The incidence of LBP was investigated in a cohort of 537 drivers over a 2-year period. Data on LBP, individual characteristics and work-related risk factors were obtained during structured interviews. Vibration measurements were made on representative samples of industrial machines and vehicles. Vibration exposure was expressed in terms of either equivalent acceleration over an 8-h reference period or vibration dose value. During the previous 12 months, the incidences of LBP, high pain intensity and lower back disability were 36.3%, 24.6% and 19.2%, respectively. Physical workload, but not psychosocial environment, was significantly associated with the occurrence of LBP. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.893-917. Illus. 54 ref.
Young E., Kreiger N., Purdham J., Sass-Kortsak A.
Prostate cancer and driving occupations: Could whole body vibration play a role?
This literature survey reviews the risk of prostate cancer among whole body vibration related occupations. Based on five case-control and three cohort studies involving driving published between 1996 and 2004, a pooled relative risk estimate of 1.14 was calculated. This increase was not statistically significant.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.551-556. 34 ref.
Occupational exposure to whole body vibration - Train drivers
Whole body vibration exposure of the train drivers working for Turkish state railways was assessed with reference to ISO standard 2631-1 and European Directive 2002/44/EC(CIS 02-24). The vibration measurements were carried out in the drivers' cabins of suburban and intercity trains. Suburban train drivers usually work in a standing posture, while intercity train drivers' work seated and are exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration. Daily exposure action values suggested in European Directive were exceeded in case of intercity train drivers and their exposure falls within the health caution zone of ISO 2631-1. Intercity train drivers are therefore under the risk of having back disorders. It is proposed that the spinal column of train drivers be examined every five years and that extended work days be avoided.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.5-10. 20 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_5.pdf [en inglés]
Bernier Herrera F., Hernández Esguevillas V., Posadillo Marín P.
Exposición a vibraciones en trabajos agrícolas
The objective of this study was to determine the level of vibration to which agricultural workers are exposed when carrying out their assigned tasks. Measurements were carried out in 13 Spanish olive and fruit farms, in which 25 workplaces using various portable tools and agricultural vehicles were examined. It was found that the permissible whole-body vibration limits were never exceeded. However, more than half the values measured exceeded the permissible hand-arm vibration limits. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2009, No.51, p.18-25. Illus. 10 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration in agriculture
This information sheet outlines the risk of developing back pain from whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure in agriculture and provides explanations on what can be done to reduce exposure to WBV. Topics addressed: definition of WBV; Control of Vibrations Regulations 2005; limitation of exposure (maintenance, speed limitations, replacement of seats and selection of equipment); monitoring and control; information and training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2009. 4p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais20.pdf [en inglés]
Identifying and minimizing vibration hazards
Gefährdungen durch Vibrationen erkennen und minimieren [en alemán]
The ordinance on the protection of workers against noise and vibration hazards came into force in Germany on 6 March 2007. It requires employers to identify and evaluate the hazards due to vibrations at the place of work and where appropriate, to take the required prevention measures and implement medical supervision measures for their employees. This article summarizes the requirements imposed on employers by this ordinance and includes guidance for evaluating hazards and exposures to vibrations.
Brücke - Ausgabe Textil, 2009, No.1, p.16-21. Illus. 3 ref.
Poole K., Mason H.
Health and Safety Executive
Upper limb disability and exposure to hand-arm vibration in selected industries
There is a need for evidence-based intelligence related to ill-health caused by exposure to vibration that could be used to benchmark the extent of disease and allow assessment of changes over time. This ideally requires simple, validated and cheap tools that can be administered easily across all industries. The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is one instrument that may be useful. The emphasis of HSE's Noise and Vibration Programme in the United Kingdom has been on the health outcome of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), which is by definition causally associated with cumulative hand-transmitted vibration exposure. However, individuals with HAVS may also have other musculoskeletal disorders, which may or may not be a consequence of vibration exposure, but that will contribute to their overall disability. The study reported here involved the application of the DASH questionnaire to a population working with hand-held vibrating tools, while collecting simple information related to industry, trade, tools used, vibration exposure, known health problems and symptoms in the upper limbs, in four sectors of activity, namely gardening, manufacture of basic metals, construction, and motor vehicle repair.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. ii, 45p. Illus. 26 ref.
RR_667.pdf [en inglés]
Poole K., Mason H.
Health and Safety Executive
Data mining in a HAVS referral population
The Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) in the United Kingdom has provided a Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) diagnostic service for individuals under health surveillance over the past seven years. Essentially, these are vibration-exposed workers who are referred by the enterprises' own occupational health services, external occupational health providers and general practitioners, for a diagnosis and staging concerning HAVS. HSL have access to data from 656 individuals who have given consent for their information to be used for research purposes. This report details and analyses the information that has been collected from this referral cohort and details the nature of the health problems, the vibration exposure and employment history in these individuals. It attempts to answer some questions that are of direct relevance to HSE's Noise and Vibration Programme's health-related goals.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 81p. Illus. 12 ref.
RR_666.pdf [en inglés]
Poole K., Mason H., McDowell G.
Health and Safety Executive
The influence of posture and environmental temperature on the diagnostic ability of finger systolic blood pressure
Individuals with the vascular component of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) experience whiteness or blanching of the fingers in cold conditions, which is accompanied by numbness and then tingling or pain when the fingers warm-up. There is a need for a suitable diagnostic test to help confirm the diagnosis. Measurement of finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) with cold-provocation has been reported to be of diagnostic value in individuals with the vascular component of HAVS and those with primary Raynauds phenomenon. The overall aim of this work was to investigate whether factors such as posture and environmental temperature were important in influencing the ability of FSBP to discriminate between controls and those with Primary Raynauds phenomenon. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 34p. Illus. 20 ref.
RR_665.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration of ground-preparation activities in forestry
This report examines exposures to high levels of whole-body vibration during ground preparation activities in forestry work, where vehicles are used on a variety of off-road surfaces and where exposures are likely to be high. A sample of whole-body vibration exposure data was collected to indicate likely daily vibration exposures of drivers carrying out ground-preparation activities in forests, for comparison with the action and limit values given in the Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005. Measurements of vibration were made at five forestry sites, chosen as being representative of the main ground types available and the various ground preparation techniques in use. Findings are discussed and recommendations aimed at reducing exposure levels are proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008, ii, 74p. Illus. 10 ref.
HSE_RR636.pdf [en inglés]
Monica L., Nataletti P., Vignali G.
Risk assessment of exposure to mechanical vibrations: Comparison between field measurements and use of databases
Valutazione del rischio da esposizione a vibrazioni meccaniche: confronto tra misurazioni sul campo e uso di banche dati [en italiano]
Many studies have shown that the widespread use of various sources of vibration in the industrial, agricultural and forestry fields, such as vehicles, machinery and tools, constitutes a source of vibration disorders or the worsening of pre-existing symptoms. The objective of this study was to present a comparison between the two types of risk assessment methods currently admissible under Italian legislation, namely direct field measurements and the use of published data. The advantages and operational limitations involved in the use of databases were evaluated through the results of direct field measurements assessing the risk from vibrations in the plant of a mineral water and beverages company. Findings are discussed with reference to Italian legislation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.55-80. Illus. 13 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_3_en.pdf [en inglés]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_3_it.pdf [en italiano]
Cold haemagglutinin disease misdiagnosed as hand-arm vibration syndrome
A patient with a diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome was referred for a second opinion. He worked as a multi-skilled operative in the housing department of a local authority, a job not normally associated with high levels of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. He described blanching of his fingers and a blue colouration of his extremities in cold weather. On examination, his fingertips, toes and pinnae were acrocyanotic, the fingers were patchily pale and sensation was subjectively impaired in all of the digits. Investigations revealed a haemolytic anaemia and haemagglutination. He was diagnosed with idiopathic cold haemagglutinin disease. Exposure to vibration may confound with exposure to cold in which case the diagnoses of cold haemagglutinin disease or cryoglobulinaemia should be excluded before diagnosing hand-arm vibration syndrome.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.219-221. 11 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/219 [en inglés]
Thompson A., House R., Manno M.
The sensitivity and specificity of thermometry and plethysmography in the assessment of hand-arm vibration syndrome
The objective of this study was to define the specificity and sensitivity of finger thermometry and plethysmography for the assessment of the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) using the Stockholm workshop scale (SWS) as the reference criterion. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 139 HAVS patients seen at an occupational medicine clinic. Plethysmography and thermometry were analyzed using SWS vascular stage as the outcome variable. Logistic regression controlled for age, smoking and time since last vibration exposure and use of vasoactive medications. Findings are discussed. Neither plethysmography nor thermometry, either alone or in combination, demonstrated sufficient sensitivity and specificity to serve as an objective correlate for SWS vascular stage.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.181-186. 27 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/181 [en inglés]
Workplace exposure to vibration in Europe: An expert review
One in three European workers is exposed to vibrations at work and for some sectors, such as construction, this proportion reaches at 63%. Although vibration is a long-standing and well-known risk, its importance has increased since the application of the vibration directive (2002/44/EC, see CIS 02-24), which came into force on 6th July 2005. Vibration measurement is complicated and risk assessment and reduction are not simple. This report brings together specialists from eight leading European institutes to produce an overview of the challenges facing the occupational safety and health community as regards management of occupational vibration risks. The situation in six EU Member States, namely Belgium, Germany, Spain, Finland, France and Poland is examined, and research projects underway in all Member States are summarized.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2008. 126p. Illus. Approx. 100 ref. Price (excluding VAT): EUR 15.00
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/8108322_vibration_exposure [en inglés]
Effects of whole-body vibration - The dose is the key factor
Wirkungen von Ganzkörper-Schwingungen - die Dosis ist entscheidend [en alemán]
Daily occupational exposure to whole-body vibration during a whole working life can result in degenerative changes in the lumbar spine. However, whole-body vibration training can be used to increase muscle strength and bone mineral density, and to enhance the physical quality of life of elderly. As opposed to the broad-band vibrations of machines, the training devices generate vibrations with a single frequency of between 15 et 45Hz. The effects of whole-body vibration training exercises have been measured. In order to obtain positive effects, the vibration exercises should last only a few minutes and the training should not take place each day and only over a period of a few months.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2008, Vol.58, No.10, p.290-301. Illus. 41 ref.
Mahbub M.H., Harada N.
Digital blood flow and temperature responses in palmar and dorsal skin induced by short-term vibration exposure while grasping a vibratory handle
This study was designed to examine the responses induced by acute exposures to short-term vibration while grasping a vibratory handle, and to evaluate the importance of measurement site for such responses. Finger blood flow (FBF) and finger skin temperature (FST) were measured from the palmar (index finger) and dorsal (middle finger) regions of the right hand in eight male subjects, at rest and after gripping the handle for 15min. At the end of fifth minute during grasping of the handle, subject's hand was exposed for 5min to three vibration frequencies and to no vibration. Findings show that vibration can affect the digital circulation in both palmar and dorsal skin but in different ways. Therefore, when comparing the data of responses induced by acute exposure to hand-transmitted vibration recorded at the palmar and dorsal sides of the hand, caution is required when interpreting the results.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.889-897. Illus. 39 ref.
Wahlström J., Burström L., Hagberg M., Lundström R., Nilsson T.
Musculoskeletal symptoms among young male workers and associations with exposure to hand-arm vibration and ergonomic stressors
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and upper limbs and exposure to hand-arm vibration and ergonomic stressors. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at a follow-up period six to twelve months later. The study population consisted of 586 male students who had graduated from vocational high schools in 2001-2003 in Sweden. It was found that subjects reporting a daily vibration exposure of more than one hour at baseline had an increased risk of neck pain in the preceding seven days at follow-up (prevalence ratio 3.29). Subjects with 8h weighted vibration exposure above 1.7m/s2 had an increased risk of developing neck pain compared to those with an exposure level below 0.5m/s2. The increased risks remained when adjusting for postural and mental stress. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2008, Vol.81, No.5, p.595-602. 20 ref.
Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of peripheral neurological disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration
This article attempts to define significant peripheral neurological symptoms caused by hand-transmitted vibration and how these symptoms and related signs may be measured. Scales for evaluating the extent of the symptoms and their probability of being related to vibration exposure are defined. A method of relating the symptoms to both the signs of disorder and the pattern of vibration exposure is illustrated. It was found that assessments of severity vary according to the reasons for assessing the health effects of vibration and depend on local practice and convenience, but a method allowing the combining of evaluations of symptoms and signs is demonstrated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2008, Vol.81, No.5, p.559-573. Illus. 17 ref.
Seidel H., Hinz B., Hofmann J., Menzel G.
Intraspinal forces and health risk caused by whole-body vibration - Predictions for European drivers and different field conditions
The extent of intraspinal forces under whole-body vibration (WBV) depends on several factors including multiple excitations of different body parts, stature and posture. The effects of these forces are determined by individual tolerances. Current evaluation methods with respect to health cover only part of the WBV input to the human body and do not consider all associated factors. In this study, a set of 50 finite element models was developed, based on human anatomy and adapted to different typical postures of European drivers and their anthropometric parameters. This model allowed the predicting of static and vibration-related dynamic compressive forces. It can be applied during the design process or in epidemiologic studies to predict WBV effects on drivers with different anthropometric characteristics and postures.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.856-867. Illus. 24 ref.
Seidel H., Pöpplau B.M., Morlock M.M., Püschel K., Huber G.
The size of lumbar vertebral endplate areas - Prediction by anthropometric characteristics and significance for fatigue failure due to whole-body vibration
The sizes of vertebral endplates co-determine the ultimate strength of spinal units. The health risk associated with fatigue failure after repetitive dynamic loads caused by whole-body vibration (WBV) could depend on the size of endplate area, too. The objective of this study was to develop a simple low-cost method for predicting the size of vertebral endplates using CT-scans of lumbar spinal units. CT scans of 53 male donors were used to determine the size of the cross-sectional areas of endplates L3-L5, which were later measured during autopsy. The correlations were not sufficient to permit a prediction of the endplate area by anthropometric parameters. This contradicts earlier findings that describe close correlations between the size of intervertebral discs, the size of the endplates and the external diameters of large joints.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.844-855. Illus. 38 ref.
Li L., Lamis F., Wilson S.E.
Whole-body vibration alters proprioception in the trunk
The effect of whole-body vibration on proprioception and dynamic stability was examined in subjects exposed to 20min of vertical, seated vibration relative to controls exposed to the same seated posture without vibration exposure. Subjects were found to have a 1.58-fold increase in position-sense errors after vibration. To understand the potential effect of a sensory loss on dynamic low back stability, a parametric model of the trunk and neuromotor response was developed and tested in a second experiment where subjects exhibited both an 11.9% increase in trunk flexion and an 11.2% increase in time to peak paraspinal muscle response. These findings suggest that after vibration exposure, manual handling could lead to injury. Reducing vibration exposure or a break between exposure and manual materials handling could be used to reduce this risk.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.792-800. Illus. 40 ref.
Salmoni A.W., Cann A.P., Gillin E.K., Eger T.R.
Case studies in whole-body vibration assessment in the transportation industry - Challenges in the field
There are many industries for which exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is hazardous to employee health. As a result, many companies have become interested in measuring vibration levels associated with the operation of equipment. However, field measurements of WBV can be challenging. This article presents three case studies in transportation to highlight difficulties experienced when assessing whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure within industrial settings. Across the three cases and various vehicles, the z-axis was always dominant with acceleration values collected at the seat-operator interface ranging from 0.10-1.08 m/s2. Some of the main challenges discussed include the use and interpretation of safety standards, time and event sampling, effective access to equipment and operators and lack of control when testing.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.783-791. 27 ref.
Mayton A.G., Kittusamy N.K., Ambrose D.H., Jobes C.C., Legault M.L.
Jarring/jolting exposure and musculoskeletal symptoms among farm equipment operators
Vehicle vibration exposure has been linked to chronic back pain and low-back symptoms among agricultural tractor drivers. The objectives of this study were to assess driver whole-body vibration (WBV) exposures and recommend interventions to reduce the risk of back-related injuries, particularly relative to vehicle jarring/jolting. Field data and health and work history were collected from equipment operators carrying out various tasks with different models of tractors. Ninety-six percent of participants reported having to bend or twist their necks, 24% reported neck symptoms and 64% reported back symptoms. Recommendations included: specifying a seat that better isolates operators from jars/jolts; maintaining the seat suspension; replacing worn or damaged cushions; using larger diameter tires; using a swivel seat to reduce the stress on the neck; improving efforts to educate operators of the adverse effects of WBV exposures.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.758-766. Illus. 38 ref.
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