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  • Noise

2008

CIS 09-1338 Schäper M., Seeber A., van Thriel C.
The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry
The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during five years. Workers' lifetime weighted average exposures to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings. Recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study. Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry. Noise intensity was significant for auditory thresholds. However, no relationships were found between auditory thresholds and toluene concentrations, toluene exposure duration and interactions between toluene and noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-916 Williams W., Kwaw-Myint S.M., Crea J., Hogan A.
Occupational noise management: What's happening in industry?
This study examined the current state of occupational noise management across a representative sample of 113 South Australian businesses where hazardous noise was thought to be present. Noise in excess of 85 dB(A) was observed in 73% of visited workplaces, with exposures exceeding the national standard in 45% of the sampled sites. Ototoxic substances were observed in 19.5% of the sites. While medium and large businesses show that they are trending towards good occupational noise management practice, small businesses are falling behind and may need more in the way of advice and assistance.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.299-307. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 09-595 Runyan C.W., Vladutiu C.J., Rauscher K.J., Schulman M.
Teen workers' exposures to occupational hazards and use of personal protective equipment
Prior research indicates that working adolescents seek care for the toxic effects of on-the-job chemical and environmental hazard exposures. This cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 866 adolescent workers in the retail and service sector examines their exposures, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and training. Two-thirds of respondents were exposed to continuous, very loud noise, 55% to thermal hazards and 54% to chemical hazards. Few teens reported using any PPE, though those who had been trained reported somewhat higher usage. Teens working in the retail and service sectors experience a variety of chemical, thermal, biologic and noise exposures. Efforts to eradicate such exposures need to be complemented by increased provision of PPE and appropriate training in their use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.735-740. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-671 Gozzo J., Léon T., Canetto P.
Applying French regulations on noise and the use of personal noise protectors - INRS recommendation
Application de la réglementation sur le bruit et usage de protecteurs individuels contre le bruit (PICB) - Recommandation de l'INRS [en francés]
French regulations specify that exposure to noise must not exceed a limit of 87dB during eight hours, while taking into account the wear of personal hearing protectors such as earmuffs or earplugs. This information sheet proposes methods and tools aimed at helping persons responsible for plant occupational safety and health estimate the noise levels to which workers are truly exposed when wearing hearing protectors.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2008, No.690, 4p.Insert. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/intranetobject-accesparreference/ED%20133/$file/ed133.pdf [en francés]

CIS 09-433 Gómez Mur P., Pérez Bermúdez B., Meneses Monroy A.
Pérdidas auditivas relacionadas con la exposición a ruido en trabajadores de la construcción
The aim of this study was to evaluate noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) among construction workers. It involved pure tone audiometry of 223 construction workers compared to that of 262 office workers. A significantly higher NIHL bilateral prevalence was found for construction workers, with odds ratios for the Klockhoff method and Bilateral Notch of 3.1 and 3.8 respectively. Results indicate that 20.7% to 24.3% of construction workers present bilateral NIHL, compared to 8.4% to 8.8% among office workers. These findings show that it is necessary to reinforce the use of preventive measures, especially hearing protection devices.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.33-40. 18 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original2.pdf [en español]

CIS 09-432 Picard M., Girard S.A., Simard M., Larocque R., Leroux T., Turcotte F.
Association of work-related accidents with noise exposure in the workplace and noise-induced hearing loss based on the experience of some 240,000 person-years of observation
This retrospective study explored the association between occupational noise exposure, permanent noise-induced hearing loss and work-related accident risk. Log-binomial analysis was used to ascertain the association between study variables by sector of activity and accident context while controlling for age. The study was carried on a sample of 52,982 male workers exposed to a minimum of 80dBA on a daily basis and whose hearing was examined at least once between 1983 and 1996 by the public health authorities of Quebec, Canada. Results show an association between accident risk and worker's hearing sensitivity. Overall, 12.2% of accidents were attributable to a combination of occupational noise exposure of ≥90dBA and noise-induced hearing loss.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2008, Vol.40, No.5, p.1644-1652. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-179 Kusy A.
In-situ attenuation of hearing protection devices - Literature survey
Affaiblissement acoustique in situ des protecteurs individuels contre le bruit - Étude bibliographique [en francés]
Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253) has modified European regulations on protecting workers against noise exposure. This directive specifically introduces a new requirement in the form of exposure limit values, the level of daily noise exposure being henceforth limited to 87dB(A) and peak sound pressure level to 140dB(C), including attenuation of hearing protectors. Exposure level determination requires knowing both the sound pressure spectrum for the exposure noise and the noise attenuation values of hearing protection devices (HPD) based on their field estimation. These constraints lead to difficulties of both metrological and methodological nature. The aim of this literature survey was to establish the current state of the art in relation to the real capacity of HPD to attenuate noises. Testing methods applied to determining HPD noise attenuation are described. The survey reveals a major difference between attenuation values declared in HPD manufacturers' specifications and real attenuation values measured in situ. Moreover, this difference varies, depending on the HPD type, ranging from 5dB for safety helmet-mounted ear-muff types to nearly 22dB for formable foam ear-plug types. There are insufficient data on custom-moulded ear-plug type and additional investigations are required in this area.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2008, No.212, p.-43-59. Illus. 60 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_ND%202295/$File/nd2295.pdf [en francés]

CIS 09-185 Stanbury M., Rafferty A., Rosenman K.
Prevalence of hearing loss and work-related noise-induced hearing loss in Michigan
This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss (HL) and work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in the State of Michigan, USA. Questions related to HL and NIHL were included in a telephone survey-based surveillance system of health conditions among adults. It was found that 19% reported HL, with a proportion that increased steeply with age. Among those with HL, close to 30% reported it to be related to noise at work. Associations were found between HL/NIHL and current cigarette smoking and elevated cholesterol.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.72-79. 33 ref.

CIS 09-177 Hübscher G., Schibig D., Heiniger C., Arnold B., Mathis H., Repond M.C., Gendre N., Rüdin T.
Noise
Lärm [en alemán]
Rumore [en italiano]
Bruit [en francés]
Topics addressed in this issue on noise hazards in occupational settings: tinnitus; noise exposure among professional musicians; hearing protection; "mosquito" high-pitched sound system to disperse teenagers from sensitive areas such as building sites; protection against noise among airport field operators. Other topics: revision to the accident insurance law in Switzerland; accident insurance premiums in Switzerland in 2009; case of a fatal fall from a scaffolding; case of reemployment of a worker after an accident having required the amputation of a leg.
Benefit, Sep. 2008, No.3, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus.
http://suva.blaetterkatalog.ch/bk/ch/b5722/b572221x002/blaetterkatalog/indexen_d.html [en alemán]
http://suva.blaetterkatalog.ch/bk/ch/b5722/b572221x002/blaetterkatalog/indexen_i.html [en italiano]
http://suva.blaetterkatalog.ch/bk/ch/b5722/b572221x002/blaetterkatalog/indexen_f.html [en francés]

CIS 08-1331 Runyan C.W., Vladutiu C.J., Rauscher K.J., Schulman M.
Teen workers' exposures to occupational hazards and use of personal protective equipment
Prior research indicates that working adolescents seek care for the toxic effects of on-the-job chemical and environmental exposures. This cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 866 adolescent workers in the retail and service sector examines their exposures, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and training. Two-thirds of the respondents were exposed to continuous, very loud noise, 55% to thermal hazards and 54% to chemical hazards. Few teens reported using any PPE, though those who had been trained reported somewhat higher usage. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.735-740. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1421 Tsukada T., Sakakibara H.
A trail [sic] of individual education for hearing protection with an instrument that measures the noise attenuation effect of wearing earplugs
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individual training of workers, using an instrument to quantitatively evaluate the noise attenuation gained with the use of earplugs, on the use of hearing protection devices. The subjects were 68 male workers exposed to noise of above 80dB(A) at an electronic parts manufacturer in Japan. They received group instruction on the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss, and individual education on the proper use of earplugs. Two months after the training, the prevalence of the regular use of hearing protectors among workers in loud working environments increased from 46% to 66%. The results suggest that individual training is an effective means to increase both the usage rate and the proper use of hearing protection devices.
Industrial Health, July 2008, Vol.46, No.4, p.393-396. 11 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_4_393.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1416 Luna Mendaza P., Pujol Senovilla L.
Guías técnicas: ruido y vibraciones mecánicas
Presentation of the main points of two technical guides on noise and mechanical vibrations recently published by the INSHT. They aim to help implement the Royal Decrees on the protection of occupational safety and health of workers exposed to noise (RD 286/2006) and to mechanical vibration (RD 11311/2005).
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2008, No.48, p.38-43. Illus.

CIS 08-1442
Health and Safety Executive
Sound advice - Control of noise at work in music and entertainment
These practical guidelines apply to the control of noise at work in music and entertainment, including concert halls and theatres, amplified live music venues, pubs/clubs and recording studios. It has been drafted and supported by representatives from a wide range of music and entertainment sectors in the United Kingdom, as well as Environmental Health Officers and the HSE. Its aim is to help employers, employees and freelancers control or reduce exposure to noise at work without stopping people from enjoying music. A first part explains the requirements of The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (CIS 06-1259), with specific advice provided in a second part.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2008.vi, 106p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 14.50.

CIS 08-1166 Somma G., Pietroiusti A., Magrini A., Coppeta L., Ancona C., Gardi S., Messina M., Bergamaschi A.
Extended high-frequency audiometry and noise induced hearing loss in cement workers
It has been suggested that extended high-frequency audiometry (EHFA) might be more sensitive than conventional audiometry in detecting early signs of hearing impairment. The usefulness of this method was investigated in noise-exposed workers from two Italian cement plants. Conventional frequency audiometry (0.25-8kHz) and EHFA (9-18kHz) were compared in 184 noise-exposed and 98 non-noise-exposed workers. Both methods showed significantly higher hearing threshold levels in noise exposed workers for most of the tested frequencies; however, the differences were more marked for EHFA, especially in young exposed workers. Significant differences in the extended high-frequency range were detected also in the subgroup of noise-exposed workers with normal findings at conventional audiometry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2008, Vol.51, No.6, p.452-462. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 08-936 Organization of construction sites - Noise-related hazards
Organisation du chantier - Les risques liés au bruit [en francés]
Noise is a hazard to health of operators. French regulations require that noise be limited to protect both the environment and exposed workers. This article gives an overview of the main aspects of the prevention of noise-related hazards on construction sites. Topics addressed: building design; foundation and primary structure construction; preparation of the construction to avoid noisy work later (making provision for secondary equipment when laying concrete reinforcement); earthmoving equipment; communications on the construction site; hearing protection equipment; noise scale.
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2008, No.104, p.28-29. Illus.

CIS 08-937 Marcotte P., Oddo R., Boutin J., Boilley R., Nélisse H., Boileau P.E., Drouin P., Sirard C., Daigle R.
Automobile repair industry - Characterization of the noise and vibration emitted by hand-held tools
Industrie de la réparation automobile - Caractérisation du bruit et des vibrations émis par les outils portatifs [en francés]
Workers in the automobile and heavy vehicle repair sector are exposed to high noise levels and to the vibration of their hand-held pneumatic tools, which can cause occupational deafness and hand-arm vibration syndrome. Although the vibration and sound emissions of these tools can be determined in the laboratory, they do not represent the exposure levels in actual work situations because the processes used do not take into account the noise and vibration produced by contact of the tool with the part being worked on. The objective of this study was to develop laboratory methods for characterizing the noise and vibration of the most common tools used in the automobile repair shops and to define means of reducing them. A questionnaire was addressed to 40 automobile mechanics, working with five types of hand tools; they were also interviewed. The tools were also evaluated with respect to their noise and vibration emissions in a laboratory test bench. Findings are discussed, and various recommendations are proposed, involving the selection and maintenance of the tools, the use of hearing protectors and adopting proper work postures.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. x, 97p. Illus. 16 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-554.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-822 Torres K.
Can you hear me now? Impacts of hearing loss
It is estimated that the number of workers who suffer from noise-induced hearing loss in the United States is in the tens of millions. While noise exposure is a pervasive problem in the workplace, it is entirely preventable. Twenty years ago, OSHA introduced detailed noise exposure regulations (29 CFR 1919.95) and since then, many employers and safety professionals have diligently monitored noise levels at work sites, posted warning signs, supplied earplugs and routinely tested employees' hearing. Yet noise-induced hearing loss continues to occur at an alarming rate. This article discusses possible reasons for this situation and proposes improved protective measures. Contents: effects of hearing loss (tinnitus, psychological impact, communication problems in safety-critical situations); activities involving high exposure to noise (mining, agriculture, construction, manufacturing); protective measures (engineering controls, job rotation, hearing protection); reasons behind low levels of compliance in the use of hearing protection; information dissemination; training; motivation.
Occupational Hazards, Feb. 2008, Vol.70, No.2, p.53-56. Illus.

CIS 08-930 Bessette R.S.
Developing and hearing - Managing an effective conservation program
By implementing the five main components of an OSHA-approved hearing conservation program and examining recent hearing protector attenuation research, employers can make their hearing conservation program more effective. OSHA's first proposed line of defence against hazardous noise levels involves engineering and administrative controls on equipment or manufacturing processes. If these fail to achieve eight-hour time-weighted averages of 85dB(A) or lower, the Occupational Noise Exposure Standard and Hearing Conservation Amendment (29 CFR 1910.95) outlines a rigorous programme described in this article, involving monitoring, audiometric testing, training; hearing protection and record-keeping.
Occupational Hazards, Feb. 2008, Vol.70, No.2, p.28-31. Illus.

CIS 08-685 Pérez Aznar B., Bernier Herrera F., Abril Muñoz I.
Exposición al ruido en buques de pesca
Noise levels encountered on fishing vessels may cause not only hearing loss, but also accidents, because they interfere with the proper understanding of orders. The aim of this study was to determine the noise distribution and levels on different types of fishing vessels. The most important noise levels were observed when the engine was running at full power. Noise levels were also found to depend on the workplace and on the age of the vessel, older vessels being better insulated and equipped with improved noise damping. Results of the measurements are presented in tabular form, and measures aimed at limiting the noise exposure of deep-sea fishermen are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Jan. 2008, No.45, p.12-20. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 08-686 Trombetta Zannin P.H.
Occupational noise in urban buses
The noise level for urban bus drivers in Curitiba (Brazil) was evaluated in three types of buses: bi-articulated, speedy, and feeder. Measurements were made in 20 buses of each type. Bi-articulated buses are formed by three sections and two articulations. They operate in reserved lanes and stop at specific stations. Speedy buses operate in regular streets across the city, but they stop at fewer stations than other buses. Feeder buses operate normally in the whole city and call at all bus stops. The evaluation of noise levels in the workplace of bus drivers was performed according to ISO and Brazilian Standards. In 56 out of the 60 buses examined, the normalized noise exposure levels were below 82dB(A). The overall quality of the workplace was thus considered acceptable. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.232-237. Illus. 28 ref.

2007

CIS 10-0459 Occupational safety and health manual - Electroplating industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria galvânica [en portugués]
This manual covers the occupational safety and health aspects specific to the electroplating industry in Brazil. It is based on the results of a literature survey as well as a field study carried out in 65 enterprises by a multidisciplinary team. It specifies the hazards that are to be found within this industry and proposes preventive measures aimed at protecting the workers and improving productivity. Contents: typology of enterprises and risk factors; field studies; hazard prevention and action programmes; legal aspects.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Regional de São Paulo, Av. Paulista 1313, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2007. 259p. Illus. 60 ref.
Manual_de_SST.pdf [en portugués]

CIS 09-1150 Yildirim I., Kilinc M., Okur E., Inanc Tolun F., Kiliç M.A., Kurutas E.B., Ekerbiçer H.C.
The effects of noise on hearing and oxidative stress in textile workers
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of noise on hearing, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in textile workers. Thirty workers exposed to a noise level of 105dB(A) in a textile factory and 30 unexposed hospital workers, all male, were included in the study. Both groups were given audiometric tests and provided blood samples for the determination of various markers of oxidative stress. Mean pure tone audiometric thresholds in workers were significantly higher in the exposed group than in control subjects. In the exposed group, hearing losses were more evident at high frequencies than at low frequencies. Also, textile workers with longer employment duration had poorer hearing thresholds, starting among those having worked for 5-8 yrs. Blood analyses support the hypothesis that the noise causes the oxidative stress.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.743-749. 25 ref.

CIS 09-915 Williams W., Burgess M.
Occupational noise exposure and action levels
European Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253) specifies noise level thresholds above which employers are required to take action. This article examines the concept of action levels and their value in the workplace. A model for introducing action levels into Australian and New Zealand OHS legislation at 5 decibels below current noise exposure limits is proposed, and suggestions for the actions to be undertaken by management are given.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.343-348. 14 ref.

CIS 09-176 Guo J., Gunn P.
Noise and noise exposure in Western Australian entertainment venues
Noise exposure in the music entertainment industry has long been recognised as a workplace hazard. The aims of this study were to investigate the current situation regarding noise exposure in Western Australia entertainment venues, to promote the use of the Control of Noise in the Music Entertainment Industry code of practice and to increase the sector's awareness of its obligations to control noise exposure. It was found that excessive noise is still a major workplace hazard. The average daily noise exposure levels in pubs and clubs have increased compared with those measured several years ago. Although the awareness of noise control and hearing protection has increased, it is still very low.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2007, Vol.23, No.1, p.69-78. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 09-174 Sheen S.C., Hsiao Y.H.
On using multiple-jet nozzles to suppress industrial jet noise
This study investigated the efficacy of multiple-jet nozzles in reducing exposure to noise radiated from high-speed jet flows that are frequently used for cleaning and other purposes. By replacing a single-jet nozzle by a nozzle with multiple and smaller outlets with the same combined exit area, the noise generated would shift to higher frequencies due to the smaller openings; thus it is hypothesized that a portion of the sound energy is moved to the ultrasonic range and the audible noise levels will be reduced. Nozzle outlet diameters of 2.2mm, 2mm, 1mm, and 0.7mm were tested at various flow rates. Results show that the noise-abating effect of using smaller outlets is significant.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2007, Vol.4, No.9, p.669-677. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 08-1411 Royle M., Willoughby D., Brueck E., Patel J.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of acoustic spectra from liquid leaks
Acoustic leak detectors (ALDs) are being used increasingly on offshore platforms as a means of detecting leaks of flammable gases. They detect a leak through the ultrasonic sound produced by the escaping gas jet during leaks of liquids under high pressure. These sensors have been shown to perform well under the conditions experienced on offshore platforms. HSE recognizes the benefits of using such devices possibly in conjunction with line-of-sight sensors to detect gaseous releases. The objectives of this study were to develop spectra of the sound produced from pressurized releases of liquids under a variety of realistic release scenarios, to analyse the responses of selected ALD sensors positioned at different locations relative to the point of release and to collect information for producing guidance on using ALD sensors for protection against leaks of liquids under pressure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 69p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr568.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1181 El ruido en cifras
Hluk v číslech [en checo]
Buller i siffror [en sueco]
Lärm in Zahlen [en alemán]
O thórubos se arithmoús [en griego]
Noise in figures [en inglés]
Müra arvudes [en estonio]
Melu lukuina [en finlandés]
Le bruit en chiffres [en francés]
A zaj számokban [en húngaro]
Il rumore in cifre [en italiano]
Triukšmas skaičiais [en lituano]
Troksnis skaitļos [en letón]
L-Istorbju f'ċifri [en maltés]
Lawaai in cijfers [en holandés]
Hałas w liczbach [en polonés]
O ruído em números [en portugués]
Hluk v číslach [en eslovaco]
Hrup v številkah [en esloveno]
Fakta om støj [en danés]
This fact sheet summarizes a report which describes the situation in Europe regarding the exposure to noise at work. Topics addressed: exposure to noise; health effects (hearing loss, tinnitus, acoustic shock, combined effects, non auditory health effects); noise and accidents; noise in classrooms; prevention; research needs.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2007. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/mt/publications/factsheets/67 [en maltés]
http://osha.europa.eu/pl/publications/factsheets/67 [en polonés]
http://osha.europa.eu/pt/publications/factsheets/67 [en portugués]
http://osha.europa.eu/sk/publications/factsheets/67 [en eslovaco]
http://osha.europa.eu/sl/publications/factsheets/67 [en esloveno]
http://osha.europa.eu/sv/publications/factsheets/67 [en sueco]
http://osha.europa.eu/cs/publications/factsheets/67 [en checo]
http://osha.europa.eu/da/publications/factsheets/67 [en danés]
http://osha.europa.eu/de/publications/factsheets/67 [en alemán]
http://osha.europa.eu/el/publications/factsheets/67 [en griego]
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheets/67 [en inglés]
http://osha.europa.eu/es/publications/factsheets/67 [en español]
http://osha.europa.eu/et/publications/factsheets/67 [en estonio]
http://osha.europa.eu/fi/publications/factsheets/67 [en finlandés]
http://osha.europa.eu/fr/publications/factsheets/67 [en francés]
http://osha.europa.eu/hu/publications/factsheets/67 [en húngaro]
http://osha.europa.eu/it/publications/factsheets/67 [en italiano]
http://osha.europa.eu/lt/publications/factsheets/67 [en lituano]
http://osha.europa.eu/lv/publications/factsheets/67 [en letón]
http://osha.europa.eu/nl/publications/factsheets/67 [en holandés]

CIS 08-691 Staubli B.
Nuisance caused by noise at workplaces
Belästigender Lärm am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Nuisances sonores aux postes de travail [en francés]
This booklet addresses the issue of the nuisance caused by noise in offices, which constitutes more of a discomfort than a risk of hearing damage. Contents: legal aspects (Swiss legislation, European directives including Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253), standards); noise perception (how the human auditory system works); discomfort caused by noise; noise nuisance at the place of work; effects of noise (sleep disorders, effects on the vegetative system, social effects, verbal communication problems, poor productivity); coping with noise. An appendix lists acoustic dimensions and measuring units.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 5th ed., 2006 (German ed.), 2007 (French ed.). 35p. Illus. 32 ref.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/66058_d.pdf [en alemán]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/66058_f.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-683 Hernández Diaz A., González Méndez B.M.
Alteraciones auditivas en trabajadores expuestos al ruido industrial
This study examined the extent of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noise, as well as their exposure to various levels of noise. It involved 98 workers of an aluminium window frame factory in Havana, Cuba. A total of 77 cases (78.5%) of hearing loss attributable to noise were found; 30.6% of workers were exposed to noise levels that were avoidable when considering the nature of their work. Recommendations include reducing workplace noise levels whenever they exceed 85db(A), requiring the use of hearing protectors and implementing medical surveillance by means of annual audiometric tests.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.208, p.9-19. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 08-451
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at woodworking machines
This information sheet provides advice to manufacturers, suppliers, employers and users on the application of the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1259) to the woodworking industry, which require employers to eliminate risks from noise, or to reduce them to the lowest possible level. Contents: action values required under COSHH; exposure limits; responsibilities of employers; controlling noise; engineering controls; machine maintenance; buying new machinery; personal hearing protection; noise awareness; health surveillance. A table presents factors which may affect machinery noise emissions. Replaces 03- 1887.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. 4p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis13.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-450
Health and Safety Executive
Noise reduction at band re-saws
The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1259) require employers to eliminate risks from noise, or to reduce them to the lowest possible level. This information note addresses the issue of noise reduction at band saws. The noise generated by band re-saws (typically over 85dB(A)) can be reduced by maintaining the machine and blade in good condition. Factors affecting the blade vibration level (the main source of noise) are listed along with advice on how the difference in noise levels when cutting and when idling can be used as a good indicator of the condition and adjustment of the machine and blade. The use of noise enclosures is also discussed. Replaces CIS 02-409.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis4.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-277 Gozzo J., Luzeaux N.
Less noise please
Moins fort le bruit [en francés]
The purpose of this leaflet aimed at employees is to raise their level of consciousness with respect to the problem of noise at the place of work. Topics addressed: noise and its hazards (tinnitus, stress, risk of accidents); how to react when exposed to noise (report the problem, use protective equipment); main French regulations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2007. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/3E93EB760D01E1F4C125730D004DD991/$FILE/ed6020.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-192 Labbé F.
La prevención del ruido
La prévention du bruit [en francés]
El ruido representa un riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores, por lo que su exposición debe mantenerse a un nivel compatible con la protección de la audición. El Código del Trabajo determina, a este respecto, las prescripciones dirigidas a reducir el ruido hasta el nivel más bajo posible, con la obligación, por parte del empresario, de implantar diversas medidas preventivas. Este artículo resume las principales disposiciones de la reglamentación francesa respecto de la obligación de evaluar la exposición al ruido y adoptar las medidas preventivas necesarias
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Apr. 2007, No.99, p.5-6. Illus.

CIS 08-147 Śiwinska-Kowalska M., Prasher D., Alves Rodrigues C., Zamysłowska-Szmytke E., Campo P., Henderson D., Lund S.P., Johnson A.C., Schäper M., Ödkvist L, Starck J., Toppila E., Schneider E., Möller C., Fuente A., Gopal K.V.
Ototoxicidad de los solventes orgánicos ¿ De la evidencia científica a la política sanitaria
Ototoxicity of organic solvents - From scientific evidence to health policy [en inglés]
Actas de un coloquio sobre ototoxicidad de los solventes orgánicos, celebrado en Lódz, Polonia, los días 15 y 16 de noviembre de 2006. Las comunicaciones presentadas tratan sobre el examen de las pruebas y vínculos entre la exposición aislada a los solventes orgánicos y la exposición simultánea al ruido y los solventes, y sus efectos sobre el sistema auditivo. La finalidad principal de esta conferencia era analizar las principales pruebas científicas y reunir los conocimientos necesarios para el desarrollo de políticas adecuadas en materia de salud laboral
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.2, p.215-222. 45 ref.

CIS 08-198 Kurmis A.P., Apps S.A.
Déficit auditivo inducido por el ruido de origen profesional: un riesgo que no se percibe en el trabajo
Occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: A senseless workplace hazard [en inglés]
La finalidad de este estudio bibliográfico era tener una idea del estado actual del conocimiento en materia de déficit auditivo inducido por ruido de origen profesional y su impacto sobre los trabajadores, así como sobre la sociedad en un sentido amplio, e identificar los obstáculos para la utilización sistemática de protectores auditivos. Existen numerosos informes que describen la relación entre el ruido en el trabajo y el ulterior desarrollo de un déficit auditivo y que ponen en evidencia una desigualdad considerable entre sexos, 97% de las personas afectadas eran de sexo masculino. Las asociaciones específicas con determinados sectores (minas, industrias manufactureras y grandes obras de construcción) están bien documentadas, al igual que las exposiciones a ciertas sustancias toxicas. Sin embargo, la susceptibilidad genética frecuentemente no se tenía en cuenta, aunque este aspecto suscita cada vez más interés. Son numerosas las diferencias que persisten a escala internacional entre las agencias encargadas de definir los límites de exposición ¿seguros¿ y los responsables de hacer respetar la reglamentación. Se comentan otros resultados del estudio
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.2, p.127-136. Illus. 76 ref.

CIS 08-190 Solecki L.
Análisis de la exposición al ruido entre agricultores de explotaciones familiares de acuerdo con su perfil de producción
Analiza całorocznej ekspozycji na hałas rolników indywidualnych w zależności od profilu produkcji [en polonés]
La finalidad de este estudio era evaluar la exposición al ruido entre trabajadores agrarios que desarrollaban su trabajo en explotaciones familiares dedicadas a tres tipos de actividad diferentes (agricultura, ganadería y agro-ganadería). Se determinaron dos parámetros acústicos sobre la base de los horarios de trabajo y las dosimetrías efectuadas a lo largo de un año. Se observó que la exposición al ruido más intensa correspondía a las explotaciones dedicadas a la agricultura y a la agro-ganadería, mientras que los valores más bajos correspondieron a las instalaciones ganaderas. Los valores medidos eran considerablemente superiores a lo normal
Medycyna pracy, 2007, Vol.58, No.2, p.97-103. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 07-1459 Sust C.A., Steckel R., Kulka M., Lazarus H., Kurtz P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Evaluación de la comunicación verbal en presencia de ruido de tráfico rodado - Principios conceptuales
Beurteilung der Sprachkommunikation bei Verkehrsgeräuschen - Gestaltungsgrundsätze [en alemán]
La comunicación verbal clara tiene una importancia capital en numerosas situaciones de trabajo. Depende de factores tales como el volumen de voz, la distancia del interlocutor, la reverberación y las interferencias sonoras, que influyen sobre la relación señal-ruido. Es frecuente que el ruido del tráfico rodado interfiera con las comunicaciones verbales. Este estudio presenta un modelo original para evaluar el esfuerzo subjetivo necesario en el proceso de comprensión. A través de dos experiencias, se ha evaluado la influencia del ruido del tráfico rodado en función de la distribución de las frecuencias (vehículos motorizados, tren de mercancías) y de factores temporales (fluctuaciones de los niveles durante la aproximación, el alejamiento y los periodos intermitentes) sobre la inteligibilidad de la palabra y la claridad de la comunicación. La principal observación es que la evaluación se ve influida, sobre todo, por la relación señal-ruido. Se ha desarrollado una nueva escala para definir la calidad de las comunicaciones verbales. Si la inteligibilidad de la palabra es buena, los criterios tales como la concentración y la destreza permiten una mejor diferenciación que la sola inteligibilidad de la palabra. Estas experiencias parecen demostrar que una audibilidad óptima no es factible a menos que el desvío entre la señal y el ruido sea superior a 15-20dB
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2007. 117p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: EUR 14.00.

CIS 07-1451 Kaczmarska A., Łuczak A.
Estudio de las molestias provocadas por el ruido de baja frecuencia durante el trabajo mental
A study of annoyance caused by low-frequency noise during mental work [en inglés]
Este artículo presenta las conclusiones de un estudio sobre las molestias provocadas por el ruido de baja frecuencia (incluidos los infrasonidos) en los puestos de trabajo de oficinas. Sesenta voluntarios (30 hombres y 30 mujeres) que tenían una audición normal, han participado en un estudio experimental, diseñado a base de tests psicológicos, en tres condiciones diferentes de exposición acústica, en un ambiente simulado de trabajo de oficina. Los participantes evaluaron su nivel de molestia subjetivo. Se comentan los resultados. Se remarca especialmente que las molestias las consideraban más fuertes los hombres que las mujeres, así como las personas que presentaron una reactividad mayor al ruido
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.2, p.117-125. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-1450 Yantek D.S., Ingram D.K., Matetic R.J.
Reducción del ruido en las cabinas de perforadoras rotatorias accionadas por aire comprimido
In-cab noise reduction on an air-rotary drill rig [en inglés]
Un estudio reciente ha concluido que el nivel sonoro en las cabinas de conducción de las perforadoras rotatorias accionadas por aire comprimido superaban los 85dB(A). El Instituto Nacional para la Seguridad y la Salud en el Trabajo (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - NIOSH) ha examinado el nivel de ruido en la cabina de una maquina de este tipo. Las mediciones preliminares se efectuaron, en un ambiente controlado, mediante acelerómetros y micrófonos, seguidas de análisis del espectro sonoro, a fin de determinar las fuentes dominantes del ruido. Posteriormente se han efectuado ensayos sobre el terreno para evaluar las medidas de atenuación sonora susceptibles de disminuir los niveles de ruido en las cabinas. Se observó que los supresores de ruido hidráulicos permitían atenuar el ruido transmitido por las estructuras. Junto con un mejor aislamiento contra el ruido, estas medidas han permitido disminuir el nivel sonoro en 4 dB
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 2007, Vol.55, No.3, p.294-310. Illus. 11 ref.

2006

CIS 11-0254 Solecki L.
Characteristics of annual exposure to noise among private farmers on family farms of mixed-production profile
The objective of the study was to evaluate annual exposure to noise among farmers on farms engaged in mixed (crop-animal) production. The study covered 16 family farms of 13-30 ha (20.4 ha on average). The farms were equipped with agricultural tractors (2.4 tractors on average), selected workshop machinery, saws for logging and machines for the production of fodder. The highest values for total monthly exposure to noise were observed in September, October, August, November and April. The high total exposure values obtained in the summer and autumn months (August-November) are associated with the harvesting of cereals and root plants, and soil cultivation. In April, the occurrence of high total exposure values was due to intensive field activities (ploughing, harrowing, and sowing). Other findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.113-118. Illus. 10 ref.
Characteristics.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 09-681 Oberdörster M., Tiesler G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Acoustic ergonomics of schools
Akustische Ergonomie der Schule [en alemán]
This study was undertaken in response to numerous complaints by teachers concerning school noise. It was carried out in two German elementary schools. Based on noise measurements taken in classrooms during 175 lessons, it was analysed how the different modes of teaching (frontal lessons as and differentiated lessons) have an effect on noise levels (expressed as LA95 et LAeq). Next, it was investigated how changes in classroom acoustics affected the sound levels in context with each kind of work. It was found that with acoustic improvements, sound levels decrease, students' social behaviour becomes calmer, and teachers experience less stress and a lower sensitivity with regard to the sound level. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 193p. Illus. 108 ref. Index. Price: EUR 19.00.

CIS 08-847 Ferguson E., Cassaday H.J., Ward J., Weyman A.
Health and Safety Executive
Triggers for non-specific symptoms in the workplace: Individual differences, stress and environmental (odour and sound) factors
Non-specific symptoms are not related to any given disease and include fatigue, weakness, sleep difficulties, headache and muscle aches. They have a high reported incidence and result in high rates of sickness absenteeism. The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the work environment, characteristics of individual workers, external factors and physiological factors that contribute to reporting non-specific symptoms. It was carried out in the form of a survey of a cross-sectional sample of 711 volunteer participants, who answered questionnaires on their symptoms and work environment. A sub-group of volunteers furthermore submitted daily diary entries and saliva samples, which were analysed for cortisol and immunoglobulin-A secretion. Key findings are that non-specific symptoms are related to odour perceptions, the time of day, individual differences, particularly with respect to anxiety, perceived stress and job demand/control imbalance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 110p. Illus. Approx 120 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr501.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-439 Zalewski E.
Noise control: It's more than just earplugs
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to evaluate engineering and administrative controls before using personal protective equipment. This article on engineering measures for noise control cites the case of a steel mill that was deemed to be in violation of noise exposure limits, since these limits could have been met by implementing relatively simple engineering controls. In this case, supplying workers with earplugs was not considered sufficient. Measures to be considered: exposure evaluation; eliminating noise at the source; stopping noise from reaching the workers (using sound-absorbing acoustical tiles and blankets, enclosing equipment within barriers designed to absorb noise or reflect it in harmless directions, such as toward ceilings covered with sound-absorbent material, moving noise-producing equipment away from employees); moving exposed workers (automation of particularly noisy environments); hearing protection when other controls cannot reduce noise to an acceptable level.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2006, p.48-51. Illus.

CIS 08-399 Domínguez Gracia A.I., Rubio Aranda E., Martínez Terrer T., Conte Solano J.C., Rubio Calvo E.
Adquisición de un trauma acústico por multiexposición a tabaco y ruido laboral en la industria del metal
This study evaluated the combined effect of smoking and exposure to noise in the metalworking industry on hearing loss. It involved 257 workers, including 112 in good health, 66 with massive hearing trauma and 79 showing initial signs of hearing trauma. The study shows that the probability of hearing loss increases among workers exposed to noise in occupational settings and who are smokers. The worst results were found among workers smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and exposed to occupational noise for 20 years or more.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2006, Vol.LII, No.205, p.33-40. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 08-437 Airo E.
Communication and noise
This article discusses the growing importance of speech communications at work, raising new concerns that occupational hygienists and health care professionals need to address. Contents: speech intensive work in low noise environments such as classrooms and day care centres (sound absorbing materials, vocal hygiene); verbal communications in noisy environments (hearing protectors with communications capability, intercom systems, European Standard EN 458 establishing a threshold of 85dB(A)); specific problems of noise exposure in call centres.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2006, Vol.16, No.2, p.38-40. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/DBA20FBC-A6B8-437A-A31F-DE5D68473E99/0/africanews22006.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-436 Ologe F.E.
Noise levels in Nigeria: Health hazards and problems associated with their control
This article summarizes the main health hazards related to noise together with the findings of a survey of noise levels in a small Nigerian city. Topics addressed: sources of noise (road traffic, small electricity generators, food grinding machines); health effects of noise (hearing loss, stress, sleep disturbances, tachycardia); problems associated with noise control (lack of effective legislation, poor enforcement of, and compliance with, existing regulations, unsafe behaviour and poor safety consciousness).
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2006, Vol.16, No.2, p.36-37. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/DBA20FBC-A6B8-437A-A31F-DE5D68473E99/0/africanews22006.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-435 Phillips J.I., Nelson G., Ross M.H.
Preventing adverse effects of noise and vibration in the South African mining industry
This article describes the objectives of a South African national programme aimed at building awareness of the effects of noise and vibration in the mining industry. It will involve a review of existing knowledge, acquiring new knowledge and developing best practices in the following fields: hearing conservation; tools for rapid diagnostic screening of the hand-arm vibration syndrome; noise testing of rock drills; anti-vibration gloves; whole-body vibration; noise and vibration control.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2006, Vol.16, No.2, p.33-35. Illus. 14 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/DBA20FBC-A6B8-437A-A31F-DE5D68473E99/0/africanews22006.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-191 Enfoque global de la política de lucha contra el ruido; parte 2: ruido en los centros de trabajo
A global approach to noise control policy; Part 2: Occupational noise [en inglés]
Este informe lo ha preparado el Instituto internacional de tecnología de control del ruido (International Institute of Noise Control Engineering, I-INCE). Contiene las recomendaciones destinadas a las instancias nacionales e internacionales encargadas de definir la política en materia de lucha contra el ruido en los lugares de trabajo. En el sumario: introducción; terminología y definiciones; efectos del ruido; instancias responsables y organizaciones internacionales no gubernamentales; propuesta de redactar una declaración de intenciones para una política sobre el ruido; especificaciones de inmisión (límites de exposición al ruido, disminución de la emisión de las fuentes sonoras); control del ruido a lo largo de las vías de transmisión; medidas técnicas que deben adoptarse en una empresa industrial; acciones de seguimiento; resumen de las recomendaciones del I-INCE relativas a la exposición al ruido en los lugares de trabajo
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.298-308. 25 ref.

CIS 07-1453 Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska M., Szymczak W., Dudarewicz A., Śliwińska-Kowalska M.
Propuesta de criterios para evaluar las molestias provocadas por el ruido de baja frecuencia en el medio laboral
Proposed criteria for assessing low frequency noise annoyance in occupational settings [en inglés]
La finalidad de este estudio era recomendar métodos que permitan evaluar el ruido de baja frecuencia (BBF) en los ambientes de trabajo, al objeto de limitar las molestias que ocasiona, así como sus efectos sobre el rendimiento laboral. Se han evaluado tres métodos y sus correspondientes valores admisibles. Los criterios propuestos han sido objeto de verificación en el laboratorio y sobre el terreno. El estudio de laboratorio se ha realizado sobre 55 individuos voluntarios, con una audición normal, a los que se les hizo escuchar diferentes ruidos a niveles de presión sonora entre 45 y 65dB(A) y, a continuación, se les evaluó el grado de molestia percibida en una escala gráfica. En el estudio sobre el terreno, se pidió a 35 trabajadores varones, expuestos a BBF a niveles de presión sonora entre 48 y 61dB(A), que evaluaran las molestias en sus puestos de trabajo, merced a una escala grafica similar. Las evaluaciones subjetivas del BBF se compararon con los resultados objetivos de diversos métodos de medida. Se comentan los resultados. Todos los criterios propuestos se revelaron fiables para predecir las molestias derivadas de los BBF experimentadas por los trabajadores en sus puestos de trabajo
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2006, Vol.19, No.3, p.185-197. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 07-1169 Kaczmarska A., Łuczak A., Sobolewski A.
Alteraciones debidas al ruido de baja frecuencia durante el trabajo mental - Pruebas en condiciones de laboratorio
Uciążliwość hałasu niskoczęstotliwościowego podczas wykonywania prac wymagających koncentracji uwagi - badania w warunkach laboratoryjnych [en polonés]
El ruido de baja frecuencia (incluidos los infrasonidos) es un factor peligroso y molesto en los ambientes de trabajo y en la vida cotidiana. No existen criterios para evaluar este factor, aunque los efectos se notan especialmente durante los trabajos que requieren concentración mental. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un análisis de la incomodidad derivada de la exposición a ruido de baja frecuencia, percibida en un puesto de trabajo que requería un alto nivel de atención y de concentración. Más del 50% de las personas que se sometieron a esta prueba aquejaron problemas de concentración en tales condiciones
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 2006, No.6, p.11-15. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 07-1168 Neitzel R.L., Berna B.E., Seixas N.S.
Exposición al ruido a bordo de buques de pesca y de buques-factoría
Noise exposures aboard catcher/processor fishing vessels [en inglés]
Los trabajadores del sector pesquero tienen horarios largos y pueden estar expuestos durante las 24 horas a elevados niveles sonoros. Se ha evaluado la exposición al ruido a bordo de dos grandes buques, de pesca y factoría, mediante disimetría y cartografía de los niveles de ruido, así como mediante auto-declaraciones sobre las tareas efectuadas y la utilización de protectores auditivos. Todos estos datos se han combinado para estimar el nivel de exposición durante el turno de trabajo o durante el descanso a lo lago de 24 horas como media de diversos parámetros. La duración del uso de protectores de audición también se utilizo para calcular la protección real de los miembros de la tripulación. En casi todos los trabajadores, los niveles sonoros en el curso del turno de trabajo superaban los límites actualmente en vigor. Incluso teniendo en cuenta la utilización de protectores auditivos, la mitad de las exposiciones en 24 horas superaban dichos límites. La exposición al ruido durante los períodos de descanso no contribuía a la media de la exposición de 24 horas. Los protectores de audición disminuían la exposición al ruido una media de 10dBA, aunque no todos los trabajadores los utilizaban de forma sistemática
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.624-633. Illus. 29 ref.

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