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  • Noise

1990

CIS 91-1329 Heisel U., Rothmund J., Fiebig W.
Influence of gear modification on noise emissions by gear pumps
Einfluss der Zahnkopfrücknahme auf die Geräuschemissionen beim Betrieb von Aussenzahnradpumpen [en alemán]
The noise of gear pumps is mainly caused by interaction of the gear wheels. The benefits of tooth modification on noise emission were theoretically investigated. Noise measurements were carried out on three pumps with different designs. The pump with teeth shortened by 10µm was found to emit less noise than the other two pumps with either polished or abraded full-length teeth.
Maschinenmarkt, 1990, Vol.96, No.38, p.262-264, 266, 268. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 91-1328 Petiot J.C., Parrot J., Lobreau J.P., Smolik H.J.
Combined effects of a moderate dose of alcohol and of exposure to noise upon auditory fatigue
Effects of alcohol consumption on hearing thresholds at 4 and 6kHz were studied on 16 subjects exposed for 20 minutes to 105dB continuous pink noise. Two minutes after noise had ceased, the mean hearing thresholds at 4kHz reached a significantly lower level in subjects under the effect of alcohol. Auditory fatigue was significantly lower than in a noise condition without alcohol. The rate of recovery from auditory fatigue was not modified by alcohol, but owing to initially lower auditory fatigue, recovery at 4kHz was attained earlier under alcohol. No noticeable effect of alcohol was found for auditory fatigue at 6kHz.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.37-41. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-1327 Damongeot A., Lataye R., Kusy A.
Noise attenuation due to double hearing protection (earmuffs plus earplugs)
Affaiblissement acoustique apporté par une double protection de l'ouïe (serre-tête + bouchons d'oreille) [en francés]
The utilisation of double hearing protection (earmuffs plus earplugs) may be necessary in particularly noisy environments. Global attenuations (ISO index: ENR80) given by 32 models of earmuffs and earplugs, used alone or in combination, are presented, based on the literature and tests performed by INRS. In addition, a simple empirical formula was established, relating the global attenuation ENR80 given by the combined protectors to the attenuation given by each one of them. This formula can be useful for assessing the noise attenuation due to any combination of earmuffs and earplugs used in France.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1789-140-90, p.557-562. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 91-1324 Kjellberg A.
Subjective, behavioral and psychophysiological effects of noise
The subjective and psychophysiological responses to noise and the effects of noise on performance are reviewed in this article. Emphasis is placed on moderate intensity noise and on the effects relevant for occupational noise exposure. It is concluded that in many respects research presents a rather inconsistent picture of these effects. Still, it is evident that the non-auditory effects of noise may be serious enough to warrant as much general attention in the occupational setting as has for some time been accorded in residential settings.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1990, Vol.16, Suppl.1, p.29-38. 92 ref.

CIS 91-989 Damongeot A., Kusy A.
Relevance of "grab" sampling methods for assessing the noise levels in factories
Pertinence de l'échantillonnage "en aveugle" pour l'estimation des niveaux sonores en entreprises [en francés]
Several grab sampling techniques, proposed for assessing the A-weighted daily equivalent sound pressure level (Leq), have been tested at 28 workstations with fluctuating noise levels. The actual Leq, obtained over an 8h period, was compared with estimates obtained from a number of sampling parameters. From the difference between actual and estimated values of Leq, it appears that grab sampling generally tends to underestimate Leq (sometimes considerably) and that the predicted confidence intervals are not generally taken into consideration. In cases where grab sampling does give statistically reliable results, accuracy is better served by increasing the number of samples than their duration.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1778-139-90, p.347-361. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 91-988 Meyer-Bisch C.
Automatic audiometry for preventive screening: The frequency scanning method (audioscan) - Comparison with conventional methods
Audiométrie automatique de dépistage préventif: le balayage fréquentiel asservi (audioscan) - Comparaison avec les méthodes classiques [en francés]
Preventive screening for hearing loss is preferable to the conventional audiometric screening used primarily for the determination of compensation. With this in mind, a new method has been developed to increase the precision and sensitivity of audiometric examinations; the frequency scanning method (audioscan) performing basic pure tone threshold audiometry covering the full frequency spectrum. This innovative method compares well with the conventional method insofar as it is automated, more accurate, more sensitive and better suited to preventive screening.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1777-139-90, p.335-345. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 91-987 Information on "noise" is a prerequisite for the purchase of machines
Lieferbedingungen "Lärm" für die Beschaffung von Maschinen [en alemán]
According to EC Directives 89/392 and 86/188 and to the accident prevention ordinance in the Federal Republic of Germany, suppliers must provide information on the noise of machines. A form has been developed for entering the required data. It is illustrated and explained. A completed form for a lathe is presented.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, July 1990, No.3, p.6-11. Illus.

CIS 91-985 Kunihara K.
A theoretical study on the administrative method for occupational noise exposure - The application of the noise exposure index for noise control
Sagyō genba ni okeru eisei kanri gutaisaku no mosaku - sōon kanri no tame no bakuro shisū no ōyō [en japonés]
Workers may work in several different areas with different noise levels during an 8-hour working day. Even when workers work within the same place, their noise exposure time may vary from day to day. Therefore, apart from environmental control aimed at the reduction of the ambient noise level, regulation of the exposure time through management is required, with emphasis on each individual work unit, and these 2 means of control should be linked with each other. A tentative plan for managing information on ambient noise and exposure time is presented. This method will be also useful for the health management of workers suffering from auditory disturbances and will be particularly effective in evaluating whether they are capable of a given job. Moreover, this method should also be instructive in controlling other harmful jobs.
Annual Reports of the Medical Research Society for Mining and Smelting, 1 Mar. 1990, No.29, p.23-31.

CIS 91-994 Advanced sound attenuation: a valve against noise - Howling, noisy abrasive-wheel cutting-off machines are out
Schrittmachende Schalldämpferkonstruktion: ein Ventil gegen den Lärm - Heulende, laute Schruppschleifer sind passé [en alemán]
The operating principle of a pressure-regulating valve installed in an abrasive-wheel cutting-off machine is illustrated. It reduces the sound level of 1.2-3.8kW pneumatic grinders at idle to below 80dB(A) and during operation to below 90dB(A).
Druckluft-Kommentare, 1990, No.2, p.26-27. Illus.

CIS 91-997 Elvhammar H., Landström L.
Fight the noise. Examples of methods and solutions within companies and institutions in Sweden
A brief summary of Swedish noise regulations is followed by chapters devoted to 13 industrial sectors or spheres of activity: mechanical engineering, pulp and paper, graphic arts, food, timber and sawmilling, mining, steel and metalworking, glassware, laundry, hotel and restaurant, manufacture of orthopaedic appliances, churches and schools and energy production. Under each heading are given one or more practical methods of noise control in a workplace, with the name, address and telephone number of the enterprise and the name of a contact person. Names and addresses of 11 other sources of expertise are also listed.
The Swedish Work Environment Fund, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, June 1990. 59p. Illus. Ordering No.3219292.

CIS 91-999
Rubber Industry Advisory Committee
Noise control in the rubber industry
Contents of this safety guide: noise and the human ear and hearing loss; noise measurements; legislation and limits; noise levels found in the rubber industry; outline strategy for noise control; identification of sources of noise; principles and basic techniques of noise reduction; noise reduction at source for new and existing machines; noise reduction in the paths from source to receiver; a checklist for noise control in the rubber industry; noise control case studies. Appendices include: main requirements of the Noise at Work Regulations 1989; some definitions relevant to noise measurement and control; a noise checklist for new machinery; factory noise questionnaire.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 40p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 91-1031 Parrot J., Petiot J.C., Lobreau J.P., Smolik H.J., Guilland J.C.
3x8 shift-work - Simulation of start of shift by untrained subjects in a noisy atmosphere
Prise de poste selon un horaire en 3 x 8 - Simulation en ambiance bruyante chez les sujets non adaptés [en francés]
The study was performed on 12 young men and 12 young women, with simulation of a 3 x 8 shift-work schedule. Their performance during a sorting task was clocked for 20min while they were simultaneously exposed to 105dB(A) continuous pink noise. Recovery from auditory fatigue (TTS2) was monitored at 4 and 6kHz for 90 minutes afterwards. The physiological strain indices observed were: heart rate, blood pressure, rectal temperature and free urinary cortisol. Conclusions are presented as well as information specific to women.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No.1767-138-90, P.73-90. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 91-983 Jacques J.
Noise labelling of industrial machinery. Regulations
Etiquetage informatif du bruit des machines industrielles. Réglementation [en francés]
Decree No. 88-405 of 21 April 1988 (CIS 89-724 and 89-725) and the Government Order of 25 April 1988 make noise labelling compulsory, as from 1 January 1990, for a great variety of industrial machinery. This data sheet introduces the new regulations (background and scope) and discusses the various aspects of noise labelling (why? for whom? by whom? how?). Reference is also made to standards and to other directives and regulations requiring noise labelling. Annexes: extracts of EEC Directive 86/188/EEC (CIS 87-45) and of the French regulation enforcing the EEC directive; list of French and German testing codes for noise produced by certain industrial equipment to be applied from 1 Jan. 1989.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No. 1761-138-90, p.5-21. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 91-982 Wong C.J.
Timing belt noise of office machines
Drive systems, especially timing belts, are a major source of the noise produced by office machines such as copiers and printers. Most previous studies of belt drive noise have dealt only with manufacturing equipment. Here, the effects of belt pitch, belt materials, pulley materials, flange sizes, pulley sizes, shaft alignment, belt length, belt width, drive speed, torque and initial tension on noise generation were measured. In general, pulleys should be solid steel, large in diameter with narrow flanges, and precisely aligned. Belts should be made of neoprene, narrow, with fine pitch and minimum tension, and should be operated at minimum speed.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.35, No.3, p.103-112. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 91-981 Cai S., Cao C.
Case history: a study on the noise control for wheel loaders
Sources of noise in 6 models of wheel loader manufactured in the People's Republic of China were identified. Antivibration mountings for the engine were designed, appropriate damping materials for sheet-metal parts were found, a sound-absorbing cab liner was devised, a better orientation for the muffler was found and the engine hood was isolated from the cab wall. Together with the sealing of holes and joints in the cab and hood, these measures reduced noise levels at the driver's seat by 23.8dB(A), to 82dB(A). The measures did not require any major changes in the design of the equipment.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.35, No.3, p.85-94. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 91-620 Saemann E.U.
Vibrations eliminated - Reduction of the noise level emitted by binder concrete formwork used in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete elements
Schwingungen ausgeschaltet - Massnahmen zum Senken des Lärmpegels an Binderschalungen für den Betonfertigteilbau [en alemán]
Primary noise control measures for existing prefabricated concrete formwork elements were identified by noise measurements. Welding of all contact points, fastening of heating pipes and installation of additional supporting structures were found to reduce the noise level at 1m distance from the formwork from 123dB(A) to 101dB(A). By changing the present design of the support structures and through attachment of sound screens the noise level would drop further to 89dB(A).
Maschinenmarkt, 1990, Vol.96, No.33, p.38-40, 42-43. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 91-618 Kessler M., Korn M., Drysch K., Schmahl F.W.
The noise environment in landscape management and gardening - Noise exposure measurements and audiometric studies
Lärmbereich "Landschaftspflege und Landschaftsgartenbau" - Schallimmissionsmessungen und audiometrische Untersuchungen [en alemán]
The noise levels emitted by motor-driven gardening implements were determined in 2 horticultural enterprises. One specialised in landscape design, the other in the upkeep of public gardens. Measured noise levels of mowers, motor hoes, chain saws, power saws and wood grinders ranged from 85.6dB(A) to 103.1dB(A). Audiometric examination of 36 landscape gardeners revealed 17 cases of hearing loss which were in excess of age-related hearing loss.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.8, p.352-356. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-613 Fischer S.
Low-noise, high-pressure nozzles
Geräuschgeminderte Druckluftdüsen [en alemán]
The noise produced by compressed air nozzles used in cleaning, transporting and ejecting workpieces can be significantly reduced by: carefully matching air pressure to the required force or air flow; selecting the adequate number and diameter of orifices; optimising the distance between the air nozzle and the workpiece. Examples show that noise reductions of 5 to 9dB can be realised. Twenty models of quiet nozzles are presented together with tables as application guidelines.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1990, Vol.12, No.1, p.27-32. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 91-621 Noise reduction by selection of machines with low sound emission - Band saws
Lärmminderung durch Auswahl leiser Maschinen - Tischbandsägemaschinen [en alemán]
The sound pressure levels and noise levels at the workplace produced by 23 band saws with pulley diameters between 520 and 900mm are presented. Band saws with sound levels of 83dB(A) at idle and 94dB(A) during operation represent the state of the art. For compliance with the maximum allowable noise level at the workplace in Germany of 85dB(A), the band saws selected should not cause, in the presence of other noise sources, noise exposure levels exceeding 72dB(A) at idle or 75dB(A) during operation.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Apr. 1990, No.2, p.10-11. Illus.

CIS 91-624
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at work - Noise assessment, information and control
Contents of this guide, consisting of Noise Guides 3-8 (Guides 1-2 already abstracted as CIS 90-1354): equipment and procedures for noise surveys; engineering control of noise; types and selection of personal ear protectors; training for competent persons to carry out noise assessments; procedures for testing machinery noise; exemption from certain requirements of the UK Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 45p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.00.

CIS 91-427 Suter A.H., Franks J.R.
A practical guide to effective hearing conservation programs in the workplace
Contents of this guide: value of a good hearing conservation programme; policy needs; noise exposure monitoring; engineering and administrative controls; audiometric evaluation; hearing protection devices; education and motivation; record keeping; programme evaluation. Appendices provide an OSHA noise standard compliance checklist, a programme evaluation checklist, and a list of available audio-visual materials concerning occupational noise and hearing conservation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Sep. 1990. 56p. Illus.

CIS 91-433 Kowerski A.
GUS data - a source of information?
Dane GUS - źródłem informacji? [en polonés]
Data on 100 factories submitted to the Central Statistical Bureau (GUS) of Poland by the State Labour Inspectorate show an aggregate 10% fall from 1985 to 1988 in the number of workers exposed to noise above official exposure levels. However, these levels vary from one group of enterprises to another (85-90dB(A) for various periods), and there are vast differences between enterprises within one sector in terms of the percentage of employees exposed to excessive noise. As the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy established a general noise exposure limit on 1 Dec. 1989 (85dB(A), 8h), it can be expected that the numbers of workers determined to be exposed to noise above the permissible level will show a substantial increase.
Ochrona pracy, July 1990, No.7, p.9.

CIS 91-519 Noise reduction at multi-spindle planing and moulding machines
Contents of this information sheet: main sources of noise; its reduction by means of design and engineering controls (noise reduction at source, use of noise attenuating hoods, full noise noise attenuation enclosures).
Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1990. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 91-516 Noise enclosure at band re-saws
This information sheet describes the construction of a noise enclosure built on a timber frame with a sound attenuating cladding and a sound absorbent lining. Advice is given on the design of feed and delivery openings, access doors and viewing panels, the provision of ventilation for air cooled equipment, and the location of some controls outside the enclosure.
Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1990. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 91-515 Noise reductions at band re-saws
The noise generated by band re-saws (typically over 85 dB(A)) can be reduced by maintaining the machine and blade in good condition. Factors affecting the blade vibration level (the main source of noise) are listed along with advice on how the difference in noise levels when cutting and when idling can be used as a good indicator of the condition and adjustment of the machine and blade.
Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1990. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 91-289 Manninen O.
Further studies on changes in subjective stressfulness under various combinations of noise, vibration, temperature and work tasks
Five different studies were carried out in an exposure chamber. Results indicated that subjects generally rated simultaneous noise and vibration more stressful than noise or vibration alone. Stressfulness was also generally experienced to be higher when the environmental temperature was higher than normal and when subjects were exposed to a simultaneous whole body vibration and noise. The results support earlier observations that limb blood flow and sweat rate decrease on exposure to low-frequency vibration at a temperature of 43°C. In general it appears that whole body vibration and also noise tend to confuse the operation of the cooling system of the human body during work in hot environments.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Aug. 1990, Vol.2, No.2, p.31-39. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 91-286
National Institutes of Health
Consensus Conference - Noise and hearing loss
Report on the discussions of the Consensus Development Conference on Noise and Hearing Loss (held 22-24 Jan. 1990). Discussed were: definition of and studies on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), most of which is due to occupational noise exposure; anatomic and physiologic correlates of NIHL; assessment of NIHL; sound levels that can damage hearing; factors influencing susceptibility to NIHL (anatomical differences, age, sex, exposure to ototoxic drugs); prevention strategies (individual protection, protection at and outside the workplace); directions for future research; conclusions and recommendations.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 20 June 1990, Vol.263, No.23, p.3185-3190.

CIS 91-285 Valoski M.P.
High idle as a predictor of noise exposure
High idle noise measurements were conducted on internal combustion engine-powered mining equipment using a sound level meter, microphone and tape recorder. It was concluded that high noise measurements correlate poorly with mining machine operator's noise exposure expressed in percent or as a time weighted average in dB. This suggests that factors other than engine noise contribute significantly to the operator's noise exposure.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, July-Aug. 1990, Vol.35, No.1, p.21-27. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-1929 Heim T.
Inquiry into the negative impact on man and the environment of work in the graphic-arts industry
Erhebung über Belastung von Mensch und Umwelt durch Tätigkeiten in der graphischen Industrie [en alemán]
Results of a nationwide questionnaire survey conducted by consultants on behalf of the Swiss Lithographers' Union. Exposure and pollution data are broken down by operation or professional specialty. For the industry as a whole, the principal problems in decreasing order of importance are: odours in ambient (workplace) air, solvents in ambient air, special solid and liquid wastes, waste in general, dust in ambient air, wastewater, noise and odours in exhaust air. Summary in French.
Schweizer Lithographenbund, Optingenstrasse 5, Postfach, 3000 Bern 25, Switzerland, Dec. 1990. 57p. Illus.

CIS 90-2048 Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources - Requirements for the performance and calibration of reference sound sources
Acoustique - Détermination des niveaux de puissance acoustique émis par les sources de bruit - Prescriptions relatives aux performances et à l'étalonnage des sources sonores de référence [en francés]
This international standard specifies the essential acoustical performance requirements of reference sound sources. It lays down procedures for calibrating a sound source intended for use as a reference sound source in terms of its sound power levels in octave and one-third octave bands and with frequency weighting A.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1990. 6p.

CIS 90-2035 Noise reduction by selection of machines with low sound emission - Pneumatic hammers and drilling machines
Lärmminderung durch Auswahl leiser Maschinen - Druckluftbohrhämmer und -hammerbohrmaschinen [en alemán]
Pneumatic hammer drills are used in underground mining and in civil engineering for tunnel construction. The noise levels of 117dB(A) for machines up to 30kg - and 120dB(A) - up to 200kg - were determined to be maximum permissible sound levels. No newly purchased machines should have sound power levels above these values.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Jan. 1990, Vol.1, p.7-8. Illus.

CIS 90-1871 Noise protection - Recommendations
Protection contre le bruit - Recommandations [en francés]
Update of the publication abstracted as CIS CIS 86-358. Contents: the physics of sound; noise measurement equipment and techniques; effects of noise on hearing; hearing conservation programmes; personal protection; practical criteria for hearing comfort.
Commissariat général à la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1990. 81p. Illus.

CIS 90-1710 Jensen J.G., Varming V.H.
Noise problems in slaughterhouses
Støjproblemer i slagterier [en danés]
This report was prepared in order to provide practical help and guidance concerning noise reducing measures in the slaughter-house industry. Contents: basic acoustic concepts; requirements by authorities (the Working Environment Act, veterinary provisions); noise reduction of machines; noise reduction in existing work premises; review of the different departments, machines and installations of a slaughter-house; transport installations; ventilation systems and refrigerating equipment; periodical hearing tests of the employees.
Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Apr. 1990. 45p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: DKK 150.00.

CIS 90-299 Acoustics - Determination of occupational noise exposure estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment
Acoustique - Détermination de l'exposition au bruit en milieu professionnel et estimation du dommage auditif induit par le bruit [en francés]
This international standard specifies a method for calculating the expected noise-induced permanent threshold shift in the hearing threshold levels of adult populations due to various levels and durations of noise exposure; it provides the basis for calculating hearing handicap according to various formulae when the hearing threshold levels at commonly measured audiometric frequencies, or combinations of such frequencies, exceed a certain value.
International Organization for Standardization, P.O. Box 56, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1990. 17p. Illus.

1989

CIS 95-2257 Horns H., Wettschureck R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Conjunto de métodos para la reducción del ruido en las industrias de manufactura - Industrias transformadoras del metal
Katalog lärmmindernder Massnahmen in der Fertigung - Metallverarbeitung [en alemán]
Descripción de más de 150 medidas dirigidas a reducir el ruido en las industrias metalúrgicas, los talleres de fundición, las acerías y la industria del aluminio. Se presentan varios ejemplos sobre el ruido generado por máquinas tales como laminadoras, curvadoras, prensas, cizallas, cortadoras de metal, esmeriladoras, bombas hidráulicas, máquinas transportadoras, martillos y perforadoras.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Alemania, 1989. 391p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Precio: DEM 40,50.

CIS 95-2256 Suess M.J., Benwell-Morison D.A.
Protección contra las radiaciones no ionizantes
Nonionizing radiation protection [en inglés]
Esta publicación trata de los riesgos que las radiaciones no ionizantes presentan para la salud de la población en general y de los trabajadores en particular. Cada capítulo está dedicado a un tipo particular de radiación, analizando su naturaleza, las fuentes de exposición, los efectos biológicos, la evaluación de los riesgos, las normas de seguridad y las medidas de control: radiación ultravioleta, radiación óptica y por láser; radiación infrarroja; radiación de frecuencia radioeléctrica; campos eléctricos y magnéticos con frecuencias extremadamente bajas; ultrasonidos. En el último capítulo se presenta la reglamentación en la materia y los procedimientos de aplicación correspondientes (Ver CIS 86-996, edición anterior).
Bureau régional de l'OMS pour l'Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Dinamarca, 2a ed., 1989. xiv, 346p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: CHF 43,00.

CIS 95-1571 Reglamento de 1989 sobre Fábricas y Máquinas (exposición al ruido) [Malasia]
Factories and Machinery (Noise Exposure) Regulations 1989 [Malaysia] [en inglés]
Este Reglamento, en vigor desde el 1 de febrero de 1989, sustituye al de 1986 (ver CIS 91-367). Contenido: definición; obligaciones de los empresarios; valores límite reglamentarios (nivel de ruido continuo: 90 dB(A), nivel cresta: 115 dB(A); control de la exposición; métodos de control del respeto a los límites de exposición; dispositivos de protección del oido; reconocimientos audiométricos; información y formación de los empleados; identificación de los riesgos; mantenimiento de los expedientes de exposición. Anexos: valores límite reglamentarios (en función de la duración de la exposición); valores umbral de los niveles de presión acústica en algunas bandas de octava en las pruebas audiométricas de laboratorio.
En: Factories and Machinery Act, 1967 (Act 139) & Regulations and Rules, International Law Book Services. No. 14, 1st Floor, Lorong Bunus Enam, Off Jalan Masjid India, 50100 Kuala Lumpur, Malasia, 1990, p.349-363.
http://dosh.mohr.gov.my/koperat/LAW/Factories%20and%20Machinery%20Act%201967%20(Act%20139)/Regulations/pua001y89-noise/pua0001y1989.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 95-1351 Reconocimientos médicos especiales de acuerdo a f8 de la ley sobre protección de los trabajadores [Australia]
Die besonderen ärztlichen Untersuchungen nach § 8 Arbeitnehmerschutzgesetz [en alemán]
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, dic. 1989. 13p. ###

CIS 95-324 Acústica - Medición del ruido de alta frecuencia emitido por los equipos informáticos y de oficina
Acoustics - Measurement of high-frequency noise emitted by computer and business equipment [en inglés]
Acoustique - Mesurage du bruit à haute fréquence émis par les matériels informatiques et de bureau [en francés]
Esta versión corregida de la norma ISO 9295 reemplaza a la edición de 1988 (ver CIS 89-1363). En ella se especifican cuatro métodos para determinar los niveles de intensidad acústica del ruido de alta frecuencia emitido por los equipos informáticos y de oficina en el rango de frecuencias cubierto por la banda de octava centrada en 16 KHz. Estos métodos son complementarios a los métodos descritos en ISO 7779
Organisation internationale de normalisation, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Suiza, edición corregida, 1 feb. 1989. 11p. Ilus.

CIS 94-1818 Decree-Law No.292/89: Modifies certain provisions of the General Regulation on Noise (approved by Decree-Law No.251/87 of 24 June) [Portugal]
Decreto-Lei n°292/89: Altera algumas disposições do Regulamento Geral sobre o Ruído, aprovado pelo Decreto-Lei n°251/87, de 24 de Junho [en portugués]
This Decree-Law introduces modifications (dated 2 Sept. 1989) into the General Regulation on Noise (see CIS 90-1090). Among its provisions: licensing of noisy performances (indoors or open-air); limitation of the noisiness of motorized vehicles; matters relating to inspection and the certification of sound meters. In annex: maximum noise emission levels for automobiles and motorcycles.
Diário da República, 2 Sep. 1989, Series I, No.202, p.3770-3772.

CIS 94-1738 Code of practice for noise control on construction and demolition sites
Contents of this Code of Practice: community relations; personnel training; noise-induced hearing loss; methods of protection of persons against noise including noise control techniques; hearing protection; selection and use of ear protectors; additional effects of noise on persons on site; disturbing effects of noise; rating and levels of neighbourhood noise; noise monitoring; project supervision; provision for noise control during the planning, design and tender stages and during works. Appendices include: acoustical terminology; estimating and predicting noise from sites; selection of construction equipment and construction methods.
Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial Research, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 0511, 1989. 52p. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1114 Instructivo No.11 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se genere ruido
Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains: general provisions; hazard identification and evaluation; noise control measures; special provisions for newly-established enterprises. In annex: glossary of technical terms used; table presenting maximum periods of permitted exposure in function of dB(A) levels; general recommendations for the medical surveillance of noise-exposed workers; noise level measuring methods; method for calculating the noise attenuation factor of hearing protectors.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 27p. Illus. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 2 June 1989.

CIS 93-1402 Ordinance No.417 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 1 December 1989 respecting maximum allowable concentrations and levels of harmful factors in the working environment [Poland]
Rozporządzenie 417 Ministra Pracy i Polityki Socjalnej z dnia 1 grudnia 1989 r. w sprawie najwyższych dopuszczalnych stężeń i natężeń czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy [en polonés]
The schedules annexed to this directive (effective from date of publication) set exposure limits for 221 chemical products, six categories of organic and inorganic dust, noise, vibration and microclimatic factors. For the chemicals, 8-h, 30-min and ceiling exposure limits are set. The levels for physical factors refer to an 8-h shift. The ordinance replaces those of 22 December 1982 and 27 November 1985 (see CIS 87-374).
Dziennik Ustaw, 20 Dec. 1989, No.69, p.1019-1029.

CIS 92-1703
Acoustical Society of America
Method for the designation of sound power emitted by machinery and equipment
This standard makes the noise power emission level Lnpe) the basic measure of noise emission. This is the A-weighted sound power level of a source in bels. The reference sound power is 1pW. The relationship of the unit to other measures of sound power level and sound pressure level is specified. A method for obtaining Lnpe from sound power levels in octave or one-third octave frequency bands (50-10,000Hz) is given. The standard applies to all machinery and equipment that is essentially stationary and for which overall A-weighted sound power is a meaningful descriptor of noise emission. It revises and supersedes ANSI S1.23-1976 (R 1983) and ANSI S3.177-1975 /R 1980).
Publication Sales, Dept. STD, American Institute of Physics, 500 Sunnyside Blvd., Woodbury, New York, NY 11797, USA, 13 Oct. 1989. 6p. Price: USD 28.00 plus shipping and handling.

CIS 92-1353
Acoustical Society of America
Reference quantities for acoustical levels
This standard specifies a set of reference quantities that conform largely to International Standard ISO 1683. However, the present standard provides a sound exposure reference level (20µPa2s), which ISO 1683 does not, and omits the sound energy and the sound energy density given in the ISO standard. The effect of different reference levels for vibration acceleration and vibration velocity is discussed in one appendix, and the manipulation of compound reference units (e.g., of sound pressure and distance) is illustrated in a second.
American Institute of Physics, Standards Dept., c/o AIDC, 64 Depot Road, Colchester, VT 05446, USA, 27 Oct. 1989. v, 4p.

CIS 92-1352
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National Strategy for the Prevention of Occupational Noise-induced Hearing Loss
Contents of this recommendation applicable to all of Australia: goals; background; scope of the problem (estimated 250-500,000 people work in hazardous noise environments in Australia; estimated total direct and indirect costs of compensation: AUD 70 million per year); components of the National Strategy (assessment, research, hearing conservation programmes, preventive programmes, training and education, incentives, development of uniform legislation, measures aimed at ensuring compliance).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, July 1989. 10p. 4 ref.

CIS 92-89 Noise abatement for circular saws
Contents of this training booklet: some circular saw arrangements; the nature of circular saw noise (idling, cutting and workpiece noise); saw blade and tooth terminology; specific methods of noise reduction (maintenance factors, changing operational parameters, proper saw blade and tooth geometry design, vibration damping, blade enclosure, control of workpiece noise).
Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1989. 20p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 91-2017 Stevenson D.C., Gray W.W., Hoong K.C., Speller M.J.
Quietening circular saws by reducing blade vibration
A series of experiments was undertaken to reduce the laterally-induced forced vibrations which radiate noise from a circular saw when cutting. Two dampers in the form of flat plates supported by air bearings were placed on each side of the blade beneath the saw table. Using semicircular plates, a reduction of 16dB was achieved; using more economical circular plates the reduction was 6 to 8dB. Best noise reduction was achieved for very small gaps (0.1mm) at plate porosities of 0.05 to 0.075 percent and at flow rates of 80 to 130L per minute through the porous plates.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, July-Aug. 1989, Vol.33, No.1, p.33-37. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 91-2016 Hodgson M.
Case history: Factory noise prediction using ray tracing - Experimental validation and the effectiveness of noise control measures
In order to evaluate the accuracy of a ray-tracing model, comparisons were made between predicted and measured sound pressure levels for a machine shop with 9 sources in operation. The shop was modelled using the known geometry, source and receiver positions, air absorption coefficients, and the measured source sound power levels. Surface absorption coefficients were chosen on the basis of reverberation time measurements in similar factories when empty. The ray-tracing model proved to give excellent prediction accuracy. The usefulness and flexibility of the ray-tracing approach are demonstrated by predicting the effectiveness of possible noise control measures comprising acoustic screens and suspended absorption.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.33, No.3, p.97-104. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 91-2024 Talamo J.D.C., Stadie A.L., Whyte R.T.
A survey of exposure to noise in agriculture
This report provides information on the noise exposure levels of farm workers in the United Kingdom over the period 1985-1987. Results are presented for 492 sets of records, the majority of which cover a large percentage of the working shift for typical farm tasks. Examples are given of working levels and daily exposure levels for 75 types of activity. The report briefly compares noise exposure measured by spot readings as against recording dosimetry and discusses microphone position effects, repeatability and week-long results. Estimates are also made of the number of worker days spent at a range of noise exposure levels from 72 to 107Lep (dB(A) 8h).
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1989. 265p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 55.00.

CIS 91-2013 Barham T.D., Russell M.F., Gooding D.
Improving the protection afforded by earmuffs to employees who are exposed to noise
This study investigated causes of variations in the protection afforded by earmuffs among different wearers. Microphones were installed in five earmuff cups worn by workers in an electronics factory where the noise was due to a large lamination press. Real-time measurements of sound level pressure were made both before and after instruction on how to fit the earmuffs correctly. Results showed that simple instruction on how to fit the hearing protectors gave an overall improvement in protection of 4dB. The effect of wearing safety spectacles was found to be negligible. Subjects with short hair tended to achieve higher levels of protection than those with long or curly hair.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.67-76. Illus. 13 ref.

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