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Effects of underwater noise on human hearing
Hearing conservation for divers and swimmers has been overlooked nearly everywhere in the world. Because submerging a listener changes his or her auditory physiology dramatically the research on which are based exposure limits for airborne noise are not relevant under water. So far, little research has been done for the development of a damage-risk standard for underwater noise exposure. The value of Poland's marine industries and the motivation of its audiologists make Poland and ideal country in which to accomplish this research and to lay the foundation for national and international standards.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.2, p.153-157. 3 ref.
Cattiau P., Corrette R., Lasfargues G., Rondeau du Noyer C.
Development of a hearing handicap by personnel in a pressworks
Evolution d'un handicap auditif du personnel d'un atelier de presses [en francés]
An evaluation was made of the development of the overall risk of hearing damage in a French pressworks. A significant deterioration in the hearing of the pressworks employees was observed, in particular in audiometric tests performed 10yrs after the previous one. These observations suggest, above all, the need for collective technical control measures which may only be devised after the establishment of an accurate dosimetric mapping of noise in the workshop.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.45, p.43-47. Illus. 4 ref.
Spreng M., Leupold S., Firsching P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Proposal for a system to assess hearing impairment due to impulse noise
Gehörschäden durch Impulsgeräusche - Vorschlag für ein gehörschadensrichtiges Impulsbewertungssystem [en alemán]
A method is described for measuring impulse noise, taking into account the relationship between peak levels, the duration of exposure and the morphological damage of the stereocilia of sensory cells observed in animal experiments. With a newly developed personal computer-controlled signal processor system, the level and extent of exposure to various frequencies and the dynamics of sound are determined. The value obtained is added to the equivalent continuous noise level LEq. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 273p. Illus. 158 ref. Price: DEM 34.00.
Noise at work. A helpful guide to the regulations
Contents of this guidance note: outline of duties imposed by the Noise at Work Regulations (see CIS 90-21); definition of noise and noise levels; typical health problems; the noise assessment procedure; action in the case of significant risks; responsibilities of employers, employees and equipment manufacturers; use of audiometry; personal ear protectors.
Institute of Occupational Medicine Ltd., 8 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1991. 21p. Price: GBP 5.00.
Yassi A., Gaborieau D., Gillespie I., Elias J.
The noise hazard in a large health care facility
A noise-level survey, dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a large health care facility to determine the areas with hazardous noise levels, the number of employees at risk, and the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among the exposed. Nine high-risk areas were identified, with readings of up to 110dB(A) recorded. In the work force of approximately 6,000 employees, 321 were identified as exposed to potentially hazardous noise levels. Abnormal hearing patterns were observed in 59 (19%) of the 308 workers screened, with 36 cases of NIHL documented. The findings showed that noise is a serious hazard in many areas, that some cases of NIHL have developed from occupational exposure in this hospital, and that a control programme is essential.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1067-1070. 19 ref.
Brown P.J., Yearout R.D.
Impacts of leisure activity noise levels on safety procedures and policy in the industrial environment: Case study
People who work in noisy environments might also have noisy leisure activities which could contribute to hearing loss or interfere with recovery time. The study investigated work and leisure noise levels experienced by workers in a manufacturing plant. Workers were surveyed to determine leisure activities and use of hearing protection. Noise levels of 12 leisure activities had a mean of 99dB with a standard deviation of 8dB, while the mean for the workplace noise levels was 89dB with a standard deviation of 8dB. Although workers are required to wear hearing protection when exposed to occupational noise levels above 85dB, only 36% of the survey respondents wear hearing protection in the leisure environment. Because industries with noisy workplaces may be held liable for hearing damage occurring outside the workplace, it is prudent to emphasise protection not only in the workplace but for leisure activities as well.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 1991, Vol.7, No.4, p.341-346. 9 ref.
Park M.Y., Casali J.G.
A controlled investigation of in-field attenuation performance of selected insert, earmuff and canal cap hearing protectors
Attenuation data were collected from 40 industrial workers wearing four different hearing protection devices (HPDs) while at work. Statistical analyses indicated that the earplugs' attenuation significantly improved when training for proper fitting was used, whereas the earmuff and canal cap were relatively insensitive to the training effect. Results confirmed that laboratory protocols designed to simulate workplace influences on attenuation may not yield reasonable estimates of field protection performance of HPDs, particularly for earplugs. The study also demonstrated that the labelled manufacturers' noise reduction ratings substantially overestimated the actual field attenuation performance.
Human Factors, Dec.1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.693-714. Illus. 26 ref.
Crutchfield C.D., Sparks S.T.
Effects of noise and vibration on farm workers
This paper summarises the basic physiology of the ear and the effects of excessive noise, namely noise-induced hearing loss. Appropriate studies are cited which document the high noise levels of various farm machinery. The current U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit is explained, and studies are presented which identify particularly noisy practices and farm occupations. Noise control strategies are summarised. The same machinery that produces excessive noise can produce hazardous levels of vibration. The sources and types of vibration are outlined and the literature concerning the health effects of whole body vibration and hand-arm vibration are reviewed.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.355-369. Illus. 43 ref.
Fighting noise in the 1990s
This report analyses the results of a series of case studies made in six OECD countries (Australia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Part I provides a critical assessment of the implementation of noise abatement policies particularly as regards the use of economic and non-economic incentives and the extent to which regulations are enforced. Part II contains a comparative description of overall noise abatement policies, and specific measures for road traffic noise, rail and aircraft noise, and domestic, neighbourhood and industrial noise. It is concluded that noise abatement policies pursued in the majority of OECD countries are inadequate and noise problems are likely to become more acute in the future.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1991. 120p. Bibl.ref. Price: FRF 100.00.
Quinlan D.A., Prasad M.G.
NOISE-CON 91. Noise control: twenty years of progress and future trends
Proceedings of the 11th National Conference on Noise Control Engineering held in New York, USA, 14-16 July 1991. Topics covered: history of noise control; practical use of acoustical technology; perception of noisiness; acoustics and product design; noise sources (gear noise, fan noise, noise from a computer disk drive); noise control by external treatments (gas turbine exhaust system silencing, sound-absorbing structures, hearing protector performance, applications of active noise control); generation, transmission, isolation and reduction of vibration and shock; physical aspects of environmental noise (noise levels in offices, electric utility environmental noise, noise from rotary coal car unloading operations); effects of noise (binaural measurement techniques, loudness prediction); noise measurement techniques and analytical methods.
Noise Control Foundation, Arlington Branch, P.O. Box 2469, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603, USA, 1991. xviii, 766p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 75.00.
Noise and health
Aspects covered by the 11 papers in this textbook: definition and sources of noise; cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, immunologic, and gastrointestinal effects of noise; the effects of noise on sleep and on foetal development; susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and acoustic trauma; the effects of noise on the ear and hearing; the effects of noise on learning, cognitive development, and social behaviour; community response and attitudes toward noise; noise abatement; public education and awareness of the effects of noise.
Publications Department, New York Academy of Medecine, 2 East 103rd Street, New York, NY 10029, USA, 1991. xiii, 120p. Bibl.ref. Index.
NIOSH publications on noise and hearing
The first part of this document contains a list of NIOSH documents on noise and hearing arranged by type of publication. The references cited describe the results of research conducted or funded by NIOSH. The second part includes full-text or abstracted copies of selected references. These include NIOSH congressional and regulatory testimony, results of NIOSH research, and NIOSH recommendations on current and future issues concerning workplace exposure to noise. Details are provided on how to obtain the listed items.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, July 1991. iii, 142p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Green M.S., Schwartz K., Harari G., Najenson T.
Industrial noise exposure and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate
Studies on the effects of long-term exposure to industrial noise on resting blood pressure have yielded inconsistent results. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were monitored simultaneously with noise exposure in normotensive male industrial workers in Israel (85 aged 25 to 44 and 77 aged 45 to 65 years). In the younger group, average ambulatory systolic blood pressure was 3.2mm Hg higher and diastolic blood pressure 2.3mm Hg higher in subjects exposed to more than 85dB(A) (p<.001), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. In those aged 45 to 65, ambulatory systolic blood pressure was 3.3mm Hg lower and diastolic blood pressure unchanged in noise-exposed subjects. Ambulatory heart rate was 2.7 and 2.6 beats per minute higher at the higher noise level (p=.002) in the respective age groups. These findings suggest that industrial noise exposure is associated with higher ambulatory blood pressure and heart rates in men under 45 years old, but the effect on blood pressure appears to diminish considerably with age.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.33, No.8, p.879-883. Illus. 22 ref.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss in fire fighters assigned to airport fire stations
Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied hearing levels and noise exposures of 197 fire fighters at 5 metropolitan fire stations. Two of the 5 stations served an international airport. The noise surveys consisted of personal noise dosimetry on fire fighters for the entire 24-hr tour of duty over 2 consecutive days. The audiometric examinations were pure-tone, air conduction tests. The dosimetry results revealed time-weighted averages ranging from 60 to 82dB(A). However, the levels encountered during Code 3 responses (sirens and air horns) reached 109dB(A) for a 1 minute time period. The audiometric results showed that the average fire fighter exhibited a characteristic noise-induced permanent threshold shift. Hearing loss was related to the amount of time on the job with decreasing hearing ability a function of years of service.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.52, No.9, p.372-378. Illus. 14 ref.
Campo P., Damongeot A.
Is the "A" weighting a relevant indicator of the harmfulness of low frequency noise? A review
La pondération "A" est-elle un indicateur pertinent de la nocivité des bruits de basses fréquences? Etude bibliographique [en francés]
Originally, the "A" weighting filter found in sound level meters was a frequency filter made for measuring the "loudness" of low intensity sounds having different frequency spectra. Later on, when applied to noise-induced temporary threshold shift, it appeared that the "A" weighting could also be used for assessing the auditory risk due to exposure to high level noise, with different spectral compositions. Recent physiological studies show that, at a given "A" weighted sound level, low frequency noises produce higher hearing losses than medium or high frequency noises. Thus, the "A" weighting would tend to underestimate the harmfulness of low frequency noise. However, epidemiologic surveys appear necessary to confirm this assumption.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1991, No.144, Note No.1843-144-91, p.485-492. Illus. 40 ref.
The University of New England (Armidale, Australia)
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss: Prevention and rehabilitation - Papers presented at a national seminar series, Nov. 1990
Full text of articles presented at a series of 1-day seminars dealing with occupational hearing loss (OHL) held in various parts of Australia in Nov. 1990. The articles were: History and politics of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (Noble W.); Occupational noise exposure, hearing impairment, and rehabilitation - An overview of the present situation in Australia (Waugh R.); Coping with OHL: The University of Montréal Acoustics Group Rehabilitation Program (Getty L., Hétu R.); Why is hearing impairment so debilitating? (Noble W.); The nature of handicaps associated with OHL: Implications for prevention (Hétu R., Getty L.); The Worksafe Australia National Strategy, community promotion campaign and workplace information materials for the prevention of NIHL (Waugh R.); Further questions and issues in prevention of occupational NIHL (Noble W., Hétu R., Getty L. Waugh R.).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Feb. 1991. iv, 111p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Noise in foundries: The selection of new machines and equipment
Training booklet suggesting purchasing criteria to be used by enterprises buying low-noise equipment for foundries. Contents: action to reduce noise from foundry equipment; legal requirements; a checklist of noise information; performance specifications. In annex: a specimen report.
Health and Safety Executive Enquiry Point, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1991. 7p. + insert. Illus. 6 ref.
A review of the non-auditory effects of noise on health
This paper reviews epidemiological studies, human experimental studies and animal research on the non-auditory effects of noise on health. The following topics are covered: vegetative responses (e.g. blood pressure, digestion), biochemical effects, excretion of catecholamines, sleep, physical illness, subjective annoyance, and mental health. Combined effects of noise and other occupational health hazards on physiological functioning and health are also reviewed. The results suggest that there are non-auditory health effects. However, these require confirmation in prospective, longitudinal studies with interventions reducing noise levels.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.5, No.1, p.49-62. 110 ref.
Acoustics - Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements - Part 2: Determination, verification and application of precision data
Acoustique - Mesurage de l'isolation acoustique des immeubles et des éléments de construction - Partie 2: Détermination, vérification et application des données de fidélité [en francés]
This part of international standard ISO 140 specifies procedures for assessing the uncertainty in acoustical measurements due to random and systematic influences described in ISO 140-3 to ISO 140-9. It gives guidance for the determination, verification and application of repeatability and reproducibility values.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 June 1991. 13p. 4 ref.
Bly S., Morison D.
Health and Welfare Canada, Health Protection Branch, Environmental Health Directorate
Guidelines for the safe use of ultrasound. Part II, Industrial and commercial applications
The guidelines, including exposure limit criteria, aim to assure the safe use of industrial and commercial ultrasound. The health effects are discussed under 2 main types, (1) contact exposure, and (2) airborne ultrasound, including: heating and cavitation mechanisms for non-auditory effects; auditory effects (hearing and physiological); subjective effects. Human exposure to ultrasound is also examined, including selected SPLs in dB for various occupations. Guidelines, for safe use are given, and a glossary appended. The publication is also available in a French language version.
Canada Communication Group - Publishing, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S9, Canada, 1991. 44p. Illus. 51 ref.
Stokes J.P., Royster L.H., Pearson R.G., Royster J.D.
Subjective evaluation of a prototype earmuff exhibiting flat and nonlinear attenuation characteristics
Subjective user reponses were obtained for a test earmuff exhibiting approximately flat (uniform) attenuation of about 25dB from 500 to 8000Hz for sound pressure levels (SPLs) less than 120dB. At SPLs above 120dB, the test earmuff exhibited nonlinear (level-dependent) attenuation characteristics such that noise reduction increased with increasing sound level. The study population consisted of police officers executing a series of firing programmes during two sequential and identical relays. The study subjects wore either the test earmuff or a comparable conventional earmuff during the first relay, then the alternate protector for the second relay with the order counterbalanced. Results indicated a significant preference for the test earmuff in three comparison areas: comfort, perceived hearing protection, and speech understanding. The study demonstrates that ammunition type and level of noise exposure contributed significantly to a preference in favor of the test earmuff. The subjects who used the quietest of the ammunition types rated the test earmuff significantly better than the remaining subjects with respect to speech understanding.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.52-60. Illus. 22 ref.
Cail F., Mouzé-Amady M.
Physical hazards and work with visual display units in industry - Experimental simulation
Nuisances physiques et travail sur écran en industrie - Simulation expérimentale [en francés]
This study investigated the behavioural and psychophysiological changes during a simulated process control task performed under single and combined physical stressors. Twenty-four subjects took part in the task on a visual display unit (VDU), in 4 experimental conditions: adequate lighting (control); noise; inadequate lighting; noise and inadequate lighting. Response times (performance), electroencephalogrammes, electro-oculogrammes and heart rate (vigilance indicators) were continuously recorded during the task. The main results show that the longest response times and the highest activation levels occurred in a multistressor environment. This suggests that combined inadequate lighting and noise impairs the operator's efficiency in process control on a VDU. Recommendations are made for improving the situation in such workplaces.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1816-142-91, p.71-77. Illus. 15 ref.
Ondet A.M., Barbry J.L.
Prediction of sound levels in cluttered industrial premises using RAYSCAT, an acoustical prediction software product
Prévision des niveaux sonores dans les locaux industriels encombrés à l'aide du logiciel d'acoustique prévisionnelle RAYSCAT [en francés]
This article describes the RAYSCAT computer model usable for the prediction of noise levels in cluttered premises. This model takes into account both the geometry of the room and the areas with different fittings. Experimental results obtained in a test room are presented and compared with those obtained by numberical simulation using the RAYSCAT model. There was a very good correlation between the experimental results and those obtained using RAYSCAT.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1813-142-91, p.41-53. Illus. 22 ref.
Sound Research Laboratories Ltd.
Noise control in industry
Contents of this textbook: fundamental principles (physics of sound, physiology and psychology of hearing, noise and the law, sound in rooms, sound insulation, vibration theory, sound and vibration measuring systems and techniques); basic noise control methods (noise control by planning and maintenance, noise control at source, use of enclosures, barriers, cladding, silencers, mufflers and attenuators, vibration control, noise control by room treatment); applications to particular problems (compressors and pumps, diesel engine noise, internal and external factory noise, electrical equipment, air moving systems, gas turbines, trucks and tractors, valve noise). Glossary.
Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1991. 419p. Illus. Index. Price: GBP 35.00.
Enfermedades del oído - Causas, síntomas y prevención
Information booklet aimed at workers. It covers the various health problems of hearing, their relationship to noise exposure and appropriate preventive measures.
ISSSTE, Av.Juárez No.134, 4o piso, Col. Tabacalera, C.P. 06030, México, D.F., Mexico, 1990 (?). 15p. Illus. 1 ref.
Acoustics - Hearing protectors. Part 1: Subjective method for the measurement of sound attenuation
Acoustique - Protecteurs individuels contre le bruit. Partie 1: Méthode subjective de mesurage de l'affaiblissement acoustique [en francés]
This international standard cancels and replaces ISO 4869:1981 (abstracted under CIS 82-378). Standard references and definitions are listed along with specifications for a subjective method for measuring sound attenuation of hearing protectors at the threshold of hearing: test signals; test site; test equipment; test subjects; test procedure; application force; reporting of data. Annex A: uncertainty of sound attenuation measurements.
International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1990. ii, 7p. 7 ref.
I - Noise and vibration from power-driven hand tools. II - Occupational hazards related to the use of certain power-driven tools and their prevention
I - Bruits et vibrations des machines portatives. II - Les risques professionnels liés à l'utilisation de certaines machines portatives et leur prévention [en francés]
Article I surveys the damage to the body or the nervous system that can be caused by noise and vibration from portable hand tools. Article II provides the results of a statistical study of 324 accidents involving the use of portable machines such as drills, hammers, staplers, saws, grinding machines etc. Tables summarize the circumstances of the accidents and the nature of the injury suffered. For each machine, the principal hazards and appropriate preventive measures are indicated. French and European legislation are surveyed.
Sécurité - sciences et techniques, Mar. 1990, No.92, p.49-52, and May 1990, No.94, p.42-47. Illus.
Nuccitelli G., Santonocito E.
Noise characteristics of motor hoes - Report and analysis of experimental tests under operational conditions
Parametri caratteristici della rumorosità prodotta dalle motozzappatrici - Rilievi ed analisi di prove sperimentali in condizioni operative [en italiano]
The purpose of these tests was to acquire more data on the noise emission of self-propelling holing machines, in order to define realistic limits for their noise emission. Six machines in the 4.6-8kW range were tested under operational conditions. Noise levels were high, rising to a peak of 95.6dB(A) for diesel-operated machines. Several noise-reduction methods are proposed.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.23-36. Illus. 10 ref.
Data sheet on conditions and levels of exposure to noise from planers in planing mill operations. Suggestions for noise control are described and design specifications for a planer enclosure are included.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6, Canada, 1990. 3p. Illus. 3 ref.
Noise reduction: Auto trimmers
Levels of noise exposure due to operation of auto trimmers in the sawmill industry are given and noise control recommendations presented. Design specifications for an auto trimmerman's noise control booth are provided.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6, Canada, 1990. 3p. Illus. 7 ref.
Noise reduction: Resaws
In this data sheet the cause of noise from resaws in sawmills is explained and noise control recommendations are provided. Design specifications for a noise insulated operator booth are given.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6, Canada, 1990. 3p. Illus. 2 ref.
Noise protection at the workplace - Present situation and trends
Lärmschutz am Arbeitsplatz - Stand und Tendenzen [en alemán]
Comparison of Swiss and European Community regulations and standards. Scale of noise exposure in Switzerland. Precedence of noise control over protective equipment. Noise measurement. Protective equipment (importance of correct fit and use). Prophylaxis. Services of the Swiss Accident Insurance Institute (SUVA).
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitssicherheit, Oct. 1990, No.5, p.7-10. Illus. 6 ref.
Lanas Ugarteburu P.M.
Plan de lucha contra el ruido - Protección de los trabajadores contra los riesgos derivados de la exposición al ruido
A plan for noise control in a small metalworking plant based on Spanish Royal Decree No.1316/1989 (see CIS 90-720) is presented. This plan includes measures concerning appropriate training and information, proper installation of machinery, sound and vibration isolation, and hearing protection. The detailed results of noise measurements taken before and after application of the plan show the efficiency of the measures taken. Tables and graphics are included.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1990, No.111, p.8-19. Illus.
Castella López J.L.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo
La normativa para la protección de los trabajadores frente al ruido
Survey of Spanish legislation (including standards) concerning the protection of workers against noise. Special attention is paid to Royal Decree No.1316/89 (see CIS 90-720). Legislation is discussed under the headings of: basic standards and thematic structure; sale of "noisy" machinery; evaluation and control of noise in the working environment; surveillance of the hearing of workers exposed to noise; hearing protection; registries of environmental and medical data and information and consultation with workers and their representatives. In addition to references to Spanish legislation, there are also references to EEC Directives and CEN and ISO Standards.
Salud y trabajo, 1990, No.77, p.25-37.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Lärm [en alemán]
Revised version of these regulations applying to enterprises where workers are exposed to noise (updating document abstracted under CIS 85-64). Contents: responsibilities of employers for the reduction of noise, provision of hearing protectors, elimination of accident risks due to noise, warning signs for noisy areas, work restrictions.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Jan. 1990. 15 + 15p.
Lanchas Alfonso I., Maldonado González J., Gómez Cano M.
Ultrasonidos - Riesgos para la salud en la exposición laboral
Historical overview, biophysical basis, and industrial applications of ultrasound are provided. Thermal, cavitation and mechanical effects, and interaction mechanisms of ultrasound with biological tissues are described. The physiological effects of air-transmitted ultrasound, both in experimental animals and man, and contact exposure to ultrasound are discussed. It is concluded that more epidemiological studies on the occupational risks of ultrasound are needed.
Salud y trabajo, 1990, No.80, p.41-45. Illus. 11 ref.
Thiery L., Meyer-Bisch C., Steunou M.T., Luong S.B.
Epidemiological assessment of hearing risk indicators in a group of workers exposed to partially impulsive industrial noise at levels between 87 and 90dB(A)
Evaluation épidémiologique d'un indicateur de risque auditif dans une population exposée à des bruits partiellement impulsionnels et de niveaux compris entre 87 et 90dB(A) [en francés]
The identification of a hearing risk indicator was researched among the workers of an automobile body-shop. The cross-sectional epidemiological survey involved 234 workers exposed to noise. The hearing risk level of the studied population was compared both with data from the literature and standardised estimates from ISO/DIS 1999.2 (or NF S 31-013). The "early warning indicator" (HTL 346), mentioned in the French legislation on medical control, showed a level of risk greater than that expected from the equal energy principle. This result is related in discussion to the partially impulsive nature of the noise.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.8, p.575-585. Illus. 31 ref.
Proceedings of the Association of Occupational Health, Hygiene and Safety of Strasbourg
Société de médecine, d'hygiène et de sécurité du travail de Strasbourg [en francés]
Papers on the following subjects were presented at the meeting of the Association of Occupational Health, Hygiene and Safety of Strasbourg (France), 23 Mar. 1990: the problem of noise in the construction industry; quality circles - group dynamics (a method of employee participation in the improvement of working conditions).
1990, Vol.51, No.6, p.459-464.
Probst W., Neugebauer G., Kurze U., Jovicic S., Stephenson U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Sound propagation in the workplace - Influence of space parameters - Comparison of calculated and measured results
Schallausbreitung in Arbeitsräumen - Einfluss der Raumparameter, Vergleich von Berechnungs- und Messergebnissen [en alemán]
In 16 manufacturing halls the noise levels emitted by a source of known sound power were measured along several sound propagation paths. The manufacturing halls differed in shape, size and acoustic properties. Comparison of the measured noise levels with those calculated by various methods yielded good agreement up to distances of 40m from the source. Sound direction, frequency or obstacles in the sound propagation path had hardly any influence on the noise levels.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 441p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 44.00.
Feierfeil P.J., Schaffert E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emissions by office and information processing equipment - Personal computers (networks) and printers
Geräuschemission von Geräten der Büro- und Informationstechnik - Arbeitsplatzcomputer (Mehrplatzsysteme) und zugehörige Druckeinrichtungen [en alemán]
This report describes the results of investigations into the determination of the noise levels of computer and business equipment; computers (multi-user systems) and related printing devices. Noise emission levels were determined for 9 different computers from 6 manufacturers and 13 printing devices under standard conditions. The results, especially in relation to the mode of operation and design details of a keying robot, were incorporated in the national standard DIN 45 635 Part 19 and into a European manufacturers' agreement (ECMA standard 74). The investigations revealed that the main noise sources in computers are the mechanical components, such as the streamer and diskette drives, and the fans of the central processing units. On average, noise level of printer and PC in an office are estimated at 56dB(A) compared to 65dB(A) in the case of a typewriter. Noise emission reductions of up to 10dB are achievable by improving the thermal design of the computers and selecting slow-running fans. Summaries in English, French, German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 63p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: DEM 14.00.
Harazin B., Grzenik J., Pawlas K., Kozak A.
The effects of noise on vision efficiency
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between intensity, noise duration and non-auditory effect represented by changes both in visual acuity and the near point of accommodation. Changes in vision efficiency determined by a black and white chess board were monitored during and after 1h exposures to 4 levels of noise: 90dB(A), 93dB(A), 96dB(A) and 99dB(A) and 2h exposure to 96dB(A). Results indicated that vision impairment can be attributed to a complex relationship between the intensity and the duration of exposure to noise.
Polish Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.2, p.163-169. Illus. 11 ref.
Pawlas K., Grzesik J., Witula R.
The effects of impulse noise on hearing
Impulse noise is a peculiar type of noise that retains its separate status, both as a physical phenomenon and as an adverse influence exerted upon human recipients. The ongoing research and numerous experiments with animals and industrial populations have not yet fully explained its nature. There are no clear-cut standards for measurement procedures or impulse evaluation, and no admissible intensity levels. A comprehensive review of both Polish and foreign literature on this subject shows that the following features have the most traumatising effect on hearing: peak value, impulse duration rate, spectrum composition, repetition frequency, equivalent energy leval, and total number of impulses.
Polish Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.2, p.153-162. 61 ref.
Exposure to noise from earphones of dictating machines
Die Geräuschbelastung durch Ohrhörer von Diktiergeräten [en alemán]
Measurement of noise exposure of audiotypists in 67 offices yielded values ranging from 65.2dB(A) to 95dB(A). Of the measurements, 16% were above 90dB(A) and 19.5% between 85-90dB(A). Exposure levels were higher at high background noise levels. Recommendations to prevent hearing damage among audiotypists include the provision of prophylactic audiometric examinations and the reduction of background noise.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Dec. 1990, Vol.40, No.12, p.385-390. Illus. 8 ref.
Gros E., Notbohm G.
Effects of combined exposure to noise and vibration on performance and subjective evaluation
Auswirkungen kombinierter Belastung von Lärm und Vibration auf Leistung und subjektive Einschätzung [en alemán]
The effect of noise of 75 and 100dB(A) alone and in combination with whole-body vibrations of 4 and 8Hz on the cognitive performance of 20 male volunteers was studied. The volunteers performed five-choice reaction tasks. The error rates were high at all combined exposures. They were highest at an exposure to 8Hz and 75dB(A). Response times were shortest at the exposure to 8Hz and 100dB(A), while they were rather long at exposure to 8Hz and 75dB(A). From these results it is concluded that the vibrations exert some compensatory effect.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, June 1990, Vol.16, No.2, p.89-95. Illus. 13 ref.
Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit
Act of 14 May 1990 on protection against harmful environmental effects of atmospheric pollution, noise, vibrations and other processes (Federal Law on the control of atmospheric pollution - BIm SchG) [Germany]
Gesetz zum Schutz vor schädlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geräusche, Erschütterungen und ähnliche Vorgänge (Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz - BIm SchG) [en alemán]
New version of the German law of 15 March 1974 concerning air pollution. Principal provisions of the law: I - Generalities (scope, definitions); II - Construction and operation of installations (subject or not subject to authorisation, emission and intake measurement, safety checks, technical committees on installation safety); III - Condition of installations; composition of materials, products, flammable substances, carburants and lubrificants; IV - Condition and functioning of vehicles; construction and repair of highways and railways; V - Monitoring of air pollution on federal territory; plans for air purification and noise reduction; VI - General provisions: implementation of European Community decisions; Commission on Major Hazards; nomination and duties of delegates; rights and duties of person in charge; final provisions.
Bundesgesetzblatt, 22 May 1990, Part I, p.881-901.
Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle
Order of 30 August 1990 on workplace sound reduction [France]
Arrêté du 30 août 1990 sur la correction acoustique des locaux de travail [France] [en francés]
The Order of 30 August 1990 (published in the Journal officiel of 27 September 1990) is issued in application of article R.235-11 of the French Labour Code. The provisions of the Order apply to the construction or the layout of premises designed to house machines and equipment likely to expose workers to daily noise levels of more than 85dB(A). An appendix describes a method for measuring the decrease in noise level as distance from source doubles.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1821-142-91, p.101 and 102.
Ergonomic aspects of the concepts of dose and energy equivalence with respect to unfavourable environmental factors
Ergonomische Überlegungen zur Dosismaxime bzw. zur Energieäquivalenz bei Umgebungsbelastungen [en alemán]
For assessment of exposure to heat or cold, the average temperature over 8h is used. Similarly, noise exposure is evaluated by the 8-h average energy equivalent noise level. Exposure to harmful substances is evaluated by the product of concentration and duration of exposure. Examples are used to illustrate that the actual burden on the human being is not always adequately reflected by these methods of measuring exposure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1990, Vol.40, No.11, p.338-354. Illus. 23 ref.
Ultrasound exposure in the workplace
L'exposition aux ultrasons en milieu de travail [en francés]
This general introduction to high frequency sounds defines the phenomenon and explains the units of measurement. Common occupational sources of exposure are given with their corresponding typical frequency levels (in kilohertz) and output power (in watts). The health effects of ultrasound exposure and methods of control are also included. Various international exposure limits are provided in a chart.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 12p. Illus. 13 ref.
Not just hearing damage - Psychological effects of noise in the working environment
Inte bara hörselskador - Psykologiska effekter av buller i arbetsmiljön [en sueco]
This report reviews the research on subjective, behavioural and psychophysiological effects of noise with emphasis on research relevant to noise problems in the working environment. Noise characteristics and other factors which influence these effects of noise are discussed. The aim is to provide a better empirical basis for those who work with problems of noise at levels below that which causes hearing damage.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 69p. Illus. 240 ref.
Reduction of noise in the sheet-metal working industry: great improvement for a small investment
Lärmminderung in der blechverarbeitenden Industrie: Kleiner Eingriff - grosse Wirkung [en alemán]
Primary and secondary noise reduction measures in sheet-metal plants of the home appliances industry are described using an eccentric press and a plate shear as examples. Partial enclosure of the drive of an eccentric press and installation of a low-noise clutch and brake unit led to a 7dB(A) reduction of the emitted noise level. Sound absorbing linings were installed at a plate shear to reduce impulse noise.
Industrie-Anzeiger, 1990, Vol.112, No.86, p.69-70, 72. Illus. 3 ref.
Heisel U., Rothmund J., Fiebig W.
Influence of gear modification on noise emissions by gear pumps
Einfluss der Zahnkopfrücknahme auf die Geräuschemissionen beim Betrieb von Aussenzahnradpumpen [en alemán]
The noise of gear pumps is mainly caused by interaction of the gear wheels. The benefits of tooth modification on noise emission were theoretically investigated. Noise measurements were carried out on three pumps with different designs. The pump with teeth shortened by 10µm was found to emit less noise than the other two pumps with either polished or abraded full-length teeth.
Maschinenmarkt, 1990, Vol.96, No.38, p.262-264, 266, 268. Illus. 8 ref.
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