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CIS 93-1346 Lazarus H., Sehrndt G.A., Jacques J.
European standards for occupational and machinery noise control
In view of the new approach of EEC Directives in avoiding trade barriers in the field of technical regulations there is a need for standards defining details of noise control and noise emission determination, declaration and verification. Standards will be available in time, being prepared as they are by joint efforts of international and European standard institutions. Review of the latest developments achieved in this field.
Safety Science, Nov. 1992, Vol.15, Nos.4-6, Special issue, p.375-386. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 93-1345 Mirbod S.M., Inaba R., Yoshida H., Nagata C., Komura Y., Iwata H.
Noise exposure level while operating electronic arcade games as a leisure time activity
Noise measurements were made in 3 selected electronic arcade game centres and 192 samples were taken in each location. The background noise was 61dB(A) and 64dB(C). When the electronic games were operating noise levels reached 88-90dB(A). Third octave bands analysis of sound pressure levels showed the most intense noise levels between 0.5 and 2.0kHz. These levels cause a 4-8dB temporary threshold shift at 4.0kHz in an individual with less than one hour of exposure. For the employees of the 3 game centers, the 8-hr equivalent continuous sound levels were in the range of 80.3-87.5dB(A), although their exposure time could not be exactly determined. Maximum noise levels should be limited to a reasonable level, either by the manufacturing or by the game centre owners. Education programmes in industry should inform employees about other factors outside the work that may affect their hearing; and for policy-making on hearing conservation, recreational warnings and standards should be established.
Industrial Health, 1992, Vol.30, No.2, p.65-76. 34 ref.

CIS 93-1344 Baret M.H.
Comparison of the efficiency and comfort of two personal protection systems against noise
Comparaison de l'efficacité et du confort de deux protecteurs individuels contre le bruit [en francés]
To evaluate the efficiency of a personal hearing protector it is necessary to consider not only its attenuation spectrum, but also its comfort level, because it might have to be worn for a long period of time. This study compared these two aspects in foam ear plugs and moulder ear protectors. Attenuation was better with the foam plugs, but moulded ear protectors also afforded sufficient protection. On the other hand, moulded ear protectors were more comfortable because of their better ergonomic design, and are recommended for this reason.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.125-129. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 93-1354 Thiéry L., Guiret A., Eloy J.
Textile spinning mills: Assessment of the risk of hearing loss due to noise exposure in the workshop
Filatures de fibres textiles. Estimation du risque de surdité dû à l'exposition aux bruits dans les ateliers [en francés]
The risk of hearing loss in workers exposed to noise in textile-spinning plants is documented by three studies: a noise exposure survey of 40 plants in five regions of France; an epidemiological study of hearing loss in 1,465 workers exposed to noise; an analysis of occupational hearing impairment with regards to worker's compensation. When considered together with the relationship established by French Standard NF S 31-013 (ISO 1999, CIS 90-299) between noise exposure and hearing loss, these studies help to estimate the magnitude of the occupational hearing loss risk.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1992, Note No. 1899-149-92, p.505-514. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1356 Fan noise
Bruit des ventilateurs [en francés]
Proceedings of an international symposium (Senlis, France, 1-3 Sep. 1992) organised with the sponsorship of the International Institute of Noise Control Engineering, and in collaboration with numerous bodies in France and elsewhere. Contents: key lectures; annotated bibliography; basic studies on axial fans; noise control in axial and mixed-flow fans; basic studies on centrifugal and cross-flow fans; noise control in centrifugal fans; prediction and similarity laws; system effects; measurement of airborne and ductborne noise; measurement of structureborne noise; ducts and silencers for fan noise control. Contributions are published in the original language only.
Centre technique des industries mécaniques, 52 avenue Félix-Louat, BP 67, 60304 Senlis, France, 1992. xi, 483p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Author index.

CIS 93-1355 Delhoume P., Vercammen M., Heringa P.
Société Peutz et Associés
Mechanical transmission noise. Study of the mechanisms of noise generation and of the means used to reduce it
Bruit des systèmes de transmissions mécaniques. Etude des mécanismes de génération du bruit et des moyens mis en œuvre pour le réduire [en francés]
Bibliographic review covering gear transmissions, belts, chains, drive shafts and couplings. The study characterised the principles of operation of these devices, noted the levels of noise emitted and identified the most important noise sources. For each type of transmission, it gives the effect of various factors on noise level, the possible ways of reducing noise emission, their cost and other consequences, and the possibilities of choosing one or another system of transmission.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1992. 110p. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 93-724 Decree No.72/92 of 28 Apr. 1992, establishing the general framework for the protection of workers against the risks of exposure to noise at work; Regulation No.9/92 of 28 Apr. 1992 relative to Decree No.72/92 [Portugal]
Estabelece o quadro geral de protecção dos trabalhadores contra os riscos decorrentes da exposição ao ruído durante o trabalho; Regulamenta o Decreto-Lei n°72/92 ... [en portugués]
The Decree modifies provisions of Decree 251/87 concerning noise (see CIS 90-1090) and it implements in Portuguese legislation Directive 86/188/EEC (see CIS 87-45) concerning exposure to noise at work. It essentially establishes the framework for the introduction of the Regulation. The Regulation concerns: general concepts and definitions (particularly of noise levels); general safety and health measures; evaluation of daily noise exposure; what to do when the action level and the exposure limit are exceeded; medical and audiometric surveillance of workers exposed to noise; hearing protection; noise emitted by work equipment; information and training of workers; keeping and consultation of records. In annex: noise measurement (methods and instruments); criteria for the selection and use of hearing protectors; indicative list of measures for the reduction of noise exposure at work.
In: Colectânea de Legislação - Segurança, higiene e saúde no trabalho - Instrumentos comunitários e legislação portuguesa, Serviço de Informação Científica e Técnica (SICT), Ministério do Emprego e da Segurança Social (MESS), Lisboa, Portugal, May 1992, p.LP 61-71.

CIS 93-887 Guillermain H., Lievin D., Cail F., Krawsky G.
Ergonomics of computer-aided work in the plant - Diagnosis of problems encountered by operators; Recommendations
Ergonomie du travail informatisé en atelier - Diagnostic des contraintes rencontrées par les opérateurs; Recommandations [en francés]
Twenty-six workplaces were studied. They applied different types of computer-aided tasks (process control, numerically-controlled machining, stock control, fault management, etc.). The data collected at each post were tabulated in a matrix designed to evaluate the appropriateness of the computer tool to the task. This report gives the principal results, interpreted on the basis of a factorial analysis of the data. Noise was an important factor: in several cases, the more poorly adapted a computer tool was to the task at hand, the more disruptive was the effect of the noise.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1992. 99p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1009 Kunov H., Dajani H.
Labour Canada
Field measurements of noise exposure from communication headsets
A method for the measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets is described. The method is based on the use of an acousto-mechanical model of the human head equipped with a microphone at the level of the eardrum. Results of sound level exposure measurements taken in various industries are presented and analysed by type of headset, nature of environment and location. The method was found to compare favourably with other methods, both in accuracy and efficiency. Appendices: Equipment list for field tests; equipment list for laboratory tests and validation experiments; raw data from validation experiments; definitions; amendment to the Canada Occupational Safety and Health Regulations (Canada Gazette, Part II, Vol.125, No.16); Regulatory impact analysis statement.
Artel Engineering, Division of 934533 Ontario Inc., 4 Princeton Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M8X 2E2, Canada, Aug. 1992. 121p. Illus. 24 ref. Index.

CIS 93-1001 Chen T.J., Chiang H.C., Chen S.S.
Effects of aircraft noise on hearing and auditory pathway function of airport employees
The effects of aircraft noise on the hearing and the auditory pathway function of 112 airport employees were studied. Audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were used to evaluate cochlear function and to verify the possibility of retrocochlear involvement. The typical audiogramme pattern of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was a dip at 3 or 4kHz and moderate hearing loss in the frequency range of 6 to 8kHz. Audiogramme results revealed that the prevalence rate of high-frequency loss in all employees was 41.9%. Incidence of NIHL was highest in maintenance workers (65.2%) and firemen (55.0%). For BAEPs, both click threshold and latencies showed that the impairment was most severe in maintenance workers and firemen. The degree of auditory damage coincided with job patterns. Furthermore, damage of both peripheral cochlear organs and the central auditory pathway by high-frequency aircraft noise exposure was confirmed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.613-619. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 93-655 Mobile walls - Rating of expected airborne sound insulation
A method is described by which a relation is established between the airborne sound insulation measured in the laboratory and the airborne sound insulation to be expected in the field. Annexes include a classification method for airborne sound insulation of mobile walls, guidelines for the selection of sound insulation and an example of general acoustical guidelines on how to achieve good results.
Nordtest, Postbox 111, 02101 Esbo, Finland, 1991. 4p.

CIS 93-654 Acoustical screens - Rating and classification
Methods are described for rating and classifying the sound attenuation and sound absorption of screens intended for use in large rooms without partitions in order to increase speech privacy or noise insulation between working positions. Previously measured values of sound attenuation and sound absorption are used to calculate the weighted screen sound attenuation and the sound absorption coefficient. These values are then used to calculate the relevant classes. Examples of the calculations are provided.
Nordtest, Postbox 111, 02101 Esbo, Finland, 1991. 7p. Illus.

CIS 93-643 Roure A.
Active noise control through acoustic absorption
L'absorption acoustique active ou "anti-bruit" [en francés]
In addition to traditional sound insulation techniques, this method employs noise elimination by noise. The principle is explained and the areas where it can be applied are reviewed (ventilation ducts, motor-engines, planes, acoustic helmets, exhaust silencers).
Médecine et hygiène, 23 dec. 1992, Vol.50, No.1960, p.3379-3382. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-642 Rabinowitz J., Hohmann B.
Noise and hearing acuity
Bruit et acuité auditive [en francés]
Review of the health effects of exposure to sounds of high intensity and of hearing protection standards. Typical values of exposure to noise in specific occupations in Swiss industry are given in a chart: woodworking, machining, construction industry, railway repair and maintenance, printing shops, bottling, weaving, leather goods, orchestra musicians. Swiss hearing protection programmes are discussed.
Médecine et hygiène, 23 Dec. 1992, Vol.50, No.1960, p.3374-3378. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 93-297 Danière P., Boulanger P., Donati P., Galmiche J.P.
Noise and vibration exposure at the fork-lift truck driver's station
Environnement acoustique et vibrations aux postes de conduite des chariots élévateurs [en francés]
The purpose of this study was to meet the need for noise and vibration standards at the fork-lift truck driver's station. A large number of vehicles were tested (81 were selected for acoustic environment testing and 77 for vibration testing) in order to cover the most commonly used types of machines in factories, ports and building sites. Analysis of noise exposure showed that drivers of thermally powered fork-lift trucks were likely to suffer hearing damage in case of intensive use. The study led to a new, simplified method for noise exposure evaluation which can be applied for labelling purposes of the trucks. Vibration measurements gave a picture of vibration exposure at the drivers' station and of the efficiency of seat suspension. Tested vertical seat suspensions frequently proved to be unsuitable. To avoid this situation and meet the requirements of European Directive 91/368/EEC (see CIS 89-1442 and CIS 92-25), a specific vibration test code for fork-lift trucks is proposed. Approximately 20 seats were tested in reference to the proposed standard; three proved efficient in reducing vibration levels on trucks with a capacity of five to ten tonnes, and eight on trucks with a capacity of less than five tonnes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1889-148-92, p.345-358. Illus. 16 réf.

CIS 93-306 Berg P.Å., Bråfelt O., Folkeson C.
Noise and vibration on board
Presentation of current practical methods of noise and vibration control in non-specialist terms, intended for everyone participating in shipbuilding (naval architects, marine engineers, shipbuilders, supervisory personnel, safety delegates and shipowners). It covers the sources and effects of noise, principles of damping, and specific solutions to apply to the four "noise areas" on board (the propeller and aft body, the engine room, the superstructure and other parts or areas, such as cargo handling equipment, ventilation and the hydraulic system).
Joint Industrial Safety Council, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 109p. Illus. Price: SEK 90.00 + VAT.

CIS 92-1774 Noise at the workplace - Hearing protection equipment [Netherlands]
Lawaai op de arbeidsplaats - Gehoorbeschermingsmiddelen [en holandés]
It is common knowledge that one's hearing becomes less acute with advancing years. This process is accelerated when someone is exposed for many years to high noise levels. Such a loss of hearing can have a substantial influence on speech intelligibility. Therefore the deterioration of hearing capacity must be avoided by: reduction of noise level at the workplace to below the level of 80dB(A) and by the use of hearing protectors. The requirements of hearing protection equipment are given in this directive. Together with information about the physiology of hearing and the characteristics of hearing protection equipment, recommendations are given about factors to be considered when selecting such equipment. Relevant regulations are explained. The instructions given in this booklet are partly supported by sections of decrees based on the Working Conditions Act of 1980 (see CIS 92-351).
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1992. 30p. Illus.

CIS 92-1773 Noise at the workplace - General aspects [Netherlands]
Lawaai op de arbeidsplaats - Algemeen [en holandés]
Since 1 August 1987 statutory regulations have been in force in the Netherlands to reduce hazardous noise at the workplace as much as possible. At the end of 1991, Directive 86/188/EEC (see CIS 87-45) of the European Communities concerning the protection of workers against noise was implemented into Dutch legislation. This resulted in some important modifications. In this directive the new provisions are given and explained in detail. The role of industry and of the Labour Inspectorate in the matter are described. Recommendations and instructions are given on noise measurement and on the interpretation of its results.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1992. 44p. Illus.

CIS 92-1876 Campo P.
Hearing: The cochlear amplifier - A survey of recent gains in understanding the physiology of hearing
Audition: l'amplificateur cochléaire - Synthèse des acquis physiologiques récents [en francés]
In France, the most common occupational disease is deafness. Therefore, the occupational physician must pay particular attention to workers' hearing. There are now new audiometric tests in existence, faster than traditional ones, such as the measurement and analysis of otoacoustic emissions and of changes in acoustic distortion. These screening tests rely principally on the physiological properties of the cochlea. The understanding of cochlear amplification and of otoacoustic emissions is essential to the proper application of these audiological tests, likely to enter universal use in the near future.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.49, p.15-22. Illus. 31 réf.

CIS 92-2031 Rivin E.I.
A laminated material for impact noise abatement and its applications
A thin-layered rubber-metal laminate is described which is characterised by extremely high allowable compression stresses as well as by deep, nonlinear load-deflection characteristics. These features result in substantial advantages for impact cushioning. Examples of the application of the material for production equipment and for power gears are described.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 1992, Vol.38, No.3, p.127-131. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 92-2030 Lee J., Swenson G.W.
Compact sound absorbers for low frequencies
The design of a compact and efficient sound absorbing structure constructed without porous material is described. The structure was designed as a simple resonator comprising a panel perforated with small holes backed by an air space. Its performance was predicted by a theoretical model and verified experimentally using a new facility designed to measure acoustic properties of materials at low frequencies. Test results show good agreement between theory and experiment and confirm that the extension of the proposed theory to the low frequency range is possible.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 1992, Vol.38, No.3, p.109-117. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 92-2041 Casali J.G., Park M.Y.
A regression-based methodology for efficient prediction of broadband attenuation of hearing protectors
Attenuation data were collected on 4 groups of 10 industrial workers each; each group was assigned to one of 4 hearing protection devices which the members used at work for six weeks. Regression models and probabilistic prediction intervals based on these data enabled conservative estimation of a noise reduction rating per subject by measurement of real-ear attenuation in only a single band (500 or 1000Hz). The approach has potential for implementation in the workplace, forecasting a worker's overall protection levels and determination of compliance with exposure limits.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 1992, Vol.38, No.3, p.97-108. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-2028 López Muñoz G.
Una visión actual de la estrategia comunitaria en la lucha contra el ruido en el lugar de trabajo
Following a conference on noise and vibrations organised by the Commission of the EEC and which took place in Wigan (UK) in January 1991, the strategy of the EEC for noise control in the workplace is analysed. Directives of the EEC concerning noise immision and emission are discussed. The main focus of the EEC strategy is on the reduction of noise emission, involving two actions: noise labelling and creation of a database on noise emission.
Salud y trabajo, 1992, No.91, p.26-34. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-1700 Neuberger M., Körpert K., Raber A., Schwetz F., Bauer P.
Hearing loss from industrial noise, head injury and ear disease: A multivariate analysis on audiometric examinations of 110,647 workers
Out of 260,917 Austrian workers who underwent a compulsory audiometric examination during the period 1976-1986, 110,647 were selected for this study on the basis of full-time exposure to well-defined noise >85dB(A) for a minimum of 6 months. The standardised audiogrammes and medical and occupational histories were analysed using loglinear and multiple linear regression. The most important factors for prediction of pure-tone hearing loss at 4kHz were found to be age, sex and noise immission level. For predicting speech impairment and handicap the history of ear disease, head injury and tinnitus were more important than noise immission level. Dose-response relationships are given to improve prevention and compensation of hearing loss from combined factors.
Audiology, 1992, Vol.31, p.45-57. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 92-1438 Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulations 1992 [Australia - Victoria]
These regulations (made on 30 June 1992, effective 1 July 1992) were issued under the Victoria Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1751), and they replace the Health (Hearing Conservation) Regulations 1978 (see CIS 92-1076). Contents: definitions; exposure standards (8h equivalent continuous sound pressure level: 85dB(A); peak hold sound pressure level: 140dB(lin)); design considerations; identification and assessment of exposure to noise; consultation prior to action under these Regulations; control of risk; hearing protection signs; audiometric testing; training; employee duties. In the schedule: sample form for summarising audiometric data.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 6p. (pages numbered 60,893 - 60,898).

CIS 92-1686 Pääkkönen R.
Effects of cup, cushion, band force, foam lining and various design parameters on the attenuation of earmuffs
Commercial and custom-made earmuffs were tested on volunteers by a miniature microphone method in an anechoic room and in a low-frequency chamber, and on a simulator in an acoustic tunnel. Changes in the cup or its foam lining improved attenuation by as much as 10dB. Changes in the material or shape of the cushion improved attenuation by up to 4dB. Effects of modifications were frequency-dependent. Breaks in the cushion or holes in the cup degraded attenuation by up to 30dB, whereas producing a gap between the cushion and the head degraded attenuation by less than 10dB. In practice, tight fit and an increase in sound absorption inside the cup were most important for improving sound attenuation.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.38, No.2, p.59-65. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 92-1351
Health and Safety Commission - Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Part 1 of this booklet presents a brief guide to the requirements for controlling noise at work under the Noise at Work Regulations (CIS 90-21) and outlines hazards of exposure to high noise levels; duties of employers to assess noise exposure, reduce noise levels, and provide information and hearing protectors to employees; duties of workers and machine makers. Part 2 presents specific information relating to the ceramics industry and suggests possible solutions for noise reduction and hearing protection for various processes.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 15p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 92-1350 Acoustics - Agricultural and forestry wheeled tractors and self-propelled machines - Measurement of noise emitted when in motion
Acoustique - Tracteurs agricoles et forestiers à roues et machines automotrices - Mesurage du bruit émis en mouvement [en francés]
This standard specifies a method for measuring the A-weighted sound pressure level of noise emitted by tractors with rubber tyres, the noise being measured while the tractor is in motion.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1992. 4p.

CIS 92-1341 Lester H.
The control of noise in the concrete products industry
This report deals with dominant noise sources in branches of the concrete products industry and indicates appropriate noise control measures. The use of hearing protection is also discussed.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. i-iv, 17p. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 95-1110 Gaynés Palou E., Goñi Gonzalez A.
Hipoacusia laboral por exposición a ruido: evaluación clínica y diagnóstico
En el sumario de esta nota informativa sobre la evaluación clínica y el diagnóstico de las hipoacusias profesionales originadas por la exposición a ruido: definición; evaluación clínica; diagnóstico de la hipoacusia originada por ruido; factores que influyen en la lesión auditiva (intensidad y frecuencia del ruido; duración de la exposición; susceptibilidad individual; edad; sexo; patologías del oido medio; naturaleza del ruido); evaluación porcentual del déficit auditivo (con una tabla que ilustra el método de cálculo del déficit auditivo monoaural, y la fórmula para el cálculo del déficit auditivo); diagnóstico; prevención médica.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 4p. Ilus. 8 ref.

CIS 95-732 Moliné Marco J.L., Solé Goméz M.D.
Audiometría tonal liminar: vía ósea y enmascaramiento
Contenido de esta nota informativa sobre las pruebas de la vía ósea y enmascaramiento en la audiometría tonal liminar: representación gráfica y audiometría de la vía ósea; efecto de enmascaramiento
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 5p. Ilus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-106 Control del ruido
Noise control [en inglés]
Contenido de esta guía de carácter didáctico, profusamente ilustrada, dirigida a los trabajadores: efectos patológicos del ruido; nociones básicas y terminología; aplicación de los principios de atenuación del ruido (funcionamiento del sonido; sonido emitido por las placas vibrantes; producción de sonido en el aire, gases y líquidos; propagación del sonido en un medio cerrado y en las canalizaciones o tuberías; sonido emitido por las máquinas vibrantes; atenuación del sonido por enclaustramiento); medidas de prevención técnica (modificaciones en las máquinas y equipos; manutención de los materiales; enclaustramiento de las máquinas; atenuación del sonido procedente de las superficies vibrantes; dispositivos de atenuación sonora; insonorización y separación de locales; mantenimiento; planificación de la lucha contra el ruido).
Worksafe Australia, GPO BOX 58, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia, 1991. v, 111p. Ilus.

CIS 94-1740 Acoustics - The construction and calibration of speech intelligibility tests
Acoustique - Elaboration et étalonnage des tests d'intelligibilité de parole [en francés]
This technical report is concerned with the description of: methods for the construction of speech tests for the measurement of the intelligibility of speech transmitted by an analog or combination analog and digital communication system; and a reference communication system and test conditions necessary to the development, calibration and interpretation of the results of standardized intelligibility tests. Detailed definitions of terms are presented along with recommended types of test materials and procedures for their preparation and calibration.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 Dec. 1991. 22p. 8 ref.

CIS 93-2027 Iwainsky H., Böhme U., Raupbach U.
Application of sound-absorbing mats made of rubber waste
Anwendung von Schalldämmatten aus Gummiabfällen [en alemán]
Sound-absorbing mats made of rubber waste retained their elastic properties to temperatures of -45°C, dissolved in hydrochloric acid rather quickly and were as flammable as other types of rubber. Their sound-absorbing properties (measured as insertion loss) depend on the mass per unit area. Applications include use in wall constructions, as flooring in train coaches, sound absorbing linings in machines and sound shields at workplaces.
Fertigungstechnik und Betrieb, 1991, Vol.41, No.2, p.107-109. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 93-1404 Legislative decree No.277 of 15.8.1991 - Implementation of Directives 80/1107/EEC, 82/605/EEC, 83/477/EEC, 86/188/EEC and 88/642/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work, according to Art.7 of Law 212 of 30.7.1990 [Italy]
D.L. 15.8.1991: Attuazione delle direttive ... della CEE, in materia di protezione dei lavoratori contro i rischi derivanti da esposizione ad agenti chimici, fisici e biologici durante il lavoro, a norma dell'art.7 della legge 30.7.1990, n.212 [en italiano]
This decree implements into Italian legislation, as directed by Law No.212 of 1990 (see CIS 91-701), the provisions of certain EEC directives (see CIS 81-1610, 83-1783, 84-327, 87-45 and 90-1430) dealing with the protection of workers against various hazards. Contents: general provisions; definitions; protective measures; obligations of employers, management, supervisors, workers and occupational physicians; removal of workers from exposure; particular protective measures (hazard evaluation, information of workers, medical surveillance, technical prevention, etc.) relating to metallic lead (Pb) and its ionic compounds (8h TWA TLV = 150µg/m3 air), asbestos (8h TWA TLV = 1f/cm3 for chrysotile, 0.2f/cm3 for other types), noise (requirement to wear hearing protection when exposure >90dB(A), hearing examination obligatory when exposure > 85dB(A)); penalties. In annex: list of jobs where Pb exposure is common; indicators for clinical control of Pb exposed workers; analytical methods for evaluation of Pb exposure and for measuring Pb and asbestos concentration in air; criteria for noise measurement and for evaluating hearing damage; methods for evaluating exposure to chemicals.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 27 July 1991, No.200, Supplement, 24p.

CIS 93-1403 Ordinance No.495 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 21 October 1991 modifying the Ordinance respecting maximum allowable concentrations and levels of harmful factors in the working environment [Poland]
Rozporządzenie 495 Ministra Pracy i Polityki Socjalnej z dnia 21 października 1991 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie najwyższych dopuszczalnych stężeń i natężeń czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy [en polonés]
This directive (effective from date of publication) modifies the exposure limits for five of the chemical products listed in Ordinance 417 of 1 Dec. 1989 (see CIS 93-1402) and adds 28 more. Provisions for two categories of inorganic dust are modified and six more are added. The paragraphs on noise and microclimate are modified. New paragraphs and tables of exposure limits are added for infrared, ultraviolet and laser radiation. The National Health Inspectorate is empowered to make or delegate measurements and to define test methods in the absence of Polish standards.
Dziennik Ustaw, 1991, No.114, p.1558-1563.

CIS 93-1358 The effects of occupational noise on hearing: Recent developments
There in an apparent contradiction between the results of two recent studies into the effects of noise on hearing ability. While some theoretical studies indicate that the effects of long-term noise exposure on hearing have been underestimated, a report on an audiometric study of miners indicates that a lifetime exposure to 90dB(A) has no adverse effect on hearing. The two sets of results are discussed along with their implications for the lowering of noise action levels for worker exposure and resulting cost implications for insurers and the insured.
The Loss Prevention Council, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HY, United Kingdom, Apr. 1991. 7p. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1357 The Noise at Work Regulations 1989 and their insurance implications
This circular describes the background to the British Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21) and outlines the duties imposed by them on employers, employees and makers and suppliers of equipment. New requirements for noise exposure measurement, hearing monitoring, engineering controls, personal protection, etc., may lead to extra costs for employers. Increasing awareness of the problems caused by excess workplace noise combined with the lowering of noise exposure action levels could result in an increase in insurance claims.
The Loss Prevention Council, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HY, United Kingdom, Apr. 1991. 6p. 12 ref.

CIS 93-793 Lawton B., Walker J.
Unit: Harmful noise - Module: Legal and organisational aspects of noise
Training module designed for home study, replacing the module analysed under CIS 88-1846. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are six segments: introduction to noise legislation in the United Kingdom; outline of the legal framework; noise regulations ancient and modern; the 1989 Regulations (Noise at Work Regulations 1989, see CIS 90-21) as viewed by the noise assessor; noise nuisance; future trends in noise levels, standards and legislation (with reference to European Communities directives and actions).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1991. 91p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1013 Danière P., Boulanger P., Donati P., Galmiche J.P.
Acoustic and vibrational environment of the driver station of fork-lift trucks
L'environnement acoustique et vibratoire au poste de conduite des chariots élévateurs [en francés]
A study of the noise emitted at the driver station of 81 fork-lift trucks showed the existence of a noise hazard for a high proportion of the drivers of fork-lifts with internal combustion engines. Measurements were made by the methods of fire standards or proposed standards. Comparison of the results with measurements of operator exposure enabled a critical evaluation of the methods. A new procedure for evaluating noise hazard is proposed. Measurements made on 67 models of fork-lift for factories or docks and 10 models for construction sites gave an overview of the vibration to which drivers are subject and to evaluate the suspensions of the seats in use. The vertical suspensions of the seats are frequently inadequate.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 1991. 171p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1012 Thomé J.P.
Contribution to the study of acoustic transmission through a slit of finite length. Application to the study of noise leakage from industrial machine enclosures
Contribution à l'étude de la transmission acoustique à travers une fente de longueur finie. Application à l'étude des fuites acoustiques sur les encoffrements de machines industrielles [en francés]
Thesis. Enclosures are often used in industry to reduce machine noise. They are rarely in one piece, and often allow noise leakage that reduces their effectiveness. Two analytical models were studied and applied to the calculation of the noise attenuation index of a wall with a rectangular slit. A parametric study showed the influence of aperture geometry and incident wave frequency. The spatial distribution of the acoustic energy transmitted by the slit is described. A numerical model enables calculation of the directivity of radiation in the cases of normal and oblique incidence. The latter case is also described by a stationary phase integral at high frequencies; a relation is established between the principal axis of radiation and the angle of incidence. These models were validated on a test bed, and the importance of aperture geometry on the quantity and spatial distribution of transmitted energy.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1991. 258p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1005 Victoria Jumilla F., Viviente López E., Clemente Ibañez M., Cerrada Delgado M.C., Espinosa Lozano F.J., Sánchez Ferrero F., Monasterio Acha R., Serrano Castro M.B.
El ruido - La sordera
Five articles on noise and its effects on hearing: (1) Response of the population to a survey on environmental noise in urban centres of Murcia. (2) Occupational hearing loss. (3) Effects of work in a noisy environment on hearing. (4) Industrial noise as an occupational pathology. (5) Pathology of noise. The articles cover topics such as: physical characteristics of noise and its potential to induce disorders, in particular occupational deafness; evaluation and control of noise in the working environment; protection of workers against noise; the importance of prevention; studies carried out in various Spanish enterprises. Tables are included.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.- June 1991, Vol.38, No.152, p.3-43. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1011 Asselineau M., Ravenstijn A., Heringa P., Danière P., Arbey H.S.
Noise from gas distribution circuits in the steel industry - Inventory of potential sources
Bruit des circuits de transport de gaz dans l'industrie sidérurgique - Inventaire des sources sonores potentielles [en francés]
An inventory of noise sources in these circuits was conducted at a number of steelworks. Measurements were made on the blast-furnace lines, on the agglomerating or coking units and on the oxygen supply system. The main sources of noise were fans and control valves, where sound levels often exceeded 85dB(A). Other external noise sources were identified, such as the air intakes of the fans and compressors (sound level above 85dB(A) at 1m). The piping was not an important source of radiation: the level of radiated sound was generally below that of ambient noise.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 1991. 77p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-817 Zhao Y., Zhang S., Selvin S., Spear R.C.
A dose response relation for noise induced hypertension
The effect of industrial noise on the prevalence of hypertension was studied in 1101 female workers in a textile mill in Beijing in 1985. The noise levels within the plant appear to have been constant since 1954, resulting in well defined noise exposures for these workers. The study indicates that exposure to noise is a significant determinant of prevalence of hypertension, but third in order of importance behind family history of hypertension and use of salt. Each of the predictor variables exerted an independent influence on risk of hypertension. Cumulative exposure to noise was not an important dose related variable suggesting that, for those susceptible to the effect, hypertension was manifested within the first five years of exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.48, No.3, p.179-184. 19 ref. Illus.

CIS 93-653 Sound signalling devices - Acoustic emission
This method primarily specifies the way in which the acoustic properties of sound signalling devices are to be tested and is applicable to both indoor and outdoor warning systems. Contents: definitions; instrumentation; presentation of results; test conditions (choice of test site, ambient conditions, mounting of sound units, power supply, microphone positions, test procedure); measurement of acoustic characteristics; test report.
Nordtest, Postbox 111, 02101 Esbo, Finland, 1991. 7p.

CIS 93-644 Pääkkönen R., Vienamo T., Järvinen J., Hämäläinen E.
Development of a new noise helmet
A prototype for a new noise helmet was developed because high noise levels were not sufficiently attenuated by commercially available helmets. The new helmet was designed to be tight, especially in the area of the throat and face, and to cover the entire head. The noise attenuation properties of the new helmet were tested against pink noise in an anechoic room, jet engine noise, and low-frequency noise with the test subjects wearing a miniature microphone under the protector. The new helmet provides insertion loss of over 50dB, which is 18-29dB more attentuation than that of the tested earmuffs in the frequency range of 1-8kHz. It is also better (8-13dB) than the tested earmuffs at frequencies of 125-1000Hz, and it protects against air impurities because the air fed into the helmet is filtered.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1991, Vol.52, No.10, p.438-444. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 93-476 Marvel M.E., Pratt D.S., Marvel L.H., Regan M., May J.J.
Occupational hearing loss in New York dairy farmers
A study of 49 randomly selected, full-time dairy farmers was performed to assess the prevalence and nature of hearing loss in this population. An age- and sex-matched group of rural non-farmers was also studied. Medical, occupational, and recreational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was administered. Sixty-five percent of farmers had hearing loss in the higher frequencies and 37% had losses in the mid-frequency range as compared to 37% and 12% of non-farmers respectively (p<.01). The age of the subjects and the number of years spent farming were highly correlated with hearing loss. Correlation and regression analyses supported the hypothesis that the difference in the prevalence of hearing loss between the dairy farmers and the non-farmers was due to occupational noise exposure on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.4, p.517-531. Illus. 10 ref. Appendix.

CIS 93-111 de Gier E.
Implementation of EC directives on working conditions and product safety: Possibilities and limitations - Report of an international comparison related to France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark and the Netherlands
This study reports on comparative research into the ways EC member States translate EC directives into national legislation. Three directives on working conditions and product safety were investigated: 86/188/EEC (on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to noise at work, CIS 87-45), 89/391/EEC (on the introduction of measures to encourage improvement in the safety and health of workers at work, CIS 89-1401) and 89/392/EEC (on the approximation of the laws of the member States relating to machinery, CIS 89-1442). The process of implementing these directives was studied in five member States of the EEC. Despite joint agreements, directives are being implemented in different ways in the various member States. In the United Kingdom and Denmark, there is a clear preference for implementation in as flexible a way as possible. Other countries prefer to implement directives in a strictly formal way (France, and to a lesser extent, the Federal Republic of Germany). The approach of the Netherlands is roughly half-way between the two described above. In annex: the questionnaire form on which the survey is based; the text of the three directives concerned.
Hugo Sinzheimer Institute (University of Amsterdam), P.O. Box 1030, 1000 BA Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1991. 95p. + annexes. Illus.

CIS 92-2042 Wittenbecher R.
Noise exposure of pilots in the cockpit of jet aircraft
Die Schallbelastung der Piloten im Cockpit von Strahl-Verkehrsflugzeugen [en alemán]
Measurements with an artificial head in the cockpit of 7 different types of jet aircraft identified radio communication using headphones as a major noise source for pilots. The average noise level from this source was above 105dB(A), with peak levels extending to 127dB(A). The risk of hearing damage for pilots was confirmed from random samples of audiogrammes and through notifications of occupationally-induced hearing damage. Speech-filter type earplugs tested by pilots were welcomed by the majority of pilots older than 30 years.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Sep. 1991, Vol.45, No.3, p.159-167. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 92-2044 Schwarze S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Long-term noise exposure and health
Langjährige Lärmbelastung und Gesundheit [en alemán]
A group of 164 workers with hearing impairment was interviewed to determine the occupational noise exposure. In addition, extensive medical examinations were performed. No significant relationship was found between systolic blood pressure and hearing loss. Systolic blood pressure was more closely associated with subjectively perceived noise annoyance than with the average life-time noise exposure level. For a group of 547 workers in the German iron and steel industry the causes of sickness absenteeism were determined. No connection with noise exposure could be found. In annex: sample questionnaire for medical diagnosis; incidence of past and present pathologies; results of clinical and audiometric examinations in 164 subjects suffering from hearing impairment; sample questionnaire on noise exposure. Detailed summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 300p. Illus. ca. 350 ref. Price: DEM 44.00.

CIS 92-2032 Tobias J.V.
Effects of underwater noise on human hearing
Hearing conservation for divers and swimmers has been overlooked nearly everywhere in the world. Because submerging a listener changes his or her auditory physiology dramatically the research on which are based exposure limits for airborne noise are not relevant under water. So far, little research has been done for the development of a damage-risk standard for underwater noise exposure. The value of Poland's marine industries and the motivation of its audiologists make Poland and ideal country in which to accomplish this research and to lay the foundation for national and international standards.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.2, p.153-157. 3 ref.

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