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  • Noise

1993

CIS 97-642
Health and Safety Executive
Ruido en la construcción: Consejos avanzados sobre las Normativas sobre el Ruido en el Trabajo de 1989
Noise in construction: Further guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 [en inglés]
Este folleto subraya las responsabilidades de los patronos en la industria de la construcción en lo concerniente a: evaluación y reducción de los niveles de ruido; provisión de protectores auditivos; información a los trabajadores sobre los niveles de exposición personal; señalización de las zonas de protección auditiva. La responsabilidades de los empleados incluyen: utilización y mantenimiento de protección auditiva y otros equipos de protección, y la notificación de posibles daños auditivos.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, nov. 1993. 6p. Ilus. 5 ref.

CIS 96-1206 Ruido emitido por la maquinaria de cortar hierba [Suecia]
Buller från gräsklippare [en sueco]
Este Reglamento, adoptado el 21 de septiembre de 1993 transpone, en la legislación sueca, las Directivas 84/538/CEE, 87/252/CEE, 88/180/CEE, 88/181/CEE, 79/113/CEE (CIS 95-1193) y 81/1051/CEE (CIS 95-1194). Puntos tratados: aplicación y definiciones; condiciones para su comercialización; límites sonoros de exposición; declaración de conformidad; marcado; disposiciones especiales; recomendaciones para la aplicación de la orden. En anexos del 1 al 4: materiales artificiales para suelos; métodos de determinación de los niveles sonoros; formulario tipo de declaración de conformidad respecto al ruido; ejemplos de pictogramas para los niveles sonoros.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Suecia, 1993. 36p. Ilus.

CIS 96-1205 Ruido emitido por la maquinaria para movimiento de tierras [Suecia]
Buller från jordförflyttningsmaskiner [en sueco]
Este Reglamento adoptado el 21 de septiembre de 1993 transpone, en la legislación sueca, las Directivas 86/662/CEE (CIS 90-382), 89/514/CEE (CIS 91-26), 84/532/CEE, 79/113/CEE (CIS 95-1193) y 81/1051/CEE (CIS 95-1194). Puntos tratados: aplicación y definiciones; condiciones para su comercialización; homologación de tipo; límites sonoros de exposición; declaración de conformidad; marcado; disposiciones especiales; recomendaciones para la aplicación de la orden. Anexos del 1 al 7: formularios estándar para la homologación de tipo; métodos de determinación de los niveles sonoros; formulario tipo de certificado del nivel sonoro; formulario tipo para la declaración de conformidad respecto al ruido; ejemplo de pictogramas para los niveles sonoros.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Suecia, 1993. 36p. Ilus.

CIS 96-1204 Ruido de los compresores y los grupos electrógenos de soldadura y de energía [Suecia]
Buller från kompressorer, svetsgeneratorer och kraftgeneratorer [en sueco]
Este Reglamento, adoptado el 21 de septiembre de 1993, transpone en la legislación sueca, las Directiva 84/5r34/CEE (CIS 95-1195), 85/406/CEE, 84/535/CEE (CIS 95-1197), 85/407/CEE, 84/536/CEE (CIS 95-1198), 85/408/CEE, 84/532/CEE, 79/113/CEE (CIS 95-1193) y 81/1051/CEE (CIS 95-1194). Puntos tratados: aplicación y definiciones; condiciones de comercialización; homologación de tipo; límites sonoros de exposición; declaración de conformidad; marcado; disposiciones especiales; recomendaciones para la aplicación del Reglamento. Anexos 1 al 5: formularios estándar para la homologación de tipo; método de determinación del nivel sonoro; método de dosimetría del aire de los compresores; formulario tipo para la certificación del nivel sonoro; formulario tipo para la declaración de conformidad respecto al ruido; ejemplo de pictograma para los niveles sonoros.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Suecia, 1993. 36p. Ilus.

CIS 96-1203 Ruido de las grúas de torre [Suecia]
Buller från tornkranar [en sueco]
Este Reglamento, que se adoptó el 21 de septiembre de 1993 transpone, en la legislación sueca, las Directivas 84/534/CEE (CIS 95-1196), 87/405/CEE (CIS 87-1171), 84/532/CEE, 79/113/CEE (CIS 95-1193) y 81/1051/CEE (CIS 95-1194), cubriendo los puntos siguientes: aplicación y definiciones; condiciones necesarias para la comercialización; homologación de tipo; límites sonoros de exposición; declaración de conformidad; marcado; disposiciones especiales; recomendaciones para la aplicación de la orden. En los anexos del 1 al 7: formulario estándar para la homologación de tipo; método para la determinación del ruido de las grúas de torre; método de dosimetría de la exposición del conductor al ruido; formulario tipo de certificado del nivel sonoro; formulario tipo para la declaración de conformidad respecto al ruido, modelo de señalización indicadora del nivel sonoro de las grúas.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Suecia, 1993. 40p. Ilus.

CIS 96-1020 Loyau T.
Dispositivos automáticos de medición acústica y vibratoria para el estudio experimental de la radiación acústica de las estructuras
Dispositif automatique de mesure de grandeurs acoustiques et vibratoires pour l'étude expérimentale du rayonnement acoustique des structures [en francés]
La evolución de las tecnologías en los sectores de la electrónica y la informática han modificado profundamente las herramientas de las que pueden disponer los diseñadores de máquinas, especialmente en el campo del control de las vibraciones y el ruido. Este informe describe una instalación utilizada para estudiar maquinaria más o menos compleja con una fuente de vibración y ruido que podía ser mecánico, acústico o mixto. Se muestran descripciones detalladas de las salas de medición, el montaje de las estructuras estudiadas, los dispositivos de desencadenamiento de ruido o vibración, el sistema automático de medición y los muestreadores utilizados.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 40 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75860 Paris Cedex 14, Francia, dic. 1993. 51p. Ilus. 7 ref. ###

CIS 95-1953 Directiva sobre el ruido en el medio laboral - Reglamentación y comentarios [Noruega]
Forskrift - Støy på arbeidsplassen: Forskrifter med kommentarer [en noruego]
Este reglamento, (entrado en vigor el 1 de enero de 1994, fecha en la que Noruega pasó a formar parte del espacio económico europeo) transpone en Noruega los requisitos mínimos de la Directiva 86/188/CEE (ver CIS 87-45) y sustituye al Reglamento de 1982 sobre el ruido (CIS 85-658). En él se fija el límite de exposición al ruido durante una jornada laboral de 8 horas para tres tipos de actividad laboral; los trabajos que requieren un alto grado de concentración mental (nivel máximo admisible: 55 dB(A); los trabajos que requieren una comunicación verbal o una gran precisión y un nivel de atención mantenido: 70 dB(A); los trabajos que requieren la utilización de un material ruidoso. (85 dB(A)). Los límites recomendados expuestos a niveles acústicos continuos equivalentes 85 dB(A) o a niveles de picos 130 dB(C) deben utilizar protección auditiva. A la hora de la elección e instalación de los equipos técnicos debe tenerse en cuenta la necesidad de limitar la emisión sonora. Si el empresario tuviera razones para pensar que el nivel de ruido tiene riesgo de superar los límites recomendados, deberá proceder a realizar mediciones del ruido para adoptar las medidas adecuadas en orden a reducir la exposición. Todos los trabajadores expuestos a niveles de ruido 80 dB(A) o 130 dB(C) deberían someterse a exámenes audiométricos con periodicidad anual. Comentarios detallados.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Noruega, set. 1993. 20p. Ilus.

CIS 95-1191 Ruido producido por los trituradores de hormigón y los martillos-picadores utilizados manualmente [Suecia]
Buller från maskindrivna handhållna betongspett och mejselhammare [en sueco]
Esta Directiva es conforme a la Directiva Comunitaria 84/537/CEE (CIS 95-1199). En ella, se señala el procedimiento a seguir para la aprobación y el marcado de las herramientas en lo que respecta al ruido. Los niveles sonoros admisibles están comprendidos entre 108 y 114 dB(A) según las dimensiones de la herramienta. Anexo: recomendaciones para la dosimetría-metrología y la consignación de los resultados.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Suecia, 29 nov. 1993. Ilus. 33p.

CIS 95-712 Kirk P.
Eficacia de las orejeras contra el ruido de las sierras de cadena a lo largo de un año
Earmuff effectiveness against chainsaw noise over a 12-month period [en inglés]
A lo largo de un año, se realizó un estudio para medir la capacidad reductora que podían alcanzar las nuevas orejeras Peltor H7P3 de tipo 4 montadas en un casco, sobre el nivel sonoro de las sierras de cadena que llega a los oidos de los trabajadores forestales. Las mediciones del grado de atenuación indicaron que las orejeras antiruido aseguraban a los leñadores una protección eficaz durante todo el período de prueba, a pesar de que al término de los 12 meses se había señalado una disminución del grado de atenuación. En cualquier caso, un gran número de orejeras habrían tenido que ser reemplazadas antes de finalizar el período de 12 meses debido a las incomodidades que producían por el deterioro de las almohadillas.
Applied Ergonomics, ago. 1993, vol.24, n°4, p.279-283. Ilus. 6 ref.

CIS 95-157 Sociedad de Medicina del Trabajo y Ergonomía de Burdeos y su región - Sesiones de los días 11 de diciembre de 1992, 15 de enero, 12 de febrero y 19 de marzo de 1993
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances des 11 décembre 1992, 15 janvier, 12 février et 19 mars 1993 [en francés]
Temas de las comunicaciones presentadas con ocasión de las sesiones celebradas los días 11 dic., 1992, 15 enero, 12 febr. y 19 marzo, 1993 por la Sociedad de Medicina del Trabajo y Ergonomía de Burdeos y su región (Francia): médicos del trabajo y trabajadores empleados en el sector de alimentación; aplicación en las empresas del Decreto francés del 29 de mayo, de 1992 relativo a la prohibición de fumar en lugares de uso público; nuevas técnicas de exploración funcional - interés en la medicina del trabajo; cualificaciones en medicina del trabajo; pruebas del progreso ético en medicina del trabajo; estudio del ruido y del sonido de resonancia en la audición de trabajadores expuestos en una estación de clasificación de la SNCF; evaluación de un indicador de la carga de trabajo y del envejecimiento; informe de aptitud de trabajadores destinados a vivir en el extranjero.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, vol.54, n°8, p.682-694.

CIS 94-2078 Kitazawa S., Shimada T., Yanagisawa T.
Noise generated by an electronic parts feeder and its abatement
Denshi buhin kyokuki kara no soon to sono taisaku [en japonés]
Vibrating parts feeders are widely used in industry. The type considered here dispenses electronic components. The parts are kept moving through the feed hopper by the vibration of an alternating-current solenoid. In the original design, two feeders each driven by its own solenoid, were mounted on a single base, which rested on the floor. When the two were mounted on a plate that was separated from the base by rubber spacers and were driven by one off-centre solenoid, noise emission was reduced by 14-15dB.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, 1 Feb. 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 94-1741 Improving workplace acoustics. Notes on the implementation of the Order of 30 August 1990
Correction acoustique des locaux de travail. Commentaires pour une mise en œuvre de l'arrêté du 30 août 1990 [en francés]
This data sheet, designed to improve the implementation of the order of 30 August 1990 (see CIS 91-1776) (Journal officiel, 27 September 1990), issued in application of article R.235-2-11 (formerly R.235-11) of the French Labour Code, related to the improvement of workplace acoustics, explains some of the terms used in the order. The order of 30 August 1990 and article R.235-2-11 of the French Labour Code are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1931-151-93, p.337-339.

CIS 94-1718 Casali J.G., Park M.Y.
Laboratory versus field attenuation of selected hearing protectors
Comparaison de l'affaiblissement obtenu en laboratoire et sur le terrain avec différents protecteurs auditifs [en francés]
Two studies, each using 40 subjects and 4 hearing protection devices (HPDs), of which 3 were common to both studies, were conducted to determine real-ear spectral noise attenuation in a controlled laboratory environment and in industrial field settings. On average, the laboratory attenuation results obtained after the subject underwent the work activity tasks overestimated the field performance by 8.3dB (under the subject-fit) and 5.7dB (under the trained-fit) for the foam plug, and by 10dB and 6dB, respectively, for the premoulded plug. In contrast, the laboratory results provided much better predictions of field protection for the earmuff. Close examination of the data suggests that a naive subject-fit protocol in the laboratory may yield attenuation results closest to those of well-trained users in the field. Translation of an article that appeared originally in Sound and Vibration, 1991, Vol.25, No.10, p.28-38.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1927-151-93, p.293-303. 20 ref.

CIS 94-1597 Murata M., Takigawa H., Sakamoto H.
Teratogenic effects of noise and cadmium in mice: does noise have teratogenic potential?
The teratogenicity of combined exposure to noise and cadmium was studied in mice. Although combined treatment with cadmium and noise resulted in an increase in total percentages of malformed foetuses compared to the same dose of cadmium alone, the interactions between cadmium and noise showed no synergistic effect on teratogenicity. The magnitude of teratogenicity due to noise is much weaker than that of cadmium, and is therefore easily masked by that of cadmium in statistical tests of the significance of differences.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1993, Vol.39, No.2, p.237-245. 25 ref.

CIS 94-1553 Schmuckli F.
Personal hearing protection
Der persönliche Gehörschutz [en alemán]
La protezione individuale dell'udito [en italiano]
La protection individuelle de l'ouïe [en francés]
This booklet describes noise, how it is measured and how its measurement is evaluated, effects of noise exposure, legal basis for the prevention of hearing loss due to noise exposure, different types of hearing protection, noise insulation (limit values in Switzerland; measures to be taken in view of the EC Directive); adoption of the new single number rating to be applied to hearing protective devices. A review of different hearing protection equipment is given. Acoustic communication in noisy surroundings is explained. Swiss regulations on the subject are reviewed. A chapter is devoted to the reluctance of workers to wear hearing protection equipment.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 61p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 94-1728 Probst W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Sound propagation in factory halls: Influence of room parameters - Part 2. Comparison of calculations and measurements
Schallausbreitung in Arbeitsräumen II: Einfluss der Raumparameter - Vergleich von Berechnungs- und Messergebnissen [en alemán]
Noise propagation was measured in 115 machine shops, including new and old buildings with and without sound absorbing facilities. Results were compared with the sound decay curves predicted by 12 models of sound propagation. Statistical evaluations of the results obtained at distances between 5 and 16m from a steadily emitting source yielded a standard deviation of 1.8dB between the calculated sound pressure levels and the measured ones. For Part I, see CIS 92-1699. Summaries in French, German and English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. iv, 96p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: DEM 21.50.

CIS 94-1737 Dupuis B., Koch J.
Determination of noise emission by stationary concrete block shaping machines and the state of noise reduction
Bestimmung der Geräuschemission von stationären Steinformmaschinen und Stand der Lärmminderung [en alemán]
Four types of shaping machines were identified as being used most frequently in the manufacture of concrete blocks. The sound pressure levels and impulse noises associated with the use of >100 representative shaping machines produced between 1980 and 1989 were measured. The sound pressure levels ranged from 99 to 126dB(A). Acoustic enclosures were found to be the best available method of noise control for these machines. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 142p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: DEM 27.00.

CIS 94-1727 Noise reduction measures in the cement industry
Massnahmen zur Lärmminderung in der Betonindustrie [en alemán]
When shaping machines are used for the manufacturing of paving blocks, concrete slabs and pipes, noise reduction at the source by design modifications of the machinery is not sufficient. Noise levels still amount to between 110 and 125dB. Only acoustic enclosures bring noise exposure down to levels below 85dB(A). Examples of efficient enclosures are presented.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.103, NO.6, p.45-50, 52. Illus.

CIS 94-1725 Häuser
Reducing the noise emission by metal shuttering in plants manufacturing prefabricated concrete elements
Lärmminderung an Stahlschalungen in Beton-Fertigteilwerken [en alemán]
Noise sources in manufacturing plants for prefabricated concrete elements were determined. Through the elimination of all loose joints on existing metal shuttering and the use of silenced concrete vibrators, noise level reductions of 15 to 18dB(A) could be achieved. The noise exposure of workers was lowered from 110 to between 90 and 95dB(A).
Mitteilungen der Südwestlichen Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, No.2, p.21-24. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 94-1373 Carter N.L., Upfold G.
Comparison of earphone and sound field methods for estimating noise attenuation of foam earplugs
The Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) of E-A-R (slow recovery) foam earplugs was determined by three methods of presentation of the test tones during a single fitting of the earplug. The methods were (a) sound-field listening; (b) TDH49 earphone mounted in the shell of a circumaural earmuff; and (c) TDH49 earphone in a Model 51 cushion. Thresholds were tested once under each condition. The mean REAT obtained by the reference (sound field) method could be reliably estimated by both earphone methods for frequencies up to and including 4.0kHz. However, the sound field REAT values of individual subjects could not be predicted reliably from their REAT determined by either type of earphone presentation. Thus, TDH49 earphones in standard audiometric earcushions could be used to check the overall effectiveness of slow recovery foam earplugs in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.307-312. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 94-1390 Mirbod S.M., Tambara K., Fujita S., Yoshida H., Nagata C., Komura Y., Inaba R., Iwata H.
Survey on noise exposure level in an aluminium can manufacturing plant
This study was designed to quantify noise exposure of labourers at various sections of an aluminium can production plant: cupping press, drawing press, printing, inside spray coating, control room. The spectral analysis of noise indicated that high levels of noise associated with high frequency noise exceeded the permissible limit against hearing damage (85dB(A)), and it generally amounted to levels higher than 90dB(A), whereas noise levels inside the control rooms were in the range of 54-60.5dB(A). The A-weighted equivalent continuous noise exposure levels (dB(A)) during an 8h shift were mostly higher than the prescribed limit. By preliminary audiometric examinations on the right ears of workers hearing threshold shifts were noticed in the range of 7-11dB at 1kHz and 12-16dB at 4kHz. The speech interference levels for workers at different section were between 93.2 and 96.5dB(A) and higher than the maximum vocal efforts.
Industrial Health, 1993, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 94-782 Commission Communication in the framework of the implementation on Council Directive 89/392/EEC of 14 June 1989 in relation to machinery, as amended by directive 91/368/EEC of 20 June 1991 [European Communities]
Communication de la Commission dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre de la directive 89/392/CEE du Conseil, du 14 juin 1989, relative aux machines, modifiée par la directive 91/368/CEE du 20 juin 1991 [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
This communication announces the titles and references of harmonized CEN standards under the directives 89/392/EEC and 91/368/EEC. The following standards are announced: EN 294 Safety of machinery - Safety distances, EN 349 Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body, EN 418 Safety of machinery - Emergency stop equipment, EN 457 Safety of machinery - Auditory danger signals (modification of ISO 7731:1986), EN 775 Manipulating industrial robots - Safety (modification of ISO 10218:1992), EN 23741 Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources (ISO 3741:1988), EN 23742 Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources (ISO 3742:1988).
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 25 Aug. 1993, Vol.36, No.C.229, p.3.

CIS 94-677 Laux P.C., Davies P., Long G.R.
The correlation of subjective response data with measured noise indices of low frequency modulated noise
In a subjective rating experiment, subjects were presented with pairs of low frequency modulated noise signals and asked to select which signal was more annoying. These responses were used to construct an annoyance rating scale. Comparison with existing measuring and modelling techniques showed that some recently developed models are more highly correlated to subjective response data than are the more commonly used noise measurement techniques. Additionally, increased correlation to subjective response data can be achieved by including the duration of the modulated signal as a variable in the models that predict annoyance.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 1993, Vol.40, No.3, p.241-253. 26 ref.

CIS 94-551 Jacobsen P., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Parving A., Gyntelberg F.
Mixed solvent exposure and hearing impairment: An epidemiological male study of 3284 men. The Copenhagen male study
This study investigated the relationship between self-assessed hearing problems and occupational exposure to solvents in 3284 men aged 53-74 years. Exposure to solvents for five years or more resulted in an adjusted relative risk (RR) for hearing impairment of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) in men without occupational exposure to noise. The prevalence of hearing impairment in men not exposed to organic solvents was 24 per cent and the attributable risk from solvent exposure was 9.6 per cent. Exposure for less than five years had no effect on hearing capacity. Occupational exposure to noise for five years or more had an effect twice that of solvents. RR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.7-2.1). In men exposed to both solvents and noise the effect of the latter dominated and no additional effect from solvents was found. Damaging effect on hearing ability from long-term solvent exposure was found in the present study. The relative effect was moderate but with a high background frequency of hearing problems in the unexposed sample the absolute effect, i.e. attributable risk, was considerable and of both clinical and preventive importance.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.43, No.4, p.180-184. 21 ref.

CIS 94-690
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational noise: National Standard and National Code of Practice
This national standard specifies that the standard for maximum exposure to noise in the occupational environment is an 8h equivalent sound pressure level of 85dB(A); the peak noise level is 140dB(lin). The accompanying code of practice for noise management and protection of hearing at work provides practical guidance on how this standard can be achieved. Contents: scope and definitions; general principles and responsibilities; noise control planning; engineering and administrative noise control measures; personal hearing protectors; training and education; noise assessments; audiometric testing.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Sep. 1993. viii, 47p. 35 ref.

CIS 94-255 Vinzents P., Laursen B.
A national cross-sectional study of the working environment in the Danish wood and furniture industry - Air pollution and noise
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Danish wood and furniture industry at 200 factories. Representative estimates of employees' full-shift exposures to wood dust, vapours from organic solvents, formaldehyde and noise dose were calculated using a model for two-stage cluster designs. Exposures to air pollutants were generally below the occupational exposure limits (OELs), while noise doses were at the same level as the OEL. The overall exposure to wood dust was 0.90mg/m3, exposure to vapours from organic solvents was 0.13C/OEL and noise dose, Leq (8h), was 90.5dB(A).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1993, Vol.37, No.1, p.25-34. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 94-360 Lee-Feldstein A.
Five-year follow-up study of hearing loss at several locations within a large automobile company
This longitudinal epidemiologic study was designed to investigate hearing loss over a five-year period among noise-exposed employees of a large automobile company and to assess effectiveness of hearing conservation programmes at locations representing a large spectrum of operations. Methodology based on computerized audiometric test data was developed for measuring occupational hearing loss and evaluating programmes at these locations, which had maximal 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 104-110dB(A). The methods take account of age and hearing level of study subjects at baseline audiogramme and clearly demonstrate the extent of hearing loss during the study period. Among five study locations, the average hearing loss at 2,000-4,000Hz in the worst-loss ear ranged from 3.4 to 6.2dB over the follow-up period after adjustment for presbycusis, the loss was less than 2dB at all but one location, which showed a loss of nearly 4dB. Hearing conservation programmes at four of the five locations were judged to be effective.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.41-54. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 93-2008
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels (1993) [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1993) [en japonés]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 174 chemical products (nine additions or updates since 1992) and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.323-345. Illus.

CIS 93-2037 Delhoume P., Vercammen M., Heringa P., Lovat G., Thomé J.P., Arbey H.S.
Analysis of noise generation mechanism: A tool for noise reduction at source - The case of gear noise
L'analyse des mécanismes de génération de bruit: un outil pour la réduction du bruit à la source. Cas des engrenages [en francés]
The new European directives require machine manufacturers to reduce the noise generated by their machines to the lowest level possible, in particular by action at source. For each machine part this requires proper knowledge of noise generation mechanisms, and assessment of expected noise levels and an estimation of the contribution of the main parameters to noise emission. This data sheet covers noise emission by machine gears. It demonstrates the variety of different noise generation factors (cog contact and friction, load variation) and how the noise is transmitted through the air or mechanically from the source (the cog contact point) to the radiating surfaces (housing), illustrating the basic mechanisms often found in other types of machinery. The data sheet combines comprehension of the different mechanisms with a number of ways of reducing acoustic emission: geometric parameters, tribological factors, degrees of quality, operating conditions, etc., and clarifies the notions of action at source.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1926-151-93, p.279-292. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 93-2029 Dolan T.G., Maurer J.F., Dickinson L.G.
Evaluation of an earphone-support device for measuring earplug attenuation
A new procedure for determining the attenuation of earplugs with a standard audiometric headset was evaluated. The procedure utilised a device that supports a conventional supra-aural earphone cushion (MX-41/AR) such that it does not contact the pinna or the earplug during threshold measurement. The attenuation provided by a foam earplug was estimated on a group of normal-hearing subjects using this method. The resulting attenuation values were compared to data obtained using sound field methods (American National Standards Institute [ANSI] S12.6-1984), and to values obtained by simply placing the earphone on the pinna. Results indicated that the test re-test reliabilities of both the earphone-support method and the earphone-only method were comparable to that of the sound field procedure. Also, of the four test frequencies employed, the closest correspondence between attenuation estimates obtained using the ANSI procedures and estimates obtained with the support device occurred at 1 and 2kHz.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1993, Vol.54, No.2, p.45-50. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1696 Loyau T., Lovat G., Arbey H.S.
Metrology for machine noise reduction - Evolution and prospects
Métrologie pour la réduction du bruit des machines - Evolution et perspectives [en francés]
This chronological survey of the development of different techniques for analysing acoustic fields describes existing methods ranging from measurement of ambient sound pressure (e.g. at the operator's workplace), to methods for studying the mechanisms of machine noise generation at source. Particular attention is paid to the measurement of acoustic power and to source location techniques. The development of these techniques runs parallel to that of noise reduction techniques, which have been moving away from measures aimed at lowering noise exposure (personal protection, screens and hoods) towards decreasing noise emission at source (changes in the structure of noisy machinery).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1909-150-93, p.39-46. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 93-1712 Bednall A.W.
Technology and Health Sciences Division
Noise from false twist texturing machines and its reduction by design and other measures
This report summarises and reviews current knowledge on sources, intensity and control of noise emitted by false twist texturing machines. Contents: false twist texturing processes, machines and automation; data on noise levels on test beds and in the workplace; noise exposure of workers during various processes; machine noise sources; control measures (machine design, maintenance, enclosure, workplace design, machine segregation, noise refuges). Tables of noise levels for different machines are included.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. ii, 28p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 93-1690 Honkasalo A., Kyttälä I., Nykänen H.
International noise declaration systems for machinery and equipment
Several European Community directives call for machinery and equipment to be accompanied by statements (labels or other documentation) of their noise emission. However, the quantities, the forms of these statements, or "noise declarations", remain to be defined. On the basis of Finnish experience, the noise label should give the country or free trade area of origin, the symbol (e.g., LWAd) of the declared quantity, its value in dB(A) for noise and m/s2 for vibration, and a reference to the standard, rule or regulation according to which the value was determined (ISO, IEC or national). The proposed system should be based on a European noise data bank that would include the identities of all national reference laboratories as well as records of declarations themselves.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Jan.-Feb. 1993, Vol.40, No.1, p.143-149. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 93-1000 Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Chia S.E.
Tinnitus in noise-exposed workers
Tinnitus is said to be a common complaint of workers who are exposed to noise. The prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in 647 noise-exposed workers who had been notified as cases of noise-induced deafness were investigated. 151 had tinnitus, giving a prevalence of 23.3%. The tinnitus was bilateral in 42.4% of cases, and of high frequency in 44.4%. In 23.8% it was associated with other symptoms. About 30% of those with tinnitus complained that it interfered with daily activities like telephone conversation and sleep. The workers with tinnitus had consistently higher hearing thresholds at both high and low frequencies than those with no tinnitus. Workers are often told that noise exposure causes deafness, but little is mentioned about tinnitus. Awareness of the possible occurrence of tinnitus may encourage workers to cooperate more actively in a company hearing conservation programme.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.35-38. 12 ref.

1992

CIS 09-260 Occupational hygiene: Noise
This training manual on noise protection was developed as part of a three-year training programme for factory inspectors in English-speaking African countries. Contents: introduction and definitions; effects of noise on man; noise limits; measuring methods; primary and secondary prevention; hearing conservation programme; test questions.
International Labour Office, African Regional Labour Administration Centre, P.O. Box 6097, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1992. 34p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-386 Monyo R.A., Starck J., Mayaka A.N., Wambugu A., Makambaya S., Mulugeta S., Chowdhury A.R., Quainoo A.B., Lehtinen S.
El ruido
Noise [en inglés]
Este número está dedicado principalmente al tema de la prevención del ruido en los lugares de trabajo. Contenido: el ruido como problema universal; adopción de sistemas de automatización en el sector de la industria mecánica en Kenia; informe de un caso sobre pérdida de audición a causa del ruido en Kenia; prevención del ruido en los lugares de trabajo en Zimbabwe; medición de los niveles de ruido en el sector de la madera en Etiopía. Otros temas: mejora de las condiciones de trabajo en los países en vías de desarrollo; salud y seguridad laboral en Ghana; cáncer de origen profesional en los países en vías de desarrollo; simposio internacional sobre prácticas en materia de salud y trabajo en Tanzania.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 1992, Vol.2, No.1, p.1-28 (whole issue). Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 98-1567 Reglamento Gran Ducal de 8 de julio de 1992 relativo a la limitación de las emisiones de ruido ... de las plantas de construcción y equipamiento [Luxemburgo]
Règlement grand-ducal du 8 juil. 1992 relatif à la limitation des émissions sonores ... des engins de chantier [Luxembourg] [en francés]
Reglamento Gran Ducal del 8 de julio de 1992 relativo a la limitación de las emisiones de ruido de las excavadoras hidráulicas y de cable, bulldozers, maquinaria de carga y máquinas elevadoras; b) la enmienda del Reglamento Gran-Ducal del 28 de septiembre de 1988 (CIS 92-1441) relativo a los materiales y al equipamiento para el movimiento de tierra. Desde entonces ha sido modificado por el Reglamento Gran-Ducal del 8 de diciembre de 1996 (CIS 98-1568). En el sumario: aprobación; bulldozers; pruebas de verificación; determinación de los límites de exposición; equipos de movimiento de tierra; identificación de riesgos; etiquetado; legislación; maquinaria de carga; Luxemburgo; nivel de ruido; medición del ruido; ruido; excavadoras; potencia de sonido.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 8 jul. 1992, p.1149-1152.

CIS 95-2253 Lang C.M., Nafz H.M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Reducción del ruido generado por las bombas hidráulicas
Geräuschemission von Hydraulikpumpen und Lärmminderung [en alemán]
El objetivo de este estudío consistía en determinar las causas de las variaciones observadas en la medición de los niveles de ruido emitido por las bombas hidráulicas. A partir de los datos de referencia pudieron establecerse los factores de corrección necesarios. Se midió el ruido generado por más de 100 bombas hidráulicas utilizadas habitualmente, de diseño y tamaño diferentes. Pudo elaborarse un modelo matemático que relacionaba las características de la máquina con el ruido por ella generado. Se describen los métodos para reducir el nivel de ruido de los diferentes tipos de bombas hidráulicas.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Alemania, 1992. 320p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Precio: DEM 47,00.

CIS 95-2258 Dövener A., Fritz K.R., Haering H.U., Hübner G., Kurtz P., Lazarus H.
Resultados de una investigación para su puesta en práctica - Reducción del ruido - Ficha de datos sobre el nivel acústico de la maquinaria que debe ponerse a disposición de sus adquirientes
Forschungsergebnisse für die Praxis - Geräuschdatenblatt für die Beschaffung von Maschinen [en alemán]
Principales temas tratados en esta nota informativa sobre la obligación de los vendedores de entregar a sus clientes una ficha de datos sobre el nivel acústico de la maquinaria: introducción (legislación relevante: Directivas 86/188/EEC y 89/392/EEC (ver CIS 87-45 y 92-25 respectivamente) y VBC 121 (CIS 93-723); ficha tipo (rellenada y sin rellenar). Lista de Forschungsbericht cuya consulta puede ser de utilidad: nº209, 399, 447 y 481.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Postfach 17 02 02, 44061 Dortmund, Alemania, 1992. 12p. 13 ref.

CIS 95-2236 Nagayasu K.
Ruido producido por el material de oficina automatizado
OA kiki no sōon [en japonés]
Los ordenadores personales utilizados en las oficinas, así como sus equipos periféricos, son fuentes generadoras de ruido. Particularmente ruidosos son los ventiladores refrigeradores, las unidades de disco y las impresoras. Puede reducirse el ruido mediante cambios en la propia oficina (por ejemplo, colocando moquetas), o bien a partir de un nuevo diseño de los equipos. Ejemplo: el ruido generado en los conductos y las rejillas de ventilación puede reducirse si se mejora su diseño; los mismos ventiladores pueden rediseñarse, de manera que se reduzca con ello el ruido aerodinámico generado; también pueden modificarse las propiedades mecánicas de los rodillos de impresión para reducir la amplitud de las vibraciones.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, 1 oct. 1992, vol.16, n°5, p.15-19. Ilus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-1506 Principales disposiciones reglamentarias aplicables a los lugares de trabajo con elevado nivel de ruido [Austria]
Auszug aus den gesetzlichen Bestimmungen für Lärmbetriebe [en alemán]
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, oct. 1992. 12p. ###

CIS 95-1505 van den Brulle P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Emisiones de ruido de las máquinas utilizadas en las funderías. Parte II. Máquinas de chorro de arena, máquinas automáticas de moldeo y transportadores vibrantes
Geräuschemission von Giessereimaschinen II - Strahlanlagen, automatische Formanlagen, Förderroste [en alemán]
Las áreas de limpieza de piezas en la industria metalúrgica se caracterizan por sus elevados niveles de ruido. Se realizaron mediciones en 55 máquinas de chorro de arena sin aire comprimido y 6 con aire comprimido. Mediante algunas modificaciones que pueden realizarse siguiendo las instrucciones del constructor puede reducirse el nivel de ruido hasta situarse por debajo de 85 e incluso 80 dB(A). Se dispone de las instrucciones de los constructores para llevar a cabo estas modificaciones. En los últimos años se han producido avances tecnológicos considerables en relación con las máquinas de moldeo, las granalladoras de machos y las máquinas vibrantes. A partir de los estudios se ha constatado que el nivel acústico de estas máquinas está en función del mantenimiento de las mismas y de la calidad de los sistemas silenciadores. El nivel de emisiones de ruido en los puestos de trabajo con las máquinas dotadas de silenciadores adecuados se sitúa en torno a los 80 dB(A) para las máquinas de moldeo y 80 dB(A) para las granalladoras de machos. Los niveles acústicos de los transportadores vibrantes son directamente proporcionales a su superficie, y se puede lograr una reducción de 10 dB mediante la instalación de cabinas aislantes.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Alemania, 1992. 184p. Ilus. 17 ref.

CIS 95-1498 López Muñoz G.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
El ruido en el lugar de trabajo
Contenido de esta guía, destinada a facilitar la aplicación del Real Decreto español 1316/1989, de 27 de octubre, dictado a raíz de la Directiva Comunitaria 86/188/CEE (CIS 87-45): conceptos básicos de acústica; instrumentos de medida y condiciones de uso; medición del ruido; legislación y reglamentación en materia de ruido (Directiva 86/188/CEE, Directiva 89/392/CEE, Real Decreto 1316/1989, de 27 de octubre); equipo de protección personal contra el ruido (tipos de equipo, mantenimiento, comodidad, evaluación); estimación del déficit auditivo inducido por el ruido de acuerdo con la norma UNE-74023 (ISO 1999:1990, ver CIS 90-299).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna, 73 - 28027 Madrid, España, 1992. 218p. Ilus.

CIS 94-1469
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health)
Noise [Sweden]
Buller [en sueco]
This directive replaces AFS 1986:15 (CIS 87-46). It covers: general workplace provisions concerning noise (work should be organized in such a way that noise exposure is minimized); technical measures (noise control at the design stage, and during the installation and operation of machinery); work premises; noise measurement; audiometric tests; wearing of hearing protectors. In annex: noise exposure limit values (85dB equivalent level for 8h; 115dB maximum; 140dB for peaks of impulse noise); definitions; detailed commentary.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 23p. 7 ref.

CIS 94-1716 Parrot J., Petiot J.C., Lobreau J.P., Smolik H.J.
Cardiovascular effects of impulse noise, road traffic noise and intermittent pink noise at LAeq=75dB, as a function of sex, age and level of anxiety: A comparative study
The first of these two articles describes a study to compare the effects of pile-driver noise, gunfire noise, road traffic noise and intermittent pink noise on the heart rate of some 120 subjects. During exposure to noise, the overall heart rate increased in nearly all subjects, with men showing greater increases than women. The second article describes the effects of the same types of noise on digital pulse level and blood pressure. The results of both studies are discussed in relation to the age, sex and anxiety characteristics of the subjects.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.63, No.7, p.477-493. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 94-351 Forget P.
Acoustic trauma by high-level impulse noise. Evolutive non linear occupational pathology
A propos des traumatismes sonores par les bruits impulsionnels de forte intensité. Pathologie professionnelle évolutive à progression non linéaire [en francés]
According to this technical note on acoustic trauma due to high-energy impulse noise, there is much interindividual variation in susceptibility to impulse-noise induced hearing loss. The new quantity E0 is proposed as a measure of the daily tolerable noise dose for a given individual, and it is suggested that the number of high-energy impulse noise events per day be related on an inverse exponential scale to E0.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.175-181. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 93-2031 Bennett S.C.
Noise control within the UK coalmining industry
Major issues relating to noise exposure evaluation, hearing protection and, in particular, engineering noise control research within the UK coalmining industry are discussed. Problems in the accurate assessment of individual noise exposures and the provision of suitable hearing protection are addressed in the context of European legislation concerning noise at work. Noise control research shows that significant noise reductions can be achieved on mining machinery. Studies of noise levels of various types of machine are summarised (roadheading machines, gearboxes, drills, railed manriding sets) along with resulting noise reductions.
Mining Engineer, Dec. 1992, Vol.152, No.375, p.159-163. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 93-2028 Gordon R.T., Vining W.D.
Active noise controls - A review of the field
Active noise control (ANC) employs superposition of waves to induce destructive interference to affect noise attenuation. Categories of ANC are one-dimensional field and duct noise; enclosed spaces and interior noise; noise in three-dimensional spaces; and personal hearing protection. Development of ANC stems from potential advantages in cost, size, and effectiveness. ANC of turbulent flow in pipes and ducts is the largest area in the field. Much work into the actual mechanism involved and the causal versus non-causal aspects of system controllers has been done. Fan and propeller noise can be divided into two categories: noise generated directly as the blade passing tones and noise generated as a result of blade tip turbulence inducing vibration in structures. Three-dimensional spaces present a noise environment where physical limitations are magnified. Personal hearing protection has been shown to be best suited to the control of periodic, low-frequency noise.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1992. Vol.53, No.11, p.721-725. 31 ref.

CIS 93-1691 Mital A., McGlothlin J.D., Faard H.F.
Noise in multiple-workstation open-plan computer rooms - Measurements and annoyance
Results of a study of noise levels in two offices with a large number of computer workstations and associated equipment (printers etc.) in both. The 10sec noise levels for all frequencies were between 53 and 62dB(A). The highest noise energy levels were at the frequency of 8,000Hz (64-73dB(A)). The nature of the work required high levels of concentration, and 50% of the workers reported in a questionnaire that the noise level was intolerable or extremely annoying. The noise annoyance was, however, not entirely due to computer equipment: movement of people, conversation and the noise of ventilation equipment were also contributing factors.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.69-82. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 93-1313
Japan Industrial Hygiene Association
Recommendation on permissible levels [Japan]
Kyoyō nōdotō no kankoku (1992) [en japonés]
Maximum allowable concentrations and tentative safe exposure levels are given for 168 chemical products and four categories of dust. Carcinogens documented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer are listed. Maximum durations of exposure to noise and vibration at various levels are tabulated. A standard for impact noise is presented. Maximum physical workloads are tabulated for various microclimatic conditions. Methods for determination of silica-containing dusts and asbestos dust are given in appendices.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, July 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.363-384. Illus.

CIS 93-1346 Lazarus H., Sehrndt G.A., Jacques J.
European standards for occupational and machinery noise control
In view of the new approach of EEC Directives in avoiding trade barriers in the field of technical regulations there is a need for standards defining details of noise control and noise emission determination, declaration and verification. Standards will be available in time, being prepared as they are by joint efforts of international and European standard institutions. Review of the latest developments achieved in this field.
Safety Science, Nov. 1992, Vol.15, Nos.4-6, Special issue, p.375-386. Illus. 8 ref.

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