Noise - 2,325 entradas encontradas
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Suadicani P., Hein H.O., Gyntelberg F.
Occupational noise exposure, social class, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality - A 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study
This study consisted of a 16-year follow-up of 2998 men in Copenhagen, Denmark, aged 53-75 years without overt cardiovascular disease. Overall, 197 men (6.6%) died due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 1192 (39.8%) from all-causes. 1008 men (33.6%) reported exposure to occupational noise for ¿5 years; among these men, 47.3% reported hearing impairment versus only 24.8% among unexposed men (63.0%). Referencing unexposed men, the hazard ratio (HR) for IHD mortality was 0.97, and the HR for all-cause mortality was 1.01 when adjusting for potential confounders: age, hearing impairment, blood pressure, diabetes, fasting serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucosuria, cancer, body mass index, alcohol, tobacco, leisure-time physical activity, and social class. Stratified analyses of high and low social classes confirmed the overall results. In conclusion, cumulative occupational exposure to noise was strongly associated with hearing impairment, but not with death from either IHD or all-cause mortality.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.19-26. 22 ref.
Occupational_noise_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Carletti E., Pedrielli F., Casazza C.
Development and validation of a numerical prediction model to estimate the annoyance condition at the operating station of compact loaders
This article describes the results of a study aimed at developing and validating a prediction model to assess the annoyance conditions at the operator station of compact loaders by using noise signal objective parameters only. For this purpose, binaural measurements were carried out on 41 compact loaders, both in stationary and real working conditions. The 62 binaural noise recordings were analyzed in terms of acoustic and psychoacoustic parameters and then divided into nine groups and used in specific jury tests to obtain the subjective annoyance scores. Finally, multiple regression technique was applied to the first six groups of noise stimuli to develop the model while the remaining groups were used for its validation.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.3, p.233-240. Illus. 9 ref.
Development_and_validation_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Pearson M., L'Espérance A., Boudreault L.A., Sgard F., Nélisse, H., Boutin J.
Development of a system for acoustical intensity mapping and transfer in the workplace
Développement d'un système de cartographie d'intensité acoustique et transfert en milieu de travail [en francés]
This report describes a new acoustic intensity mapping system, consisting of a portable computer equipped with a high performance sound card, a probe equipped with a position location system and a digital camera. Reliable, innovative and cheap (CAD 30,000), this system is an alternative to existing acoustic diagnostic equipment, which is generally costly and complex, and for which data interpretation requires advanced training. Easy to use in an industrial environment, the computer generates a colour map superimposed on a photograph whose red zones identify the sources of noise. The system requires little technical knowledge by the user.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. x, 72p. Illus. 5 ref.
Développement_d'un_système_de_cartographie_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en francés]
Liu X., Iwanaga K., Koda S.
Circulatory and central nervous system responses to different types of mental stress
The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses to different types of mental stress encountered in the workplace. Circulatory and central nervous system responses were examined in eight healthy males by exposing them to 20-min of white noise (80 dB(A)) and 20-min of computer-based mental arithmetic tasks as models of vascular and cardiac stress, respectively. The results indicated that both cardiac and vascular stresses increased blood pressure and showed a cumulative effect as exposure period was extended. Heart rate and prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin levels increased in the face of cardiac stress but were not clearly altered by vascular stress and indicated that cardiac stress higher cardiac response and requires more oxygen supply to the brain. The circulatory and central nervous system responses to cardiac stress and to vascular stress may have different underlying mechanisms, and measuring physiological indices appears to be an effective method by which to evaluate the influence of mental stress.
Industrial Health, May 2011, Vol.49, No.3, p.265-273.Illus. 28 ref.
Circulatory_and_central_nervous_system_responses_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Koskinen H.L., Kauppinen T., Tenkanen L.
Dual role of physical workload and occupational noise in the association of the metabolic syndrome with risk of coronary heart disease: Findings from the Helsinki heart study
Previous evidence indicates that occupational exposure to physical workload or noise entails development of hypertension and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, vigorous physical activity lessens the risks of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CHD. The objective of this study was to explore this issue by studying the joint effect of physical workload or noise and MetS on risk of CHD. This 18-year follow-up study comprised 1502 middle-aged men employed in industry who participated in the second screening for the Helsinki Heart Study but were not treated with gemfibrozil, the trial drug. The CHD endpoints (ICD-9 codes 410-414 and ICD-10 codes 120-125) were obtained from official Finnish registers. The Finnish job-exposure matrix FINJEM provided information on occupational exposures. The joint effect of baseline MetS levels and both occupational exposures was estimated using Cox's regression models. Workload and noise increased CHD risk due to increased blood pressure, glucose or body mass index (BMI), separately or combined: the joint effect of workload and MetS defined using these three components yielded an relative risk RR of 5.21. However, when MetS was defined using elevated BMI, high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, an RR of 2.19 among those with MetS only reduced to 1.20 if concurrently exposed to workload. Occupational exposure to workload or noise modifies CHD risk differently depending on which definition of MetS is used. In the presence of physical workload or noise, hypertension and blood glucose were the best predictors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.666-673. 50 ref.
Dual_role_of_physical_workload_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Chatillon J., Donati M., eds.
Noise and vibration at the place of work
Bruit et vibrations au travail [en francés]
This full issue on noise and vibrations at the place of work includes 30 articles selected among the papers presented at a conference organized by INRS in March 2011, grouped under five headings: effects on human health and medical aspects; regulations and application and hazard evaluation strategies; evaluation at the workplace; collective prevention; research needs.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2011, No.223, p.5-188 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Effets_sur_l'homme_et_aspects_médicaux.pdf [en francés]
Réglementation_et_stratégies.pdf [en francés]
Evaluation_au_poste_de_travail.pdf [en francés]
Prévention_technique_des_risques.pdf [en francés]
Besoins_en_recherche.pdf [en francés]
Adelman C., Weinberger J.M., Kriksunov L., Sohmer H.
Effects of furosemide on the hearing loss induced by impulse noise
The permanent hearing loss following exposure to intense noise can be due either to mechanical structural damage (tearing) caused directly by the noise or to metabolic (biochemical) damage resulting from the elevated levels of free radicals released during transduction of the sound overstimulation. Drugs which depress active cochlear mechanics (for example furosemide and salicylic acid) or anti-oxidants (which counteract the free radicals) are effective in reducing the threshold shift (TS) following broadband continuous noise. This study was designed to determine whether furosemide can reduce the TS following exposure to impulse noise, similar to its action with continuous broadband noise. Shortly after furosemide injection, mice were exposed to simulated M16 rifle impulse noise produced by loudspeakers and amplifiers in different exposure settings and, in other experiments, also to actual M16 rifle shots. The drug was partially effective in reducing the TS to simulated noise, but not to actual impulse noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:14. 19p. 24 ref.
Effects_of_furosemide.pdf [en inglés]
Money A., Carder M., Turner S., Hussey L., Agius R.
Surveillance for work-related audiological disease in the UK: 1998-2006
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) from prolonged occupational exposure to noise continues to rank among the top worldwide work-related ill-health problems. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of incident cases based on work-related audiological ill-health data collected over a 9-year period from occupational physicians (OPs), audiological physicians (APs), general practitioners and otorhinolaryngologists. A total of 2582 estimated cases were received from OPs and 2192 estimated cases of work-related audiological ill-health were received from consultant APs. In more than 95% of the cases, the causal agent was noise. Workers with the highest incidence were older males employed in public administration, defence and the manufacture of metals. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.226-233. Illus. 27 ref.
Marcotte P., Ouellette S., Boutin J., LeBlanc G.
Evaluation of the vibration and noise from mining equipment
Evaluation des vibrations et du bruit des équipements miniers [en francés]
Underground mines in Quebec employ more than 5,000 workers, with many occupationally exposed noise and vibration. Claims for health problems related to overexposure to hand-arm vibration have increased considerably in recent years. Furthermore, 458 miners were compensated for occupational deafness from 1998 to 2003. The objective of this study was to identify the various sources of vibration and sound that can have a harmful effect on miners' health, to measure their amplitude and to define the actions to be taken to minimize worker exposure to noise and vibration, including technical solutions. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. ix, 183p. Illus. 22 ref.
R-682.pdf [en francés]
From olives to oil - How to be heard in oil mills
De l'olive à l'huile - Se faire entendre dans les moulins [en francés]
Production of olive oil is a seasonal and often secondary activity for olive growers. As a consequence, it is difficult to convey and enforce safety and health recommendations, particularly with respect to the most common hazard in oil mills, namely noise, which can easily exceed 100 dB. This article explains the work carried out in olive oil mills, the exposures encountered and the appropriate protective measures to be implemented, particularly against noise.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.45-47. Illus.
De_l'olive_à_l'huile.pdf [en francés]
Vyskocil A., Leroux T., Truchon G., Lemay F., Gagnon F., Gendron M., Boudjerida A., El-Majidi N., Viau C.
Effect of chemical substances on hearing - Interactions with noise
Effet des substances chimiques sur l'audition - Interactions avec le bruit [en francés]
While noise is the main cause of occupational deafness, certain chemical substances can produce ototoxic effects that may make the ear more prone to acoustic assault, as opposed to noise alone. They are mainly solvents, asphyxiants, metals and pesticides, widespread in workplaces. In Quebec, over 400,000 workers are exposed to high noise levels, which raise concerns regarding the prevention of hearing impairments. This literature survey evaluated the effects of various chemical substances on hearing, and characterized the interactions between these chemical substances and noise at exposure levels respecting the current standards of the Occupational health and safety regulations. Strong interactions were found for toluene and carbon monoxide. Less solid evidence was found for other substances, with either lack of evidence or inconclusive results.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 18p. Illus. 59 ref.
R-685.pdf [en francés]
Effects of a low intensity intervention to increase hearing protector use among noise-exposed workers
Farm operators experience exposure to high noise and high prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss, but use of hearing protection in this worker group is low. The purpose of this study was to test a brief intervention to increase farm operators' use of hearing protection. A random sample of 32 members of a farmers' organization was supplied a variety of hearing protectors. Participants received an assortment of hearing protectors by mail with manufacturer's instructions for use. Mean pre-intervention hearing protector use when in high noise in this group was 23%. Of the 32 participants, 27 were exposed to hazardous noise during the study period. Post-intervention mean use of HPDs was 64%, an increase of 41%. Results of this study suggest that overall, hearing protectors were acceptable to farm operators, and that a brief mailed intervention is feasible.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.210-215. Illus. 34 ref.
CAP the noise to save your hearing!
Today, more than 150,000 miners in the United States have some hearing loss. By the age of 60, more than 75% of coal miners have a hearing impairment from exposure to noise. Once hearing is lost due to noise, it is permanent and cannot be reversed. Because there is no pain or visible damage, the hearing loss may not be noticed right away. Aimed at miners, this leaflet explains what they can do when exposed to hazardous noise; CAP (control, avoid and protect).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, 2011. PDF document. 2p. Illus.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-102.pdf [en inglés]
Guía para la selección y control de protectores auditivos
Contents of this guide to the selection and testing of hearing protection: introduction; objective; terminology; selection of hearing protectors; purchase of hearing protectors; reception and supply of hearing protectors; training; substitution: Appendices include: flowchart of factors to be considered in the selection of hearing protectors; examples of calculations of the sound attenuation factor; example of a checklist the selection of noise protectors.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2010, 27p. Illus.
Guía_para_la_selección_y_control_(01)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en español]
Sweeney D.D., Slagley J.M., Smith D.A.
Insertion loss of noise barriers on an aboveground, full-scale model longwall coal mining shearer
The mining industry struggles with hazardous noise and dust exposures in underground mining. Specifically, longwall coal mine shearer operators are routinely exposed to noise levels at 151% of the allowable daily dose, and approximately 20% exceed regulatory dust levels. In this study, a partial barrier was mounted on the full-scale mock shearer at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory. A simulated, full-scale, coal mine longwall shearer operation was employed to test the feasibility of utilizing a barrier to separate the shearer operator from the direct path of the noise and dust source during mining operations. In this model, noise levels at the operators' positions were reduced by 2.6 to 8.2 A-weighted decibels (dBA) from the application of the test barriers. Estimated insertion loss underground was 1.7 to 7.3 dBA. The barrier should now be tested in an underground mining operation to determine if it can reduce shearer operators' noise exposure to below regulatory limits.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.272-279. Illus. 17 ref.
Insertion_loss.pdf [en inglés]
Chang T.Y., Wang V.S., Lin S.Y., Yen H.Y., Lai J.S., Liu C.S.
Co-exposure to noise, N,N-dimethylformamide, and toluene on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in synthetic leather workers
Independent exposures to noise, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or toluene have been associated with cardiovascular effects, but the combined effects are not clear. This study investigated ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in workers co-exposed to noise, DMF, and toluene. Twenty workers in a synthetic leather manufacturing company were recruited as study subjects. Personal noise exposure and ambulatory blood pressure were measured concomitantly for 24 h; airborne co-exposure to DMF and toluene during the working period was also analyzed to identify solvents exposure. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate effects on ambulatory blood pressure by controlling potential confounders. No significant differences in SBP and DBP were found between six high-solvent-exposure workers and office workers during any periods. After the Bonferroni correction, there were no significant differences in ambulatory blood pressure between high-exposure groups and the low-exposure groups. Our findings suggest no interactive effects of co-exposure to noise, DMF and toluene on workers' ambulatory blood pressure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.14-22. 38 ref.
Co-exposure_to_noise.pdf [en inglés]
Vega Giménez C.
Ruido en los sectores de la música y el ocio (II)
This technical note describes the various measures aimed at minimizing noise exposure of workers in the music and entertainment sectors, and compares different types of hearing protection. Hearing damage and exposure assessment of workers in these sectors are described in a separate note (see ISN 111 864).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 12 ref.
NTP_865.pdf [en español]
Vega Giménez C.
Ruido en los sectores de la música y el ocio (I)
Exposure to live or recorded music, or to special effects such as pyrotechnics, may cause hearing damage among workers in the field of music and entertainment. This technical note examines these damages and the evaluation of noise exposure of the various groups of workers in these sectors. It also compares the noise levels in these sectors with those found in other sectors. The preventive measures to limit exposure are presented in a second note (see ISN 111865).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus.
NTP_864.pdf [en español]
Nélisse H., Gaudreau M.A., Boutin J., Laville F., Voix J.
Study of sound transmission through hearing protectors and application of a method for evaluating their efficiency in the workplace - Part 1 - Field study (revised version)
Etude de la transmission sonore à travers les protecteurs auditifs et application d'une méthode pour évaluer leur efficacité en milieu de travail - Partie 1 - Etude terrain (version révisée) [en francés]
The method for evaluating the noise attenuation characteristics of hearing protectors is based on laboratory tests. However, many studies have shown that the actual effectiveness of this protective equipment is, more often than not, much lower than the results thus obtained. This study examined the time evolution of the performance of this equipment during one work shift, with 24 workers, in different sound environments, in Quebec, Canada. This mainly enabled them to develop a method for measuring the real effectiveness of earmuffs and moulded ear plugs, and then to compare it to measurements taken in the laboratory. Findings show protection values lower than those documented by the manufacturers (measured in the laboratory); for a given worker, the protection varies significantly in relation to the time during a work shift; the protection can vary greatly from one worker to the next but also from one ear to the other for a given worker. The developed attenuation index shows a high dependency on the frequency spectra of the ambient noise, thus highlighting the inadequacy of some hearing protectors at low frequencies and the importance of properly understanding the ambient noise so that a judicious choice of hearing protectors can be made.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. x, 95p. Illus. 49 ref.
R-662.pdf [en francés]
Chatillon J., Trompette N.
Findings of a noise risk measurement campaign at telephone call centres and prevention solutions
Résultats d'une campagne de mesure du risque bruit dans les centres d'appels téléphoniques et solutions de prévention [en francés]
The daily exposure to noise was evaluated for over 100 telephone operators working in 21 call centres in France. The results of this measurement campaign show that the risk of exceeding statutory limits is well-founded but only rarely noted. Moreover, recurrent problems persist at telephone call centres: accidental acoustic shocks are rare, but are poorly tolerated by operators and ambient noise levels are too frequently incompatible with both intellectual work and acceptable telephone listening comfort. Prevention solutions include noise level limiters or acoustic protectors for acoustic shock attenuation and daily exposure limitation. It is shown that simple recommendations can lead to a significant reduction in the noise levels at such workplaces.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2010, No.221, p.25-34. Illus. 20 ref.
ND 2338-221-10.pdf [en francés]
Evaluation of the exposure to noise among call centre operators
Avaliação da exposição ao ruído em operadores de teleatendimento [en portugués]
The noise levels to which call centre operators are exposed have been measured using the criteria and recommendations of ISO standard 1104.
The measurements were made with a microphone placed in the ear of the operators or using a maniquin head and an ear simulator. The results indicate that operators are exposed to noise levels of 66 to 90 dB(A). The differences in values obtained between the field measurement and the simulation was overall of 2,3dB(A). Findings are discussed.
Revista CIPA, Mar. 2010, Vol.XXXI, No.364, p.64-81. Illus.
Tamir S., Adelman C., Weinberger J.M., Sohmer H.
Uniform comparison of several drugs which provide protection from noise induced hearing loss
The ability of drugs to reduce noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been evaluated in diverse experimental conditions (animal species, noise intensities, durations, assessment techniques, etc.), making it difficult to assess their relative efficacy. The present study was designed to provide more uniform comparisons and to allow a better understanding of the mechanism of the NIHL. The drugs studied included furosemide and the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine, vitamins A, C, E with the vasodilator magnesium. Mice were exposed to a continuous broadband noise (113 dB SPL for 3.5 hours) and the NIHL was assessed in all animals before noise exposure and 1 week after with auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses (ABR) to broadband clicks and to 8 kHz tone bursts. Each of the drugs alone and in combination led to similar reductions in NIHL.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:26, 7p. Illus. 20 ref.
Uniform_comparison_of_several_drugs.pdf [en inglés]
Evaluating the in-situ acoustic attenuation of custom-moulded earplugs
Evaluation de l'affaiblissement acoustique réel in situ des bouchons moulés individualisés [en francés]
The aim of this study was to compare the noise attenuation values of custom-moulded earplugs declared by suppliers with the values obtained in field measurements, taken from 63 workers of nine sites of various industrial sectors. Findings confirm the overestimation of manufacturer-declared acoustic attenuation values compared to in-situ measurements, ranging from 3 to 5dB for high frequencies to 8 to 10dB for medium and low frequencies. These results confirm that custom-moulded earplugs are relatively inefficient in attenuating low frequencies.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.35-42. Illus. 19 ref.
ND_2334-220-10.pdf [en francés]
Studies and research 2009/2010
Etudes et recherche 2009/2010 [en francés]
This bilingual French/English booklet presents the research efforts undertaken by the French national institute for research and safety (Institut national de recherche et sécurité, INRS) for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases during 2009 and 2010.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 104p. Illus.
Studies_and_research_2009/2010.pdf [en inglés]
Etudes_et_recherche_2009/2010.pdf [en francés]
Gómez M.E., Sanchez J.F., Cardona A.M., Pioquinto J.F., Torres P., Sanchez D., Camargo L.M., Castañeda R.A., Villamizar R.H., Cremades L.V.
Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia)
A study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia) was conducted. Working conditions of the 177 most exposed workers were examined, and exposure to wood dust and noise, as well as lighting, were measured. The state of health was surveyed using a self-report questionnaire. Results show that personal protection was not used appropriately and that some were inadequate, that half of workshops had below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux) required, and that the noise level exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA) in all the workshops.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.222-230. Illus. 39 ref.
Health_and_working_conditions.pdf [en inglés]
Engdahl B., Tambs K.
Occupation and the risk of hearing impairment - Results from the Nord-Trøndelag study on hearing loss
Audiometry and a questionnaire concerning exposure were administered to a population sample of 49,948 adults in Norway. Information on occupation, education and income was obtained from population census registers. Occupation had marked effects on hearing loss. Occupation explained 2-3% of the variance in hearing loss among men aged 45 years or more in addition to the hearing loss due to age (10-19%). Occupation explained one percent or less of hearing loss among women of all ages and young men. Controlling for self-reported occupational noise exposure reduced the occupational effect by 20-40% in men aged 45 years or more. Controlling for leisure-time noise, ear infections and head injuries did not change the effect of occupation, which was slightly reduced after controlling for education and income. The most elevated hearing thresholds in men were observed among wood workers, miners, linemen and cable jointers, construction carpenters and workers, seafarers and workshop mechanics.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.250-257. 25 ref.
Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [en francés]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.
Brasseur G., Ganem Y., Larcher C., Lemarié J., Ravellec C.
Workplace noise - An issue which is often met by silence
Bruit au travail - Une nuisance souvent passée sous silence [en francés]
Contents of this collection of articles on workplace noise: sound exposure; diseases caused by noise; focus areas of INRS research in 2010; modelling for optimizing noise attenuation in the design of a new facility for the maintenance of trucks; acoustic treatment of the walls in an enterprise producing wooden roof beams.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2010, No.704, p.20-28. Illus. 7 ref.
Normand J.C., Massardier-Pilonchéry A., de Surrel de Saint-Julien D., Duclos J.C.
Bruit [en francés]
Exposure to noise at the place of work may cause compensation-entitling hearing loss. This review article on occupational noise addresses the following aspects: physical aspects of noise and noise attenuation techniques; noise perception; effect of noise on the organism; regulatory aspects.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2010, No.168, 17p. Illus. 40 ref.
Aybek A., Kamer H.A., Arslan S.
Personal noise exposure of operators of agricultural tractors
There are approximately one million agricultural tractors in Turkey. The objectives of this study were to determine noise exposures of tractor drivers under various work tasks and conditions. Variance analyses highlighted the type of operation, type of cabins, and operation-cabin interactions that were statistically significant for noise levels. It is recommended that hearing protection devices should be used when tractors are operated without cabins.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2010, Vol.41, No.2, p.274-281. Illus. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Real world use and performance of hearing protection
This report considers the effectiveness of hearing protectors in everyday work situations. The study reported here was undertaken in two parts. The first consisted of interviews with employers to discuss management of noise and hearing protector use, and on site observation of hearing protector use. The second part consisted of laboratory measurements of hearing protector insertion loss. The purpose of these measurements was to quantify the reduction in protection due to poor fitting or maintenance for a range of hearing protectors. Earmuffs were tested using the MIRE (microphone in real ear) method while earplug insertion loss was measured using a head and torso simulator with a simulated pinna and ear canal. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, ii, 69p. Illus. 1 ref.
Real_world_use_and_performance_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Feedback on the noise and hand arm vibration worker involvement pilot project
The Worker Involvement Activity forms part of the Noise and HAV programme. The aim of this activity was to reduce occupational ill health related to noise and HAV exposure by introducing worker participation projects. Twenty eight companies were recruited by HSE to set up worker involvement projects in July 2006. Four of these pilot projects were selected for this feedback study which aimed to: gain views of worker involvement in the decision making process; gain feedback on the usefulness of the support materials; identify processes and difficulties involved in setting up the project; identify the noise and HAV exposure reduction outcomes from the project; and identify lessons that could be learnt for setting up worker involvement projects. This study found that the worker involvement projects were considered to have been effective, beneficial and reasonably successful in identifying and solving noise and HAV problems, raising risk awareness, improving working relationships between workers and managers, and improving risk assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 51p. 5 ref.
Feedback_on_the_noise_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Tak S., Davis R.R., Calvert G.M.
Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers - NHANES, 1999-2004
The objective of this study was to analyze the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected by the NIOSH from 1999 to 2004 to estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work. A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged ≥16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Of the 9,275 workers included in the analysis, 1,462 (15.8%) reported hazardous workplace noise exposure at their current job. Overall, 22 million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million United States workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programmes should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2009, Vol.52, p.358-371. Illus. 40 ref.
Griffin S.C., Neitzel R., Daniell W.E., Seixas N.S.
Indicators of hearing protection use: Self-report and researcher observation
This study compares workers' self-reported use of hearing protection with their observed use in three workplaces with two types of noise environments: one construction site and one fixed industry facility with a variable noise environment, and one fixed industry facility with a steady noise environment. Subjects reported their use of hearing protection on self-administered surveys and activity cards, which were validated using researcher observations. Good agreement was found overall between subjects' self-reported HPD use and researcher observations. Workers in the steady noise environment self-reported hearing protection use more accurately on the surveys than workers in variable noise environments. The findings demonstrate the potential importance of noise exposure variability as a factor influencing reporting accuracy.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p.639-647. Illus. 31 ref.
Los convenios de la OIT sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: una oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones y el medio ambiente de trabajo
The purpose of this publication is to explain and promote ILO international labour standards for occupational safety and health in Latin America. It examines various ILO conventions on different subjects of interest. The history of each convention is reviewed, its contents discussed, and the situation concerning its application in various Latin American countries is examined. A CD-ROM which contains the publication in PDF format, as well as the texts of the conventions and of all the documents cited, is included.
Publications of the International Training Centre of the ILO, Viale Maestri del Lavoro, 10, 10127 Torino, Italy, 2009. 337p. + CD-ROM .
Los_convenios_de_la_OIT.pdf [en español]
Safety during garbage collection - Health is not a disposable product
Sicherheit bei der Abfallsammlung - Gesundheit ist keine Wegwerfware [en alemán]
Garbage collection involves a high accident risk. In Germany, one out of ten garbage collectors falls victim to an occupational accident every year resulting in an average of 20 lost workdays. The work is also strenuous, especially with regard to the ageing of the working population. This article addresses the main hazards which lead to accidents during garbage collection and their causes. New and temporary workers are especially at risk and should be trained. A qualification in the form of a "garbage collector's certificate" to be acquired before starting to work would improve the professional status.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.2, p.6-9. Illus. 4 ref.
Chatillon J., Trompette N., Ottaviani P., Pelletier E.
Observation of the activity in call centres and noise exposure limits
Observation de l'activité en centre d'appels téléphoniques et limites d'exposition au bruit [en francés]
Call centre operators are exposed to noise from conversations received in the headset, for which the risk should be evaluated. French regulations stipulate that these exposure levels be evaluated in the diffuse sound field (external to the ear). For this purpose, INRS uses a standardized measurement method based on an artificial head and an ear simulator. This evaluation also requires defining the duration of conversations over the course of the working day, a very variable duration depending on the functions occupied by the employees in call centres. A study by a major French telecom company has shown that these durations vary between two and three hours per day. The maximum sound exposure level in the telephone headsets of the operators was deduced from these observations to ensure conformity with the regulations. Nowadays, these levels are often set by level limiters installed at the telephone workstations. Limitation of the emission level of the headsets must be accompanied by an ambient noise check in order to guarantee the intelligibility of the conversations. This check can be done through an approach intended to improve the acoustics of the open-plan offices in which they are located. These prevention measures have demonstrated their effectiveness and are worthy of being generalized in order to guarantee the absence of risk of hearing impairment of call centre employees. This article highlights the issues related to exposure measurement.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.33-39. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202314/$File/ND2314.pdf [en francés]
Improving the acoustics of industrial premises
Améliorer l'acoustique des locaux industriels [en francés]
This information sheet explains how to quantify the influence of workplaces on workers' noise exposure. It specifies the regulatory requirements and presents practical solutions for the acoustic improvement of noisy industrial workplaces. These elements should enable prescriptors and architects to quantify their requirements with respect to the acoustic improvement of the premises and acoustic engineers to design appropriate solutions.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2009, No.701, 4p (insert). Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/FE0248BE2D6C7E50C12576C1002E1304/$File/ed136.pdf [en francés]
Prioritising noise-reducing technical actions. Digital simulations of occupational noise exposure
Hiérarchiser les actions de réduction technique du bruit. Simulations numériques de l'exposition au bruit professionnel [en francés]
An analytical model is used to simulate the impact of noise control measures for reducing daily noise exposure levels on noisy machines in the design of workstations and workplaces and the acoustics of industrial halls. Validated by real data, this model is applied to the simulation of several occupational noise exposure situations and quantifying predictable acoustic improvements when various noise reduction actions based on technical and organisational means are implemented. Results are discussed in relation to workstation and type of exposure situation. They highlight lines of action to be favoured at workshop design stage to achieve significant reductions in noise exposure and emphasise the advantage of acting at source through actions to curtail machine-emitted noise.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.217, p.33-40. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202319/$File/ND2319.pdf [en francés]
Sgard F., Nélisse H., Atalla N., Trompette N., Barbry J.L.
Development of a support tool for the acoustical design of machine enclosures
Développement d'un outil d'aide à la conception acoustique d'encoffrements de machines [en francés]
By considering the 90 dB(A) legal daily exposure limit for noise, it is estimated that 400,000 Quebec workers are at risk of hearing impairment. Although the enclosing of noisy machines is favoured for reducing noise exposure, the effectiveness of these isolating enclosures may be insufficient due to a lack of appropriate acoustical dimensioning. This report describes the development of acoustical design support software integrating certain mechanical and geometric complexities. This tool should allow enclosure designers to better dimension their products by estimating their effectiveness beforehand.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. xi, 97p. Illus. 127 ref. Price: CAD 14.70. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-619.pdf [en francés]
Kotarbińska E., Canetto P.
Special issue on noise exposure and hearing protection. Contents: research needs; evaluation of the increased accident risk from workplace noise; German criteria for the selection of hearing protectors; reasons for not wearing hearing protectors; different methodologies of calculating noise exposure; measurement of effective noise exposure of workers wearing earmuffs; estimation of the variability of attenuation offered by earmuffs; individual fit testing of hearing protection devices; performance of hearing protectors with respect to European Directive 2002/10/EC; performance of various types of hearing protectors under high-level impulse noise.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.2, p.135-240 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Kristiansen J., Mathiesen L., Nielsen P.K., Hansen Å.M., Shibuya H., Petersen H.M., Lund S.P., Skotte J., Jørgensen M.B., Søgaard K.
Stress reactions to cognitively demanding tasks and open-plan office noise
To investigate the effects of cognitively-demanding work tasks and office noise on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular responses and electromyography (EMG) activity in the trapezius muscles, 10 female volunteers were exposed to simulated open-plan office noise for 35 min while engaged in cognitively demanding tasks. Cognitively demanding work tasks were associated with changes in HRV, systolic blood pressure and EMG that reflects increased sympathetic activity in the autonomic nervous system. No effect of noise was observed, except for a higher rating of perceived exertion in cervical region and, contrary to expectations, a 4% lower diastolic blood pressure in the noise conditions.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.631-641. Illus. 42 ref.
Singh L.P., Bhardwaj A., Deepak K.K., Bedi R.
Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India
This study was carried out in five small-scale hand tool forging units in Northern India. Noise levels in the workshops were measured, and were found to be above 90dB(A) in several areas. Additionally, a cross-sectional sample of workers responded to a questionnaire, results of which revealed that 68% of the workers were not wearing ear protective equipment. Among these workers, 50% were not provided with protective equipment by their employers. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference, although high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.423-430. Illus. 20 ref.
Davies H.W., Teschke K., Kennedy S.M., Hodgson M.R., Demers P.A.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing protector use in Canadian lumber mills
In this study, a comprehensive noise survey of four lumber mills in British Columbia, Canada, using a randomized sampling strategy was carried out, resulting in 350 full-shift personal dosimetry measurements. Sound frequency spectrum data and information on hearing protector usage were also collected. A determinants-of-exposure regression model for noise was developed. The mean exposure level was found to be 91.7 dBA, well above the exposure British Columbia limit of 85 dBA. Of 52 jobs for which more than a single observation was made, only four were below the exposure limit. Twenty-eight jobs had means over 90 dBA, and four jobs had means over 100 dBA. Although the use of hearing protectors is high, it is unlikely that this provides complete protection against noise-induced hearing loss at the observed exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2009, Vol.6, No.1, p.32-41. Illus. 16 ref.
Gilliver M., Williams W.
Noise exposure and the construction industry
This study looked at the perceptions of and attitudes to noise exposure reduction at several large construction sites in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 98 workers to identify what is currently being done and what could be improved. Although workers generally demonstrated good awareness of OHS and noise-related issues, knowledge of the problem does not necessarily translate into effective behaviour change. Workers' behaviour was explored with respect to the Health Belief Model, and suggestions are made on how to build on an existing safety culture to further reduce noise exposure.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.187-196. 19 ref.
Olayinka O.S., Abdullahi S.A.
An overview of industrial employees' exposure to noise in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria
This study evaluates and compares industrial employees' noise exposure level in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin, Nigeria. The highest and lowest average noise exposure levels are recorded in mineral crushing mills (93.16 dB(A)) and the mattress making industry (84.69 dB(A)) respectively. The study shows that there is significant difference in noise levels in the industries surveyed. High percentages of machines emitting noise above FEPA and OSHA recommendation (90 dB(A)) were found: soft drink bottling industry (83.3%), beer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), tobacco industry (71.4%), mattress making industry (11.1%) and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the noise levels in the soft drink bottling industry was reduced by 0.58 dB(A) and that of the brewing and bottling industry by 9.66 dB(A), but that of the mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On the average, the noise control measures put in place have had significant impact on the noise exposure.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.123-133. Illus. 25 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/123/_pdf/-char/ja/ [en inglés]
Cole G.P., Spencer E.R., Bauer E.R.
DOSES - Software manual and implementation guide
The Determination of Sound Exposures (DOSES) software was developed by NIOSH specifically for use in the mining sector. DOSES simplifies the record-keeping and analysis, making it easier to identify and solve noise problems. The software uses profiles of workers' daily activities. At the same time, noise measurements are collected with a dosimeter. Observations concerning the worker's location and tasks or other activities are recorded along with times and durations so they can later be matched up with the noise data. The information is entered into DOSES, which then displays information about the worker's accumulated noise dose over time.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, May 2009. iv, 25p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2009-135.pdf [en inglés]
Lutman M.E., Davis A.C., Ferguson M.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Epidemiological evidence for the effectiveness of the noise at work regulations
The United Kingdom Noise at Work Regulations 1989 and Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Regulations) are designed to minimize the risk of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined their effectiveness in a longitudinal field study, where participants were followed-up annually over a period of three years. Audiometric and otoacoustic emission measures were obtained in 154 recruits aged 18-25 years at risk of noise-induced hearing loss through occupational exposure and 99 non-exposed controls. The study had power to detect approximately 1-2dB change per year, which is a smaller change than would be expected in the noise-exposed participants without protection. There were no significant effects on auditory function, or rate of change in function, in the risk group when other potential explanatory variables were taken into account. Nor were there significant effects when contrasting exposed participants working in companies demonstrating relatively lower or higher compliance with the Regulations. Noise levels in exposed participants averaged approximately 88-89dB(A) before accounting for hearing protection. The only significant effects on hearing demonstrated in the study were small effects of estimated social noise prior to the study, for example at nightclubs or from personal audio systems. It is concluded that there is no evidence of lack of effectiveness of the Regulations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 85p. Illus. 69 ref.
RR_669.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Musicians' hearing protection: A review
The music and entertainment industry is unique in that high noise levels are often regarded as an essential element for the enjoyment of people attending concerts and live music events. However, there is a risk of hearing damage for people working in the music and entertainment industry, including musicians. One of the methods used to reduce noise exposure is the use of appropriate hearing protection. Many different types of hearing protection have been marketed for musicians including pre-moulded earplugs, custom-moulded earplugs and in-ear monitors. In order to support the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) understanding of this issue, the types of hearing protection available to musicians were identified. Telephone interviews were then conducted with nineteen professional musicians to collect information on: the type of hearing protection (if any) musicians are currently using; musicians' attitudes to hearing protection including whether they think it is, or it can be, effective and whether it allows them to do their job effectively; and the factors musicians consider important when choosing hearing protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 51p. Illus. 45 ref.
RR_664.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Glass recycling - Noise exposure from simulated roadside collection of recyclable glass - Follow-up measurements
This report describes the results of trials carried out relating to the noise exposure of workers engaged in roadside collection of glass for recycling. Previous tests under controlled conditions had established the dominant sources of noise when glass is collected into metal troughs on a roadside collection vehicle, and identified working factors likely to affect noise exposure. The trials described here were carried out to assess the effect of modifications to the design of the troughs on the noise levels produced. Results show that lining collection troughs with a suitable resilient material, and providing a flap to partially cover the opening of the trough, can significantly reduce the noise levels produced compared to a standard metal trough. Within the context of the reductions in noise that have been shown, working factors such as the speed and method of depositing glass in to the collection troughs remain a factor in the noise levels produced, with rapid depositing producing the highest noise levels and also preventing the full benefits of the modifications to the collection trough being realized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 43p. Illus. 5 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_651.pdf [en inglés]
Schäper M., Seeber A., van Thriel C.
The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry
The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during five years. Workers' lifetime weighted average exposures to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings. Recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study. Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry. Noise intensity was significant for auditory thresholds. However, no relationships were found between auditory thresholds and toluene concentrations, toluene exposure duration and interactions between toluene and noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.
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