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The facts about fume - A welding engineer's handbook.
An introduction on safety precautions in welding is followed by sections devoted to: airborne pollutants (dustfall; particulate fume; gases); responsibility of management and workers (Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974); sampling of workplace fume concentrations; control of welding fume (general and local exhaust ventilation; fume-extractor welding gun; dust respirator; air-fed welding helmet; self-contained breathing apparatus); hazardous metals; flame processes, manual metal-arc welding, MIG-welding, cored electrode processes (flux-cored wires) (typical fumes and gases; pollutants; precautions); submerged-arc welding; air-arc gouging; welding or cutting coated steels (types of coating; degreasing solvents; precautions; removal of coatings); other processes. There are 3 appendices giving: United Kingdom Factory Inspectorate requirements; TLVs; and extracts from American National Standard ANSI Z49-1-1973 concerning ventilation during welding (in use until a British standard is available on the subject).
Welding Institute, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AL, United Kingdom, 1976. 31p. Illus.
Verfverwerking [en holandés]
Introductory remarks on the composition and use of paints are followed by chapters on the following aspects: fire, explosion and health hazards (inhalation, TLVs for some 50 solvents and thinners; ingestion, cutaneous absorption and sensitisation; preventive measures); definitions; storage of paints, solvents and thinners (fire and explosion prevention, special precautions for storage and use of organic peroxides); packing and handling; premises for preparation of and work with paints (layout, equipment, electrical installations, heating, etc.); ventilation of painting booths and workposts; fire extinguishing; safety rules (no smoking, good housekeeping, periodic inspections, hygiene, first aid); labour law and labour inspection.
P no 139, Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Voorburg, Netherlands, 1976. 28p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Glds.0.50.
Göthe C.J., Övrum P., Hallen B.
Exposure to anesthetic gases and ethanol during work in operating rooms.
Measurement of halothane and ethanol in operating theatres yielded levels of up to 34ppm (exposure of anaesthetic nurses to halothane) and 46.6ppm (ethanol, surgical nurses), with time-weighted averages of up to 12.5 and 15.3ppm respectively. In controlled experiments with exposure to halothane or ethanol about 60% of the substances were retained; ethanol rapidly fell to zero in the end-expired air, while halothane persisted for more than 1h. Effective ventilation of operating theatres calls for local exhaust close to the leakage source in addition to general ventilation. Various aspects of ventilation are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.96-106. 70 ref.
Olander L., Krantz S.
A method for testing the dust collection degree of local exhaust systems
En metod att bedöma punktutsugningssystems infĺngningsförmĺga [en sueco]
A method for testing the efficacy of manual grinding machine exhaust systems was developed. For testing the method, 4 different grinding machines with local exhaust hoods were used on iron, plastic and concrete. The conditions which ordinarily cause variation during concentration measurements in dust-producing processes were controlled during the tests. A particle counter (Royco 225) was used for the dust measurements. For the evaluation, a mathematical expression which describes the dust collection degree of the local exhaust system was used.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1976:2, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. 40p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: Swe-Cr.14.00.
Avions ŕ peindre. [en francés]
News report on an ultramodern paint shop of a large French aeroplane manufacturer. The shop has an automatic air conditioning system permitting work in healthy and comfortable conditions: air temperature 15-25°C, humidity 55-70%, rapid workshop air renewal. The system, which includes equipment for filtration, humidification, warming, distribution of fresh air and evacuation of polluted air, is described in detail with diagrams.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1976, No.4, p.154-161. Illus.
Gabriel J.M., Moncelon B., Michel L.
Occupational hygiene in underground galleries - The case of tunnel workers
La salubrité du travail en galeries souterraines - Le cas des tunneliers. [en francés]
Report of measures to determine the efficacy of ventilation equipment in 8 tunnel construction sites excavated full face. Description of the worksites and mode of operation of the tunnelling machine; nuisances and hazards encountered; sampling apparatus. Mean respirable particle concentrations were very much higher than the accepted threshold limit values, given their quartz content of 13 and 19% (670 and 530 particles/cm3 respectively) in most worksites, at the various workposts (control cab, track laying, mine car loading). Further studies of the hygiene conditions of underground galleries are thus called for. Measures to improve ventilation.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1976, No.2, p.66-74. Illus. 3 ref.
Molčanov V.N., Ivanov S.K.
Increasing the efficacy of tubular silencers mounted on auxiliary ventilation fans
Povyšenie ėffektivnosti trubčatyh glušitelej šuma ventiljatorov mestnogo provetrivanija [en ruso]
Description of a simple method for improving the efficacy of tubular silencers for auxiliary ventilation fans in hard headings and coal faces: reduction of the thickness of the outer cylinder and of the cylindrical core (both in sound-absorbing material) and insertion of one or more sound-absorbing cylinders between the outer cylinder and the core. The results of comparative tests are given.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Oct. 1975, No.10, p.42-43. Illus.
Control of harmful substances
Schadstofferfassung [en alemán]
This book sets out to provide design engineers with basic information on equipment for the control of harmful substances. It begins with considerations on the subject of pollutant load of the atmosphere and summarises the relevant legislation in the German Democratic Republic. Means of reducing this load are then presented: increased air renewal rate, workplace design, and exhaust ventilation at the source. The section on theoretical principles deals with local exhaust equipment, thermal upcurrents, push-pull ventilation, and a guide to exhaust speed.
Verlag Technik, Oranienburger Strasse 13-14, DDR-102 Berlin, 1975. 128p. Illus. 82 ref. Price: M.16.00.
Ventilation during painting work
Ilmanvaihto maalaustöissä [en finlandés]
Ventilationen vid mĺlningsarbeten [en sueco]
This article reviews Finnish legislation concerning local exhaust and other types of ventilation for painters' workplaces, and considers relevant design principles: spray painting booths (local exhaust ventilation of toxic and flammable mist); design of non-enclosed painters' workplaces; removal of solvent vapours during drying; purifying exhaust air; design of exhaust ventilation ducts and fans (flameproof construction); other painting methods (airless paint spraying, electrostatic paint spraying, manual painting by brush or roller coating, dip coating); precautions when painting the inside of tanks. Rules for calculating hourly volume of air to be exhausted from a painting workplace or booth. CIS has only the Swedish-language version.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1975, No.6, p.4-8. Illus. 10 ref.
Dveri-fil'try [en ruso]
Letter to the editor in which the use of plastic filter doors is suggested to stop airborne dust at underground coal faces and stone drifts. These permeable doors, which could be installed at locations with the greatest cross-section to avoid pressure drop, would ensure the admission of cleaner air at the coal face. A pipework system on the side of the door would allow the filtering surface to be washed periodically and impregnated with a wetting agent.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1975, No.5, p.59.
Twardowski W., Ostrowska M.A., Matuszak M., Geppert M.
Attempt at a mathematical description of the relations between certain physical parameters characterising the atmosphere of production premises
Próba matematycznego opisania zależności pomiędzy niektórymi parametrami fizycznymi charakteryzującymi środowisko powietrzne w promieszczeniach produkcyjnych [en polonés]
Description of 2 mathematical models used to determine the distribution of air pollutants, an indispensable parameter for the design of an appropriate ventilation system. The first model, in the form of a complex polynomial based on spatial network theory, takes account of the interaction between the different emission sources. The second, a system of differential equations resulting in an algorithm, expresses the influence of the air movement due to the ventilation on the distribution of dust concentration in a closed space. The results obtained by applying these models confirm the possibility of a mathematical representation of the phenomena that are involved in the propagation of pollutants in the air of production workplaces.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1975, Vol.25, No.86, p.179-195. Illus. 11 ref.
The comparative efficiency of an acute-angled deflector for forge ventilation designed by the VCSPS Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
K voprosu o sravnitel'noj ėffektivnosti ostrougol'nogo deflektora konstrukcii Vsesojuznogo Instituta Ohrany truda VCSPS primenitel'no k ventiljacii kuznic [en ruso]
Results of a comparative study in Soviet railroad forges to evaluate the efficiency of a chimney deflector designed for natural ventilation. The deflector is described; it is superior to previous models.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1975, No.5, p.50-52. Illus. 1 ref.
Razdol'skij L.G., Striževskij M.I.
Optimal layout of emergency ventilation systems in chemical industry workshops
Optimal'noe raspoloženie avarijnyh ventiljacionnyh ustrojstv v cehah himičeskih proizvodstv [en ruso]
The authors propose equations for calculating the optimal placement for emergency ventilators to evacuate flammable or toxic gases in case of a disaster in a rectangular area. The exhaust power of tne ventilators is calculated for elimination of the strongest dangerous concentration in any point of the working area. It is recommended that the gas detectors should be placed in critical points (pressure apparatus, flange joints, etc). Results of a computer analysis to resolve an emergency ventilation problem in the Soviet chemical industry.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', Apr. 1975, No.4, p.59-60. Illus. 2 ref.
Douglas C.P., Plummer R.M.
Welding fume threshold limit values.
The gases and fumes produced by welding in shipbuilding and repairing environments are discussed. The USA threshold or ceiling values are compared with the concentrations at operators' breathing zone levels: carbon monoxide (TLV 50ppm) 2-20ppm, nitrous fumes (no TLV) 2-8ppm, nitrogen dioxide (CLV 5ppm) trace:1ppm, iron oxide (TLV 10mg/m3) 2.7-17.2mg/m3, copper (no TLV) 0.05-0.25mg/m3, and zinc oxide (no TLV) 2.4-6.4mg/m3. Ventilation by high pressure fans and ducting with flexible polyvinyl chloride tubes were chosen and the cost of local exhaust ventilation for a worker was calculated as Ł90.00 per year. Factors in successful checking of the ventilation performance are also given.
Metal Construction, Sep. 1975, Vol.7, No.9, p.465-471. Illus. 3 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, London, 1975.
Foundry dust control - Fettling benches and small adjustable hoods.
This second report by the Subcommittee on Dust and Fume of the Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries in the United Kingdom is concerned with particular applications of the principles of local exhaust ventilation to some types of benches for the fettling of castings. The different types are described and illustrated (without and with partial or full enclosure, extraction through the working surface and/or rear slot). Benches with almost full enclosure and extraction through the working surface provided the best results. It is recommended that mechanical cleaning should precede hand fettling of castings to reduce the amount of dangerous dust. The report further surveys small adjustable hoods designed for the control of dust produced by hand-held power-driven abrasive wheels on large castings. Because of the dynamic working conditions these exhaust systems never control the whole of a dust cloud. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London, S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1975. 25p. Illus. Price: Ł0.45.
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Dust extraction systems in the ceramics industry - Recommendations of the Joint Standing Committee for the Pottery and Allied Industries.
Information on the use of dust extraction equipment for protecting workers in the ceramics industry against the inhalation hazard of fine dust (<5µm) with a silica or lead content. It is explained that there are a number of simple points of design and operation which make all the difference between good and bad dust extraction and these points are considered under the following headings: application of exhaust draught to the dust source; arrangement of ducting to carry away the dusty air; disposal of dust and dusty air; maintenance and testing of exhaust ventilating plant; suggested engineering standards for dust extraction plants (hoods and exhaust openings, metallic and non-metallic ducts, dust collectors, inspection and testing); specifications of exhaust hoods already recommended by the Joint Standing Committee; notes on emission from, and collection efficiency of, dust collectors.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1., United Kingdom, 1975. 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: Ł0.40.
Air renewal in chemical plants
Vozduhoobmen v himičeskih cehah [en ruso]
Description of studies on a model of a 2-storey industrial building representing a styrene production plant, with its various sources of heat and gases, aimed at improving general ventilation and air renewal in the chemical industry. The microclimate at all workplaces can be improved by ceiling exhaust alone at each floor and by making sure that fresh air is admitted and uniformly distributed by wall-mounted dilution ventilation outlets.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Mar. 1975, No.3, p.15-17. Illus. 2 ref.
Local exhaust ventilation systems combined with air curtains
Mestnye otsosy s pritočnoj vozdušnoj stenkoj [en ruso]
Combination of local exhaust ventilation with a protective screen of the air curtain type has several advantages: sources of gas emissions can be dealt with across the curtain without any mechanical obstacle, the curtain is not affected by high temperatures, etc. The article gives examples of this combination, (aluminium production by electrolysis) and shows how the volume of air necessary for an air curtain of given surface dimensions and the volume of air to be extracted can be calculated. Example of such a calculation.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Mar. 1975, No.3, p.11-15. Illus.
Practical methods of reducing airborne contaminants in interior spaces.
The article is mainly concerrned with equations for predicting indoor concentrations of airborne contaminants (gases, vapours, liquid droplets, solid particulates). The theoretical equations were validated by field tests with tobacco smoke. The section on engineering controls reviews manufacturers' rating of filters by the weight and the "dust spot" methods, and media types (employing glass or other fibres) and electrostatic types of filter.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1975, Vol.30, No.11, p.552-556. Illus. 7 ref.
Working Party on Laboratory Fume Cupboards, British Occupational Hygiene Society Technology Committee.
A guide to the design and installation of laboratory fume cupboards.
The recommendations and comments contained in this guide are based on a review of the literature and experimental data available and on the results of special tests. They relate to partial enclosures equipped with a door and mechanical exhaust ventilation and not to simple canopies; total enclosures (glove boxes, etc.) are not dealt with. Specifications cover the design, equipment, installation, operation and testing of fume cupboards. The mean face velocity should be 0.5m/s and its variations should not exceed ±15%. Appendices include a review of the literature and historical background, a description of the tests carried out by the Working Party and information on lining and duct materials, sash construction and other design features.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1975, Vol.18, No.4, p.273-291. Illus. 30 ref.
Pozin G.M., Veksler G.S.
Determination of location of air inlet for the ventilation of vessels during shipbuilding or ship repair
Opredelenie mesta zabora atmosfernogo vozduha dlja ventiljacii pomeščenij strojaščihsja ili remontiruemyh sudov [en ruso]
Results of research on the laws governing the flow of air along a ship's deck, and description of research on scale models with the hold hatches opening near or at a great distance from the superstructure. If there are no obstacles with sharp edges near the air inlet, the latter may be located on the windward side without danger of intake of foul air; such a danger would only exist in the case of a flat calm. The pure air zone around an air inlet located at some distance from the superstructure commences at a height of 5m above the deck level.
Sudostroenie, Mar. 1975, No.3, p.43-44. Illus. 3 ref.
Notification No.13/1975 concerning control of air pollution and of radiations during MIG and TIG welding
Meddelelse nr.13/1975 om bekćmpelse af luftforurening og strĺlingsfare ved MIG- og TIG-svejsning m.v. [en danés]
A review of the health hazards due to smoke, gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone) and ultraviolet and infrared radiation emitted during the MIG and TIG processes is followed by an outline of prevention measures to be taken at the welding site: general ventilation; local exhaust ventilation (illustrated by several examples of devices attached to the welding bench or gun); use of filter glass spectacles (with details of the light transmission factor to be chosen according to the welding current intensity). Undertakings are required to employ competent persons to ensure that the measures recommended are observed.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvćngets Allé 16-18, 2100 Křbenhavn, Denmark, 15 Sep. 1975. 12p. Illus. Gratis.
Fire and explosion hazards with movable equipment for the removal of sawdust and wood shavings by exhaust draught
Brand- und Explosionsgefahren an fahrbaren Einzelabsauggeräten für Hobelspäne und Holzstaub [en alemán]
An introduction summarising the results of explosion experiments performed with sawdust and wood shavings of various dimensions in a specially designed recipient is followed by a description of experiments carried out with various types of local exhaust ventilation systems used in industry. The results obtained show that there is a fire hazard where there is a high proportion of fine dust and if the source of ignition has sufficient energy. These conditions are rarely encountered in practice.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Apr. 1975, Vol.27, No.4, p.129-135. Illus. 1 ref.
Nomogram for calculating the dimensions of ventilation openings
Nomogram pro dimenzování aeračních otvorů [en checo]
The nomogram presented is a simple illustration of the relationships used for the numerical calculation of ventilation parameters. The range of individual variables is selected in such a way as to enable the nomogram to be used in most cases occurring in practice. It can be used in designing ventilation openings in any hot workplace, if the value of coefficient A is known (rate of air flow producing a temperature change of 1°C per unit thermal load).
Bezpečná práca, 1975, Vol.6, No.2, p.26-30. Illus.
Bedocs L., Pinniger M.J.H.
Development of integrated ceiling systems.
This paper discusses the requirements to be met by fully integrated ceiling systems incorporating lighting, air-handling, sound control and fire protection and the test specifications for their individual components. Appendices are devoted to the determination of plenum depression and heat transfer values of the luminaire and to the presentation of integrated ceiling systems in use in two large offices. The discussion which followed the presentation of the paper is reproduced.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1975, Vol.7, No.2, p.69-84. Illus. 22 ref.
Harmful fumes and mist - Measures to prevent the spread of harmful fumes and mist produced during electric welding
Schadelijke dampen en nevels - Maatregelen tegen verspreiding van schadelijke dampen en nevels, welke ontstaan bij het elektrisch lassen [en holandés]
Every type of arc welding causes large quantities of gases and aerosols to be given off. This article describes, with illustrations, a number of practical measures to eliminate this hazard and to keep the exposure of workers within tolerable limits: general ventilation of premises where welding is carried on; local exhaust ventilation of fumes in a welding booth, over a welding bench, on jobs involving the welding of large-dimension parts, and in confined spaces; combined local exhaust and general ventilation; helmet with built-in air supply; special local exhaust ventilation devices for gas-shielded arc welding.
Lastechniek, Nov. 1975, Vol.41, No.11, p.193-204. Illus.
Bastress E.K., Niedzwecki J.M., Nugent A.E.
Ventilation requirements for grinding, buffing, and polishing operations.
This report covers the development of ventilation criteria for 9 classes of equipment in order to prevent worker exposure to airborne dust. The machines for the operations concerned were examined and classified. Models of particle transport were designed and the ventilation measured and analysed to obtain optimum conditions. Maximum ventilation efficiency occurred at minimum ventilation flow rate. Current systems generally provide effective dust control.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-107, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1974. 188p. Illus. 21 ref.
Government of India, Ministry of Labour, Directorate-General, Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes, Bombay 22.
Exhaust ventilation for dust and fume control.
Handy illustrated booklet, suitable for students of occupational safety and health methods in the developing countries, giving practical advice on the various aspects of this type of equipment: local exhaust system (hood, side draught hood, duct work); air cleaners and dust separators (settling chambers, dry dynamic precipitators, wet collectors, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, centrifugal and axial flow fans. Exhaust systems for some industrial operations (spray painting booths; arc welding; grinding; buffing and polishing; woodworking; foundry dust; swing frame grinder, etc.) are considered, and sections are devoted to: dilution ventilation, testing of exhaust ventilation systems (measurements of air flow by pitot tube, manometer, or by various types of anemometer (rotating or swinging vane; heated thermometer; heated wire), etc.
Controller of Publications, Delhi-110006, India. 47p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Rp.3.35; US-$1.21.
Recent developments in fume extraction.
This review of metal-arc welding fume extraction includes threshold limit values of substances in the fumes and the responses of the body to fumes. 3 main types of ventilation are mentioned: general ventilation of the fabrication shop, local and portable exhaust ventilation, and specialised ventilation of confined spaces. Apparatus described are: Swedish Vau "S" system, Marland portable unit, Brauer-Airmover models, Bahco fan unit, Starcrest and RFD-GQ Ltd. air-supplied welding helmets, BOC Starcrest extractor, Bernard collectors, Mig welding gun with BVC exhaust system, Hobart exhaust system, GKN Lincoln welding installation incorporating fume extraction, and a personal fume sampling instrument.
Welding and Metal Fabrication, Guildford, United Kingdom, May 1974, Vol.42, No.5, p.160-168. Illus. 7 ref.
Kovalev V.I., Kropancev A.M., Nalobin D.P.
Variation in the particle size distribution of dust in relation to the velocity of ventilation flow
Zavisimost' parametrov raspredelenija razmerov častic pyli ot skorosti ventiljacionnoj strui [en ruso]
Results of measurements to determine the particle size distribution of airborne dust as a function of the velocity of air flow. The particle size distribution was log normal with respect to the various air velocities. The average logarithm of the particle diameter is in linear relation to the velocity. Mathematical analysis yields an empirical function for calculating the particle size distribution in relation to different air speeds. Comparative analysis of the empirical and the theoretical distribution functions indicates that the hypothesis of a normal distribution is valid.
Gornyj žurnal - Izvestija vysših učebnyh zavedenij, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.53-55. 3 ref.
Theory and calculation of air curtains isolating sources of harmful emanations
Teorija i rasčet lokalizujuščih strujnyh ograždenij istočnikov vrednyh vydelenij [en ruso]
Results of theoretical and experimental studies on circular or flat air curtains for containing harmful emanations: proposed mode of calculation (with examples) and industrial uses (air curtains enclosing hardening baths or drying kilns). The air curtain method is recommended in all cases where it is impossible to enclose otherwise a source of harmful gases or aerosols and where local exhaust ventilation does not provide an adequate solution.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.22-26. Illus. 6 ref.
Koptev D.V., Prečistenskaja T.S., Kučina A.B.
Dust control in machining reinforced plastics
Sniženie zapylennosti vozduha pri obrabotke stekloplastikov [en ruso]
Data on the dust produced in machining (turning, drilling, milling) parts in plastic materials reinforced with mineral or glass fibres. Description of an exhaust system with dust-separating cyclones, and various local exhaust ventilation systems.
Mašinostroitel', Dec. 1974, No.12, p.32-34. Illus.
Svenska Gjuteriföreningen, Jönköping, Sweden.
Recirculation of ventilation air in fettling shops
Recirkulation vid ventilation av rensningsarbetsplatser [en sueco]
Report on an investigation into the feasibility of recirculating cleaned air previously exhausted from a fettling shop in order to save air heating costs. The tests performed and equipment used are described in detail. The best results from both the occupational hygiene and economic points of view were obtained with a combination of cyclone or scrubber and filter dust collector (bag filter). It is recommended that filter installations for recirculating air should be provided with a warning device which is actuated as soon as a filter is damaged.
Report 74009, Mekanresultat, Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, June 1974. 23p. Illus. Price: Swe-cr.38.00
Faxvall S., Olander L.
Investigation into the effect of ventilation on particle concentration in air during tunnelling
Undersökning av ventilationens effekt pĺ partikelkoncentrationen vid tunneldrivning [en sueco]
Results of dust measurements carried out in 2 tunnels being driven. The adaptation of the ventilation to the different phases of the tunnelling work (drilling of shotholes, blasting, loading of broken rock) greatly contributes to control the concentrations of airborne dust. Typical ventilation schedules and data on ventilation parameters are reproduced. An interesting finding was that too high a ventilation rate is liable to cause increased spreading of respirable dust.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie, 1974:10. Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1974. 75p. Illus. Price: Swe-cr.17.00.
Industrial ventilation - A manual of recommended practice.
The material of this profusely illustrated and comprehensive manual is presented in a practical, concise, easy-to-understand manner. Theoretical discussions and complex equations are not given. Definitions and general principles of ventilation are followed by chapters devoted to: dilution ventilation for health and fire; ventilation for heat control; hood design; design procedure; make-up and recirculated air; construction of local exhaust systems; testing of ventilation systems; fans; air-cleaning devices. The manual is sufficiently complete to permit an industrial ventilation system to be designed without reference to other texts. An appendix contains current threshold limit values and physical constants of airborne contaminants, and tables and design charts in metric units are given in a supplement.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Committee on Industrial Ventilation, P.O. Box 453, Lansing, Michigan 48902, USA, 13th edition, 1974. 353p. Illus. 115 ref. Price: US-$6.00.
Ventilation of underground excavations
Ventilation des ouvrages souterrains. [en francés]
This article enumerates some of the principles applying to the ventilation of large undergound excavations, and gives an example of the application of these principles during the preparatory work for the construction of an underground hydroelectric power station; general features of the site; how the work progressed; installation of a ventilation system and subsequent modifications as the project progressed.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1974, No.1, p.4-14. Illus.
Dust collecting and extracting equipment for ventilation ducts
Ustanovka po ulavlivaniju i udaleniju pyli iz ventiljacionnyh kanalov [en ruso]
Description of a relatively simple dust collecting and extracting system for mine ventilation ducts. The dust carried by the air stream is precipitated by inertia in settling chambers at duct bends, moistened by water sprays and collected in bins where it can be extracted by sludge pumps.
Ugol', July 1974, No.7, p.50-51. Illus.
Flanigan L.J., Talbert S.G., Semones D.E., Kim B.C.
Development of design criteria for exhaust systems for open surface tanks.
This is the final report summarising a development programme in which current tank ventilation practices were reviewed, experimental equipment designed and constructed, and design criteria developed on the basis of experimental studies. Present-day trends in tank design and use were taken into account, and the experimental equipment, which included a full-size tank and hood, was designed to simulate the many operating conditions found in actual installations. The study results are presented in such a form as to permit the design of exhaust systems specifically tailored for a given application.
NIOSH Research Report, HEW Publication No. (NIOSH) 75-108, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Oct. 1974. 66p. Illus. 5 ref. Gratis.
Vaščenko V.S., Serbin A.N., Krasikov N.I., Verba E.F.
The ventilation of pitheads and ways to improve it
Ventiljacija bašennyh koprov i puti ee ulučšenija [en ruso]
Results of practical studies carried out in fully enclosed pitheads to assess ventilation and dust concentrations. It is recommended that pitheads should be designed and ventilated in such a manner that no dust-laden external air can enter the shaft and the pithead premises. Examples are given of concrete measures to ensure a normal environment for the winding-engine operators.
Gornyj žurnal, Apr. 1974, Vol.150, No.4, p.69-73. Illus. 6 ref.
General and local ventilation in kitchens
Opća i lokalna ventilacija u kuhinjama [en serbocroata]
This article examines the ventilation requirements of small, medium-sized and large restaurant kitchens and gives advice on efficient design of general ventilation and local exhaust ventilation systems: air renewal rate and volume of air required can be read off from 2 tables; relation between fresh air and exhausted air; tubing; filters.
Sigurnost, 1974, Vol.16, No.4, p.51-57. Illus. 3 ref.
Il'in V.P., Bočkarev V.N.
Model survey of the distribution of alloy dust from type metal in a type-setting shop
Issledovanie na modeli haraktera rasprostranenija gartovoj pyli v pomeščenii [en ruso]
Description of a study undertaken on a model of a type-setting shop with 8 type-founding machines and equipped with local exhaust and air renewal systems. The distribution of the aerosols measured at the different workplaces represented in the model confirmed the measurements made in the workshop: the exhaust and ventilation openings were correctly placed and thus ensured complete elimination of the lead aerosols. The arrangement of the exhaust and air renewal systems in relation to the type-founding machines is illustrated by a diagram.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.33-34. Illus.
Ėl'terman E.M., Lysenko A.G., Dubejkovskaja L.S., Krupkin G.Ja.
Lead emission on tin soldering
O vydelenij svinca pri pajke [en ruso]
Results of analysis of air samples from workplaces where assemblies are soldered with a lead-tin alloy. At modern workplaces equipped with exhaust ventilation lead concentrations exceeded the USSR threshold value of 0.01mg/m3 in only 19% of cases. When there was no local exhaust system, on the other hand, lead concentrations were up to 10 times the threshold limit value.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.29. 3 ref.
Occupational hygiene problems involved in the reconstruction of a shotblasting workshop
Arbeitshygienische Probleme bei der Rekonstruktion einer Stahlkiesanlage [en alemán]
Review of the layout and installation of a shotblasting shop for steel sheets and sections in a railway equipment factory. Description of the measures taken, in collaboration with various specialists, in the fields of noise abatement, air conditioning and lighting, having regard to the results of research undertaken in the Dem. Rep. of Germany and abroad: lining of the roof with wooden elements and installation of sound baffles (sound-absorbent cones); soundproofing of cabins and shotblasting machines; use of air-supplied dust hoods; exhaust of dust-laden air and supply of fresh air with humidity and temperature regulation; illumination by daylight; general lighting by fluorescent lamps.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1974, Vol.21, No.3, p.93-106. 98 ref.
Kuz'min M.S., Poljakov E.I.
Air-curtain covers for sources of harmful emanations
Vozdušno-strujnye ukrytija istočnikov vrednyh vydelenij [en ruso]
Theoretical analysis of the aerodynamic behaviour of annular and flat parallel air jets, and results of experimental studies to determine their basic parameters. On the basis of these results air-curtain covers were designed which enable harmful emanations to be contained and exhaust inlets to be located at some distance from the source of emanation. Simplified formulae are given for calculating the required air volume and curtain dimensions.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1974, No.7, p.15-19. Illus.
Kuz'menko V.K., Kozlov V.A., Saenko E.A.
Cleaner air and more effective ventilation for a welding shop
Ulučšenie vozdušnoj sredy i ėffektivnost' ventiljacii sboročno-svaročnogo ceha [en ruso]
The authors assessed the efficiency of the ventilation system of a shipyard assembly shop where large quantities of dust and fumes were produced by arc welding large-surface or bulky assemblies. The results of the measurements showed that the general ventilation system did not ensure a sufficient air exchange at all workplaces. It was therefore recommended that exhaust openings or hoods should be arranged at the levels of maximum dust and fume concentration, and that enclosed or otherwise confined workshop sections should in addition be equipped with air-line respirators which enable their wearers to choose optimum air pressures and temperatures. The solutions adopted are described and illustrated.
Sudostroenie, May 1974, No.5, p.54-56. Illus. 3 ref.
Assessment of a two-rate ventilating system for gang-type centrifugal spinning machines
Ocenka dvuhrežimnoj ventiljacii centrifugal'nyh prjadil'nyh mašin s brigadnym obsluživaniem [en ruso]
Description of an exhaust ventilation system for viscose-rayon gang spinning machines which ensures equal exhaust volumes on all spinning units which are equipped with individual fans in addition to the common exhaust fan at the plenum outlet. As soon as the enclosure is opened for attending, the system is automatically switched to a higher exhaust flowrate to reduce exposure to carbon disulfide to an admissible level. The advantages of this two-rate system are discussed from the points of view of occupational hygiene and economy.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.24-25. Illus.
Leskov Ė.A., Medencov L.F.
Low-frequency baffle silencers
Nizkočastotnye plastinčatye glušiteli [en ruso]
Results of studies on silencers incorporating a thick sound absorbent for attenuation of low-frequency noise from ventilation or air-conditioning systems. These baffle silencers have a better attenuation power than honeycomb silencers for frequencies below 250Hz.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.24-27. Illus. 10 ref.
Decisions to improve working conditions without influencing productivity: Study of a specific case in garages in France
Decisions d'amélioration des conditions de travail sans influence sur la productivité: Etude d'un cas particulier aux garages en France. [en francés]
Study of the reasons inducing employers to invest in improvements in working conditions without a corresponding increase in productivity. Test employed: equipment for elimination of exhaust gases in garages. Under the French regulations, the provisions of which are quoted, its installation is not mandatory. A questionnaire was sent to 2,000 garages; 302 replies were received. Among garages that had not installed such equipment, the proportion of those with economic motives was very small compared with those offering technical reasons. In garages in which it was installed, business considerations had overriden social or sanitary criteria. The majority considered that the short-term profitability of this equipment is insignificant, but admit that the investment is justified. Several tables show the influence of geographical situation and the economic, industrial and social environment of their business on garage owners. Conclusion: this equipment in installed above all by large garages, in which the social pressure exerted by a large qualified staff is by no means negligible. Undertakings concerned with short- and medium-term profitability are less in favour of social expenditure than those that take the long-term view.
Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris. Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail, Aix-en-Provence, France, Sep. 1973. 157p.
K rasčetu vozdušnyh zaves [en ruso]
Presentation, with an example, of a calculation method to determine optimum air flow in economic terms.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Feb. 1974, No.2, p.22-24. Illus. 6 ref.
De Gids W.F.
Location of fume hoods for laboratory ventilation
De plaats van de zuurkast met betrekking tot de ventilatie van de laboratoriumsruimte [en holandés]
Fume hoods should be fully integrated in the laboratory ventilation system in order to meet the aerodynamic prerequisites of good ventilation and fume exhaust. The results of aerodynamic studies are reproduced, and rules are established for the optimal location of fume hoods: air velocity at the fume hood site should be less than 0.5 m/s; hoods should preferably be located at the opposite end of air conditioners or ventilation openings; wall locations are preferable to aisle locations; doors next to hoods and frequent passages of persons can disturb the air flow into the hood; 2 or more hoods should preferably be placed side by side.
De veiligheid, Apr. 1974, Vol.50, No.4, p.153-156. Illus.
Ventilation systems for restaurant kitchens
Lüftungstechnische Anlagen in gewerblichen Küchen [en alemán]
Guidelines for the construction and maintenance of ventilation ducts and exhaust hoods with reference to German standards and regulations. Calculation of exhaust hoods. A false ceiling with incorporated ventilation is described. Information is given on the choice of ventilation equipment. Control systems are also discussed.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Feb. 1974, No.2, p.55-59. Illus. 6 ref.
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