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Holub R.F., Droullard R.F., Ho W.L., Hopke P.K., Parsley R., Stukel J.J.
The reduction of airborne radon daughter concentration by plateout on an air mixing fan.
The effects of condensation nuclei, humidity and turbulence on the rapid deposition (plateout) of radon daughter activity on the chamber walls were studied in an environment chamber. Under low humidity conditions the presence of a small fan reduced the working level by 41%. The activity actually became attached to the fan blades. A relative humidity above 80% totally inhibited the effect. The mechanism of the effect is discussed.
Health Physics, Apr. 1979, Vol.36, No.4, p.497-504. Illus. 17 ref.
Kunz E., Ševc J., Plaček V., Horáček J.
Lung cancer in man in relation to different time distribution of radiation exposure.
The excess of lung cancer in a large group of uranium miners followed for 26 years was related to the conditions of exposure to radon daughter products. The dose-effect relation varied with the time distribution of exposure: at higher cumulative exposures the lung cancer incidence per unit of exposure decreased as the exposure rate increased. The decrease mainly concerned small-cell undifferentiated cancer types.
Health Physics, June 1979, Vol.36, No.6, p.699-706. Illus. 16 ref.
Ševcová M., Ševc J., Thomas J.
Alpha irradiation of the skin and the possibility of late effects.
New data on epidermal thickness are used to estimate the dose equivalent delivered to the basal layer of the epidermis by external α-radiation from radon daughters. Following several years' exposure in uranium mines the cumulative dose exceeds 1,000rem. Eight years' observation of several thousand uranium miners yielded a higher frequency of basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
Health Physics, Dec. 1978, Vol.35, No.6, p.803-806. 12 ref.
NIOSH current intelligence bulletin reprints - Bulletins 1 thru 18.
These reprints include the initial notification of the hazards presented, the background (studies, toxicity in animals and humans, workers and industries subject to exposure, supplier and users of the substances) and bibliographies. Studies in progress are mentioned and recommendations are given for chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, chrome pigments, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, diethylcarbamoyl chloride, explosive azides, inorganic arsenic, nitrosamines in cutting fluids, metabolic precursors of 2-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-127, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1 Mar. 1978. 125p. 104 ref.
Axelson O., Sundell L.
Mining, lung cancer and smoking.
This update of an earlier study of zinc-lead miners showed a 16-fold increase in lung cancer mortality. Surprisingly, non-smokers were more apt to develop lung cancer than smokers, but the induction-latency time was about nine years shorter on the average for smokers. An explanation for these findings might be that smoking increases the thickness of the mucous layer and therefore protects the bronchial epithelium against alpha radiation from radon daughters, but it also promotes the development of cancer once induced by the radiation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1978, Vol.4, No.1, p.46-52. 20 ref.
Rock R.L., Beckman R.T.
Measurements of some of the factors which influence the radon daughter health hazard.
Measurements were made in 4 underground uranium mines. Results are given for: unattached daughter concentrations, condensation nuclei concentrations, radon to radon daughter equilibrium ratios, radon emanation rates, and γ-radiation dose rates.
MESA Informational Report 1067/1977, Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, USA, 1977. 12p. 9 ref.
Lung cancer in uranium miners - 2 case studies
Le cancer du poumon des mineurs d'uranium - Etude à propos de deux cas. [en francés]
MD thesis. 2 case studies of lung cancer in uranium miners, due to inhalation of radon daughters, followed by a review of the state of the art, considering the epidemiological, experimental, histological and toxicological aspects of the question (determination of a maximum permissible concentration) and problems of radiation protection and statutory compensation. In spite of the relative inadequacy of the sampling, epidemiological surveys have shown a significant relation between lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters in excess of 120WLM (working level months). Biological research has thrown up incriminating evidence regarding the role of X-rays emitted by active radon deposits in the causation of lung cancer in uranium miners, possibly potentiated by other factors (smoking habits, exhaust gases, etc.).
Université de Clermont-Ferrand I, Faculté de médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 1977. 43p. Illus. 46 ref.
Radon and thoron working levels from ordinary industrial-hygiene dust samples.
The method is an improvement of that reported under CIS 75-1900. Its advantages are: measurements do not require special samples; the sampling time of >2h is highly suitable for estimating average exposure; radon and thoron working levels are both obtained; the method is highly sensitive (an 0.001 working level is easily measured). Theoretical considerations are appended.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, July 1977, Vol.20, No.1, p.49-53. 4 ref.
Radiation exposures associated with surface mining for uranium.
Measurements of external gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters, and uranium aerosols were made at an operating open-pit mine using readily available field survey techniques and instruments. Measurement techniques are discussed. Radiation exposure of various occupational categories, such as excavation equipment operators, truck drivers, equipment maintenance personnel, ore control personnel, and engineering staff, is estimated. These estimates are compared with the results of film badge dosimetry. While the average exposure rate was about 0.5mR/hr ±0.5mR/hr, it was noted that higher exposures (up to 10mR/hr) were measured in the vicinity of ore bodies containing uranium in the 5% range. Some contamination of earth-moving equipment by uranium-bearing dusts was also noted.
Health Physics, June 1977, Vol.32, No.6, p.523-527. Illus. 10 ref.
Kotrappa P., Mayya Y.S.
Revision of Raghavayya and Jones' data on the radon decay products in mine air.
This note points out errors in the equations presented by Raghavayya and Jones in a previous paper (CIS 74-1610). The revised equations are given and the published data recalculated.
Health Physics, Oct. 1976, Vol.31, No.4, p.380-382. 5 ref.
Pohl E., Pohl-Rüling J.
Determination of environmental or occupational 222Rn in air and water and 226Ra in water with feasible and rapid methods of sampling and measurement.
Description of the air-sample container (flexible superpolyamid foil, capacity 30l) and water-sample container (special glass bottles, volume 0.5 and 2.5l), and the laboratory measuring equipment for 222Rn and for 226Ra. The measuring equipment consists of a 10-20l ionisation chamber connected to an electronic electrometer and a chart-recorder. 226Ra in water is determined by measuring the 222Rn formed.
Health Physics, Oct. 1976, Vol.31, No.4, p.343-348. Illus. 14 ref.
Proceedings of the 4th Medichem International Conference, Haifa, Israel, 7-10 Sept. 1976.
Some 40 papers were included in these conference proceedings, 5 of them in German. Papers reproduced in full are arranged in sections on: industrial toxicology (international cooperation regarding medical hazards in the chemical industry; pulmonary oedema caused by irritating gases with delayed effect; prolonged inhalation of low diisocyanate concentrations; logarithmic representation of urinary mercury levels; biochemical parameters in lead exposure; kidney damage in lead workers; metal content of scalp hair as an indication of exposure; immunological study in radon-222 exposure; determination of volatile organics in air); neurotoxicity (experience with and studies on acrylamide; EEG changes in toluene-exposed rats; vasodepressor action of organophosphate anticholinesterases; neurotoxicity of styrene in production and polymerisation workers; tetraalkyllead in petrol; reaction time as a means of determining the TLV of acetone); international cooperation (standards setting; basic research; factory layout; screening for occupational cancer; toxicology testing; medical prevention in the Federal Republic of Germany).
Organizing Committee, P.O. Box 1018, Haifa, Israel, 1976. 186p. Illus. 109 ref.
Ševc J., Kunz E., Plaček V.
Lung cancer in uranium miners and long-term exposure to radon daughter products.
An epidemiological study in several thousand uranium miners in Czechoslovakia, divided into 3 age groups, showed an increasing ratio of observed to expected lung cancer incidence above 100 working level months (WLM) in the group as a whole and above 150WLM in the younger groups. The results are compared with those of U.S. studies up to 1973.
Health Physics, June 1976, Vol.30, No.6, p.433-437. 12 ref.
Radon and radon daughter concentration in tunnels
Radon und Radonfolgeprodukte in Tunnels und Stollen [en alemán]
Workers in tunnels may be exposed to radiation due to radon or its daughters. Studies in various tunnels and galleries in Switzerland showed that whenever ventilation was provided the radon daughter concentration was below the maximum permissible level of 0.3WL. Higher concentrations were found only in 2 cases: a uranium mine which had for a long time been without ventilation, and a water-feed tunnel in which the ventilation system had been removed after tunnelling had been completed.
Mitteilungen der Sektion Physik der SUVA, Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Luzern, Switzerland, Apr. 1976, No.4, p.95-138. Illus. 6 ref.
Radiation protection in mining and milling of uranium and thorium.
Les problèmes de protection posés par l'extraction et le traitement de l'uranium et du thorium. [en francés]
Proceedings of a symposium organised by the ILO and the French Atomic Energy Commission, in co-operation with the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, held at Bordeaux, France, 9-11 Sep. 1974. The texts of 22 papers and reports read at the symposium are reproduced in the original language (English or French) with summaries in Russian and Spanish. Discussions following the papers are summarised. An introductory report is followed by papers grouped under the following aspects of the problem: epidemiology, radiotoxicology; maximum permissible levels; technical and administrative radiation protection measures; monitoring in the working environment; medical surveillance, etc.
Occupational Safety and Health Series No.32. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1976. 350p. Illus. 328 ref. Price: SF.35.00.
Strong J.C., Laidlaw A.J., O'Riordan M.C.
Radon and its daughters in various British mines.
This report covers 100 mines other than coal mines. Measurement methods are described, and estimates of the average radon daughter concentrations are given. Radon and radon daughter concentrations are compared. Implementation of recommendations following a survey in 1973 (radon daughter exposure then above the recommended limit of 4WLM (working level months) in 40% of workers) reduced the proportion of exposed workers to 30%. Recommendations for reducing exposure and for radiological protection are made.
NRPB-R39, National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 ORQ, United Kingdom, Nov. 1975. 24p. 13 ref. Price: £0.50.
Ohira M., Yoshioka S., Masuda K., Matsumoto S.
Polonium-210 excreted in urine of the workers in a uranium mine.
Urinary excretion of Po-210 of workers in a uranium mine was studied to evaluate internal exposure to Rn-222 and its daughters. Subjects working inside the pit had significantly elevated urinary Po-210 levels (1.35pCi/day) while those of subjects working outside and of a control group were normal. Although there was no correlation between urinary Po-210 excretion and either accumulated working time underground or estimated internal Rn-222 exposure, the result suggests a possible environmental assessment procedure.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Dec. 1975, Vol.30, No.5, p.556-561. Illus. 14 ref.
Occupational radiation exposure due to 222Rn in natural gas and natural gas products.
The author identifies possible occupational exposure pathways to 222Rn and its daughters in the natural gas industry and reports on the results of his studies at 9 natural gas processing plants in the USA. The main conclusions of his survey are that while both internal and external exposures to the radiations from 222Rn and its short-lived daughters do occur, the magnitudes of these exposures are not serious. There appears to be a potential hazard of exposure to long-lived radon daughters built up on the internal surfaces of processing equipment (pumps) when such equipment is being dismantled for maintenance purposes.
Health Physics, Nov. 1975, Vol.29, No.5, p.681-687. Illus. 16 ref.
George A.C., Hinchliffe L., Sladowski R.
Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres.
The size distribution of radon daughters was measured in several uranium mines using 4 compact diffusion batteries and a round jet cascade impactor. Simultaneously, measurements were made of uncombined fractions of radon daughters, radon concentration, working level and particle concentration. The size distributions found for radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 to 0.3µm (mean 0.17µm). Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 (mean 0.04). The radon daughter sizes in these mines are greater than those assumed by various authors in calculating respiratory tract dose. The disparity may reflect the widening use of diesel-powered equipment in large uranium mines. Before generalisations can be made about the size distribution of radon daughters, the environmental characteristics of uranium mines must be studied individually.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1975, Vol.36, No.6, p.484-490. Illus. 26 ref.
Rapid measurement of radon, decay products, unattached fractions, and working level values of mine atmospheres.
Proposed method of obtaining these data by a new manipulation of the "summation rules" results. Properly applied, with proper instrumentation, total information on the airborne concentrations of radon and its short-lived daughters can be determined in a total of 7.5min. The information can be developed at the location sampled, and is thus available for immediate use.
Health Physics, Apr. 1975, Vol.28, No.4, p.472-474. Illus. 4 ref.
Unattached radon decay products in mine air.
Critical study of an earlier report (Raghavayya and Jones) that the values of f (unattached activity/total activity) for RaB (Pb-214) generally exceeded those for RaA (Po-218) while the values for RaC (Bi-214) were about the same as for RaA. Arguments in favour of a method of obtaining a more reasonable estimate.
Health Physics, Feb. 1975, Vol.28, No.2, p.158-161. 2 ref.
Evaluation and control of radon daughter hazards in uranium mines.
Technical information report covering the following subjects: physical and chemical characteristics of radon and daughter products; biological effects; dosimetric considerations; evaluation of uranium mine atmospheres; control of exposure; evaluation of individual exposures; personal protection devices; glossary of terms.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-117, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov. 1974. 64p. 162 ref.
A method for measuring the working-level values of mixed radon and thoron daughters in coalmine air.
Airborne radioactivity in mines can reach hazardous levels even where no obviously radioactive mineral is present. Field trials involving measurement of alpha activity of shift-long respirable dust samples were carried out over 8 months using the MRE gravimetric dust sampler: the value obtained was fairly close to a shift average. The theoretical basis of the method is described in great detail. Since there was no significant difference between the radioactivity levels calculated from respirable and total dust samples, it was possible to use standard respirable dust samples for routine work.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1974, Vol.17, No.1, p.23-34. 18 ref.
Radon progeny exposure measurement using lead-210.
This technical information report describes investigations leading to a technique for monitoring the average alpha-exposure due to airborne decay products of radon-222 in a uranium mine atmosphere, laying stress on theoretical considerations. The basis of the method is to collect a long-term, high-volume sample, let the short-lived radon daughters decay to lead-210, and count the lead-210 using liquid scintillation techniques. Only a fraction of the lead-210 activity counted was attributed to the direct collection of short-lived daughters, however, the remainder being due to a variety of indeterminate background sources. Thus any continuous monitoring technique based on measuring accumulated lead-210 levels on an air filter or in a miner's blood comes up against serious problems. Appendices give details of Fairman's ion exchange procedure and (in summary) the dithizone separation technique.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-116, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Oct. 1974. 66p. Illus. 18 ref.
Nelson I.C., Parker H.M.
A further appraisal of dosimetry related to uranium mining health hazards.
Contents: introduction; characterisation of mine atmosphere; lung model and breathing patterns; deposition of active material in the respiratory system; regional translocation and equilibrium activities; target tissue and dose; subjective basis of dose comparisons; conclusions and recommendations. Appendices are devoted to: radon (222) decay scheme; comparison of lung models; regional translocation and equilibrium activities; development of dose; dose equations and calculated results; subjective dose calculation, etc., much of this information being given in tabular form.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)74-106, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Apr. 1974. 106p. Illus. 48 ref.
Ščalaev I.L., Byhovskij A.V., Saltykov L.D., Pavlov I.V., Komodov A.A., Šiškin V.I.
Basis of evaluation of radioactivity in uranium mines
Osnovnye principy ocenki radiacionnoj obstanovki v uranovyh rudnikah [en ruso]
The authors show that radioactivity in uranium mines is essentially a function of the latent energy of airborne daughter products of radon. They indicate the optimum volume of information necessary in order to define the noxiousness of the radioactive environment (external radiation, atmospheric contamination by α-emitting radioisotopes and by radon and its daughters), and to determine the protective measures to be taken.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.41-46. 10 ref.
Radon-222 and its daughters - A review of instrumentation for occupational and environmental monitoring.
A survey of the techniques developed for measuring 222Rn and its daughters in various media, in particular for monitoring and protection in occupational and environmental situations. Individual sections are devoted to: physical characteristics of 222Rn and its decay chain; radiation protection guides laid down in the USA for radiological protection of the lungs in the uranium mining industry; and sources of radon and its daughter products and typical concentrations encountered in the natural environment and in occupational exposures. Measurement techniques are described: measurements of radon (gas) concentrations; measurements of working level; measurements of individual radon-daughter concentrations; working level dosimetry.
Health Physics, Feb. 1974, Vol.26, No.2, p.145-163. Illus. 59 ref.
Raghavayya M., Jones J.H.
A wire screen-filter paper combination for the measurement of fractions of unattached radon daughters in uranium mines.
Description of a technique for measuring equilibrium ratios and fractions of unattached radon daughter atoms in air. Values obtained by this method in several U.S. uranium mines are presented.
Health Physics, May 1974, Vol.26, No.5, p.417-429. Illus. 22 ref.
Radiation protection in uranium mines.
This standard, sponsored by Atomic Industrial Forum, is intended to draw attention to minimum requirements for the protection of miners from overexposure to radiation and radioactive dust and gases in uranium mines. It also suggests control procedures as a guide for management and the competent authorities and agencies in the field of radiological safety in the mining of ores. Sections are devoted to: definitions; external exposure; concentration guide for radioisotopes in air; air sampling for radon daughters and radon; interpretation of air samples; sampling patterns for control purposes; record keeping for individual cumulative exposures; control measures (ventilation, inactive areas, drinking water); protective equipment (respirators); smoking; management and employees' responsibility; procedures for measuring radiation, etc.
ANSI N.13.8-1973, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 18 July 1973. 22p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: US-$5.00.
Groer P.G., Evans R.D., Gordon D.A.
An instant working level meter for uranium mines.
To overcome the disadvantages of the field method recommended by Kusnetz for measuring the working level of short-lived radon daughters in uranium mine atmospheres, the authors have developed an instant working level meter which can evaluate the working level in a uranium mine atmosphere within 4min; 2min are needed to measure the background (due mostly to ambient gamma radiation) and 2min are required to measure background plus working level. The construction and operation of the instrument are described.
Health Physics, Apr. 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.387-395. Illus. 10 ref.
Proceedings of the 6th Conference on radiation hygiene, 1973.
The communications to this Conference, held at Jasna pod Chopkom, which are reproduced in this volume, include: investigation of immunoglobulin levels in the blood serum of uranium miners; the influence of work stress on immunoglobulin levels of uranium miners; exposure to radiation of the hands of laboratory workers and medical assistants working with products labelled with radionuclides; excretion of tritium in workers preparing labelled compounds; individual dosimeter for fast neutrons; histological types of lung cancer at different exposures to radon daughters; radiation-induced lung cancer: relation between lung cancer and long-term exposure to radon daughters; determination of the radium 226 body burden on the sole basis of radon exhalation measurement of whole-body gamma radiation; use of biochemical indicators of exposure in the uranium industry.
Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene, Purkyně Medical Research and Postgraduate Institute Press, Hradec Králové, Czechoslovakia, 1973. 2 vol. 340p. Illus. Bibl.
Archer V.E., Wagoner J.K., Lundin F.E.
Lung cancer among uranium miners in the United States.
Excess respiratory cancer has been demonstrated among all groups of uranium miners who have had more than 120 WLM (working level months) of radon daughter exposure. Lung cancer incidence rose with increasing exposure. Possible errors and factors which might distort the exposure-response relationship are reviewed. While cigarette smoking probably contributes to the excess of respiratory cancer in miners, permissible levels for radon daughters must be based on data derived from the environment in which miners continue to work and live.
Health Physics, Oct. 1973, Vol.25, No.4, p.351-371. 21 ref.
A study of mortality from lung cancer among miners in Kiruna 1950-1970.
Retrospective study of mortality due to lung cancer among iron-ore miners in the Kiruna region. 13 cases of lung cancer were found as against 4.5 cases predictable on the basis of lung cancer mortality for the rest of the male population in 12 of the 13 patients who died of lung cancer were smokers. The lung cancer mortality among non-mine workers was the same as for the rest of the male population in Sweden. The concentration of radon daughters in the mine was around 30pCi per litre in earlier years, but this figure has probably been exceeded at times. Exposure to diesel fumes did not influence the results as only 1 of the 13 men who died of lung cancer worked during the period when diesel engines were used underground. The combined effects of radon and some of the substances found in diesel fumes should not, however, be disregarded in the future. A follow-up study should therefore be made after about 15-20 years of exposure to diesel exhaust gas.
Work - Environment - Health, 1973, Vol.10, No.3, p.126-133. Illus. 18 ref.
Method of determining urinary 210Po
Metodă de dozare a Po-210 din urină [en rumano]
Description of a method of determining polonium 210, a metabolite of radon 222 to which uranium miners are exposed, in urine. The method does not require the mineralisation of the sample (which considerably reduces handling time) and makes use of polonium's property of sedimenting spontaneously on nickel plates by electrochemical action. Its sensitivity is very high (up to 3.32 pCi/l) and it may be used on very small samples.
Igiena, July 1973, Vol.22, No.7, p.431-434. Illus. 12 ref.
Hodge H.C., Stannard J.N., Hursh J.B.
Uranium - Plutonium - Transplutonic elements.
This book is intended primarily as a textbook for toxicologists, with emphasis on the control of hazardous elements in industry and the environment. Chapters are devoted to: history of uranium poisoning; physical and chemical properties of uranium; animal experiments; data on man; protection criteria; environmental monitoring and personnel protection in uranium processing; uranium mining hazards; biomedical aspects of plutonium; chemical and physical properties of plutonium; distribution, excretion and effects of plutonium as a bone-seeker; plutonium in soft tissues with emphasis on the respiratory tract maximum permissible body burdens and concentrations of plutonium; bioassay of plutonium; industrial hygiene, health physics and related aspects; plutonium in the environment; history of the transplutonic elements; metabolism and biological effects of the transplutonium elements; maximum permissible concentrations and maximum permissible body burdens; bioassay of transplutonium elements; medical uses: americium-241 and californium-252. Extensive alphabetical author and subject indexes are provided.
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Heffter-Heubner New Series, Vol.36, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1 Berlin 33, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973. 995 p. Illus. Approx. 2,600 ref. Price: US-$153.40.
Cancer induction in man from internal radioactivity.
Sections of this literature review relate to occupational cancers and the respective responsible radionuclides in uranium miners and radium dial painters. Virtually all of the observed malignancies arose within the irradiated tissues.
Health Physics, Dec. 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.585-592. Illus. 42 ref.
Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene
Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Radiation Hygiene, 1971, Jasna pod Chopkom, Czechoslovakia
The majority of the papers presented are in English. Titles include: fast-neutron spectra detection by threshold detectors; fast-neutron dose determination by direct 32P counting in hair; lung cancer hazard of long-term exposure to radon daughters in uranium mines; evaluation of accidental radioisotope contamination, by measurement of total β-activity in urine; monitoring urinary 90Sr excretion in man; tritium contamination hazard in the operation of a neutron generator and a van de Graaf accelerator; internal tritium contamination in certain jobs.
Purkyně Medical Research and Postgraduate Institute Press, Hradec Králové, Czechoslovakia, 1971 2 Vols. 391p. Illus. Bibl.
Radon daughters and age of ventilation air
A contribution to the study of the distribution of radon daughters throughout an uranium mine ventilation system, taking into account the concept of radioactive "age" of the air and the processes which affect radon daughter concentrations in mine ventilation air.
Health Physics, July 1972, Vol.23, No.1, p.118-120. Illus. 6 ref.
Ševc J., Plaček V., Jeřábek J.
Lung cancer risk in relation to long-term radiation exposure in uranium mines
Paper read at the 4th Conference of Radiation Hygiene at Jasná pod Chopkom, Czechoslovakia, 1971. Initial results of an epidemiological study on 4364 uranium-mine workers show a linear relationship between the relative incidence of new cases of lung cancer and cumulative exposure to radon daughter products, and a significant relationship between this incidence and age at first exposure. It is considered that 10-years exposure to a mean radon daughter product concentration of 4x104MeV/L may produce a maximum of 5 new cases of cancer per 1000 workers.
Purkyně Medical Research and Postgraduate Institute Press, Hradec Králové, Czechoslovakia, 1971, p.315-326. Illus. 11 ref.
The accuracy and precision of the Kusnetz method for the determination of the working level in uranium mines
A re-assessment of the method which is in general use in the USA to determine the working level in underground uranium mines, following the establishment of a new, lower standard for the annual accumulated dose due to airborne radon daughters. In the majority of cases, the Kusnetz method (which is described in the paper) will under-estimate the actual working level of "young" air in a uranium mine atmosphere (i.e., of a mixture of air, radon and radon daughters where the radon daughters RaA, RaB and RaC have had little time - compared to their half lives - to grow to their equilibrium values).
Health Physics, July 1972, Vol.23, No.1, p.106-109. 2 ref.
Lenger V., Houšková M., Malátová I.
The radon emanating fraction in dial painters
A summary presentation of the results of measurements carried out on 16 dial painters exposed for periods of 2 to 13 years to determine the proportion of radon exhaled in relation to whole-body activity (expressed as 226Ra). The mean value obtained for this ratio was 0.681.
Health Physics, July 1972, Vol.23, No.1, p.109-111. 8 ref.
Radiation protection - Radiation measurement
Strahlenschutzpraxis - Messtechnik [en alemán]
This new, revised and expanded edition contains an introduction on radiation measurement, a review of the main detectors, dosimeters and the main measurement methods used in radiation protection. In addition, a number of chapters are devoted to the measurement of neutron emissions and to measurement techniques based on solid physics. Certain chapters, such as those on the verification of sealed radioactive source leaktightness, have been expanded.
Verlag Karl Thiemig, Pilgersheimer Strasse 38, 8 München 90, Federal Republic of Germany, 2nd ed., 1972. 283p. Illus. 113 ref. Price: DM.26.00.
Novak L.J., Panov D.
Polonium-210 in blood and urine of uranium mine workers in Yugoslavia
88 uranium miners were studied to determine the correlation between the concentrations of atmospheric radon to which they were exposed and the concentrations of Polonium-210 in their blood and urine. Radon exposures were of the order of 7.5 x 10-10Ci/L, i.e. more than twice the MAC value. It was found that it is not possible to evaluate the total exposure of miners to radon and and its daughters by determining 210Po in the blood and urine while they are still exposed to 210Po.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.192-196. Illus. 19 ref.
American Industrial Hygiene Association
Intersociety Committee methods for ambient air sampling and analysis - Report II
This second report (for Report I, see CIS 73-1066), presents 9 standard methods of sampling and analysis for the routine determination of the following pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead-210, radon-222, iodine-131, antimony, selenium, formaldehyde, and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity. Method of collection, principle, interferences, sensitivity, special reagents and equipment as well as references are given for each method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1972, Vol.33, No.5, p.353-359.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Protección contra las radiaciones en la extracción y el tratamiento de minerales radioactivos
Radiation protection in the mining and milling of radioactive ores [en inglés]
Radioprotection dans l'extraction et le traitement des minerais radioactifs [en francés]
Este documento contiene dos textos. El primero consiste en un código práctico sobre la protección frente a radiación ionizante dirigido a las personas que trabajan en la extracción y el tratamiento de minerales radioactivos. En el sumario: provisiones generales; monitorización de la radiación; supervisión médica; medidas protectoras y equipos para el control de gases y polvo radioactivos. El segundo texto es un apéndice con información técnica que podría ser útil en la aplicación de medidas de control.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1968. vi, 108p. 16 ref. Index.
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