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1995

CIS 96-1866 Finkelstein M.M.
Silicosis, radón y riesgo de cáncer de pulmón entre los mineros de Ontario
Silicosis, radon, and lung cancer risk in Ontario miners [en inglés]
Los mineros de uranio están expuestos a un riesgo importante de desarrollar cáncer de pulmón, riesgo éste generalmente atribuible a la exposición al radón. Sin embargo, los mineros también están expuestos a la sílice, clasificada por el CIRC como una sustancia posiblemente cancerígena para el hombre. En un estudio del riesgo de cáncer de pulmón realizado sobre 328 mineros silicóticos, entre los que se encontraba un pequeño grupo de mineros de uranio (23 individuos), se ha comprobado que el factor de riesgo del radón disminuye en importancia a medida que se corrige el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón en función de la presencia de silicosis. Asimismo, el tabaquismo constituye un importante factor de riesgo, aunque no es posible incluirlo en los modelos estadísticos. Los resultados sobre el potencial de riesgo del radón son inciertos por causa del reducido número de mineros de uranio que había en esta muestra. Se precisan estudios complementarios para confirmar el papel de este factor.
Health Physics, set. 1995, vol.69, n°3, p.396-399. Ilus. 12 ref.

CIS 96-1014 Gundy S., Bank J., Bojtor I., Köteles G.J.
Cambios de cromátides hermanas en los linfocitos de los mineros que trabajan subterráneamente expuestos al radón
The occurrence of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of radon-exposed underground ore miners [en inglés]
Se investigaron los cambios de cromátides hermanas (CCH) en las muestras de sangre periférica de mineros que trabajaban en minas de uranio subterráneas expuestos a diferentes niveles de radón y de controles no expuestos. Se identificaron seis grupos de exposición de acuerdo a los niveles de exposición. Aunque no se observó ninguna tendencia general en la frecuencia de los CCH en función de la exposición al radón, se destacaron diferencias significativas entre algunos grupos de mineros. Se debaten los resultados en cuanto a la oportunidad de los controles biológicos entre los trabajadores expuestos al radón.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, vol.1, n°1, p.78-86. 13 ref.

CIS 96-655 Brooks S., Gochfeld M., Herzstein J., Schenker M., Jackson R.
Medicina medioambiental
Environmental medicine [en inglés]
Contenido de este manual: principios generales y científicos básicos de la medicina medioambiental (riesgos ambientales, evaluación de los riesgos y la exposición, toxicología, cancerogénesis); medicina clínica medioambiental (diagnóstico, vista, oido, afecciones cutáneas, problemas respiratorios, toxicidad hepática y renal, sistema nervioso, alteraciones inmunológicas); poblaciones de riesgo (susceptibilidad, síndrome de intolerancia a los productos químicos, exposición infantil); fuentes específicas de exposición en el medio ambiente (contaminación del aire y el agua, amianto, fibras minerales y artificiales, incendios y productos de pirolisis, radiaciones, vibraciones, presión térmica, medicina de grandes altitudes y aeroespacial, agentes químicos y biológicos, residuos peligrosos); técnicas de prevención (control de la salud, biomarcadores, intervenciones en los casos de catástrofes químicas, comunicación de la información sobre los riesgos nocivos para la salud).
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1995. xix, 780p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: GBP 69,00.

CIS 96-993 van Netten C., Brands R.B., Morley D.R., Sabels B.E.
Desarrollo de un monitor personal para las exposiciones de larga duración al radón
Development of a long-term personal radon monitor [en inglés]
Se diseñó un monitor personal para la exposición al radón basándose en una técnica de grabado de pistas y fue testado situándolo en la caja de un reloj. Durante dos meses, 49 individuos llevaron estos monitores de manera ininterrumpida. Los monitores de radón estándar REM AT-100 se situaron en los domicilios de cada uno de los sujetos y los niveles de radón detectados localmente se utilizaron para estimar la exposición en los períodos de tiempo pasados lejos de sus casas. Se obtuvo una buena correlación entre los monitores estándar y los que estaban dentro de los relojes. Estos dispositivos, que recibieron la aprobación de los participantes, pueden emplearse para el control de las atmósferas domésticas y profesionales.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, nov. 1995, vol.56, n°11, p.1107-1110. Ilus. 15 ref.

1994

CIS 97-987
Kriteriegruppen för fysikaliska riskfaktorer
El radón en el lugar de trabajo. Informe de etapa
Radon i arbetsmiljön: Lägesrapport [en sueco]
Durante varias décadas se ha prestado atención a los riesgos para la salud asociados a la exposición al radón en diferentes ambientes. Recientemente han aparecido nuevos estudios, de alcance más modesto, sobre la exposición en edificios de viviendas. Partiendo de esta situación y teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de recomendaciones a nivel internacional y de un nuevo programa de acción en Suecia, el grupo encargado de la documentación básica sobre los factores de riesgo físico del Instituto Nacional Sueco de Higiene en el Trabajo decidió publicar este informe de etapa con las siguientes conclusiones: conceder una prioridad de primer orden a las medidas de reducción del nivel de radón en el lugar de trabajo; utilizar el programa de acción del Instituto sueco de Radioprotección (SSI) para los edificios de viviendas y ciertos lugares de trabajo, como base de este estudio; incluir en el programa un estudio minucioso de los diferentes lugares de trabajo, especialmente en aquellas regiones que presentan riesgos desde el punto de vista geológico, así como propuestas detalladas de medidas paliativas; previsión de las líneas de actuación en materia de formación e información; emprender una reevaluación de los límites de exposición en las minas, tras las recomendaciones formuladas por la Comisión Internacional de Radioprotección (ICRP) y las directivas de próxima promulgación por la Unión Europea (UE). En anexo: recomendaciones en inglés de la ICRP.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Suecia, 1994. 28p. 10 ref.

CIS 96-1007 Cohen B.L.
Relación dosis-respuesta en la cancerogénesis asociada a la exposición a dosis bajas de radiaciones ionizantes
Dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis in the low-dose region [en inglés]
Estudio bibliográfico de los trabajos in vitro y de los estudios epidemiológicos sobre los efectos de las radiaciones de baja intensidad, incluyendo los estudios sobre los efectos del radón en las casas. Los estudios in vitro demuestran que las radiaciones de baja intensidad aumentan considerablemente la eficacia de la reparación del ADN. Los estudios epidemiológicos en los sujetos expuestos a bajas dosis de radiación han señalado que la incidencia del cáncer en ese colectivo no es más alta que en la población general. La relación dosis-respuesta lineal, sin umbral, utilizada para predecir la incidencia del cáncer debido a la exposición a dosis elevadas de radiación no se aplica en la exposición a bajas dosis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, vol.66, n°2, p.71-75. 39 ref.

CIS 96-641 Langård S.
Prevención del cáncer de pulmón a partir del conocimiento sobre el amianto y otras causas profesionales - La experiencia noruega
Prevention of lung cancer through the use of knowledge on asbestos and other work-related causes - Norwegian experiences [en inglés]
Este artículo intenta evaluar la contribución de diversas etiologías profesionales conocidas del cáncer de pulmón en la población masculina noruega para prever las posibilidades de prevención de los casos de etiología profesional. Las estimaciones que se presentan se basan en los datos obtenidos de estudios epidemiológicos llevados a cabo en Noruega, pero pueden extrapolarse a otros países dotados de estructuras profesionales similares. Durante los últimos diez años, los cánceres asociados al amianto parece que han constituido dos tercios de los casos de cáncer broncopulmonar profesional en Noruega, es decir, aproximadamente 125 a 175 de los 1.100 casos observados (por todas las causas) en la población masculina en 1987. Los compuestos de níquel y el cromo también habían contribuido a ello, aunque en menor medida, al igual que los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, los productos de filiación del radón, el trabajo en el mar y otros agentes menos o nada específicos del cáncer de pulmón. En consecuencia, las posibilidades de prevención deberían acompañarse de acciones sinérgicas.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, vol.20, número especial, p.100-107. Ilus. 59 ref.

CIS 95-1769 Fu H., Gu X., Jin X., Yu S., Wu K., Guidotti T.L.
Cáncer de pulmón entre los mineros de estaño del Sudeste de China: exposición a la sílice, silicosis y tabaquismo
Lung cancer among tin miners in Southeast China: Silica exposure, silicosis and cigarette smoking [en inglés]
Se sometió a estudio la incidencia del cáncer pulmonar entre la población minera de la mina de estaño Dachang, en China, conocida por presentar unos niveles relativamente elevados de polvos en suspensión (sílice y otras sustancias potencialmente cancerígenas) y bajas concentraciones de radón. Entre los factores de riesgo asociados al excedente de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón demostrado, únicamente los años pasados perforando bajo tierra y el índice acumulativo de tabaquismo (producto del consumo diario de cigarrillos por el número de años de consumo) aparecieron como factores de riesgo independientes; no se observó ninguna interacción entre los dos. La presencia de silicosis no contribuía a la predicción del riesgo independientemente del número de años pasados bajo tierra.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, set. 1994, vol.26, n°3, p.373-381. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1737 Simonato L., Moulin J.J., Javelaud B., Ferro G., Wild P., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
Estudio retrospectivo de mortalidad entre los trabajadores expuestos al arsénico en una empresa de extracción y refino de oro en Francia
A retrospective mortality study of workers exposed to arsenic in a gold mine and refinery in France [en inglés]
En un estudio de mortalidad realizado en una empresa de extracción y afinado de oro en Francia, se constató un excedente doble de cáncer de pulmón tanto entre los mineros como en los fundidores, y especialmente entre los trabajadores que habían estado expuestos al arsénico, el radón y la sílice. La concordancia de estos resultados en las operaciones de extracción y de afinado sugieren un riesgo cancerígeno en el arsénico soluble e insoluble, sin minimizar la importancia potencial de otros factores.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, mayo 1994, vol.25, n°5, p.625-633. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1767 Carta P., Cocco P., Picchiri G.
Mortalidad por cáncer pulmonar y obstrucción de las vías aéreas entre los mineros de minas metálicas expuestos a la sílice y a débiles concentraciones de los productos de filiación del radón
Lung cancer mortality and airways obstruction among metal miners exposed to silica and low levels of radon daughters [en inglés]
Un estudio efectuado sobre los mineros empleados en dos minas metálicas en Cerdeña reveló un aumento de la mortalidad causada por las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas benignas en ambas minas. Entre los mineros que trabajaban en el interior de la mina A (bajo nivel de sílice y nivel elevado de radón) se observó un excedente de cáncer pulmonar (que aumentaba en función de la duración del trabajo subterráneo); el índice de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón más elevado se observó entre los mineros de interior que padecían un síndrome obstructivo. En la mina B (nivel elevado de sílice y bajo nivel de radón), la cifra de muertes por cáncer de pulmón fue menor de lo que se había previsto. Se puede considerar que existe una ligera asociación entre el cáncer pulmonar y la exposición a los productos de filiación del radón, aunque sea a bajas concentraciones, que debe tenerse en cuenta para los mineros que trabajan bajo tierra. Una alteración de la función pulmonar puede ser un indicador independiente de cáncer de pulmón y un factor de riesgo importante que puede dilatar el tiempo de retención en los pulmones de los productos cancerígenos debido a la alteración de sus aclaramientos bronquial y alveolar.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, abr. 1994, vol.25, n°4, p.489-506. 92 ref.

CIS 94-2082 Wake D., Brown R.C.
Removal of radon daughter aerosols from mine air by filtration
Respirator filters and filtering facepieces were tested for penetration of radon daughter aerosols; tests were carried out in a fluorspar mine and in the laboratory. Respirators with a filtration efficiency high enough for them to be considered suitable for use against toxic dusts generally reduced radon daughter levels by 90% or more, although nuisance dust masks were ineffective. Comparison between on-site tests and tests with a standard aerosol showed that respirators that satisfy an existing standard could be expected to give reasonable protection against radon daughters.
Mining Engineer, June 1994, Vol.153, No.393, p.362-364. Illus. 9 ref.

1993

CIS 07-444
International Commission on Radiological Protection
Recomendaciones de la Comisión Internacional sobre Protección Radiológica ¿ 1990
Recommandations 1990 de la Commission internationale de protection radiologique [en francés]
Contenido de estas Recomendaciones 1990 de la Comisión Internacional sobre Protección Radiológica: unidades utilizadas en la protección radiológica; aspectos biológicos de la protección radiológica; marco conceptual de la protección radiológica; sistemas de protección para las prácticas actuales y futuras; sistema de protección durante las intervenciones; aplicación de las recomendaciones de la Comisión.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, United Kingdom, 1993. ix, 211p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-254 Freixa Blanxart A.
Calidad del aire: gases presentes a bajas concentraciones en ambientes cerrados
Temas tratados: edificios; radón; dióxido de nitrógeno; dióxido de carbono; formaldehido; óxido de carbono; metilmercaptán; dióxido de azufre; hidrógeno sulfurado; determinación en aire; efectos tóxicos; España; gases; microclima; nota informativa; productos químicos; ventilación.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1993. 6p. 7 ref.

CIS 96-667 Chau N., Benamghar L., Pham Q.T., Teculescu D., Rebstock E., Mur J.M.
Mortalidad entre los mineros del hierro en Lorena (Francia) - Relación entre la función pulmonar y los síntomas respiratorios
Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France) - Relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality [en inglés]
En anteriores estudios se observó un aumento de la mortalidad por cánceres de pulmón y estómago entre los mineros del hierro en Lorena. En este estudio, la cohorte examinada estaba compuesta por 1.178 trabajadores, elegidos al azar entre 5.300 mineros, con edades comprendidas entre los 35 y 55 años al comienzo del período de observación que se prolongó desde 1975 a 1985. En cada individuo se evaluaron la exposición profesional, el tabaquismo y las pruebas funcionales respiratorias en 1975, 1980 y 1985. Los resultados confirmaron el exceso de cáncer pulmonar y de estómago. Se consideró que el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón en los mineros del hierro en Lorena, se debía principalmente al polvo, a los humos de los motores diesel y a los explosivos aunque no se puede excluir del todo el papel de una exposición a bajas concentraciones de productos de filiación del radón.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, nov. 1993, vol.50, n°11, p.1017-1031. 96 ref.

CIS 95-1679 Victorin K., Valentin J., Wahlberg K.
Estudio comparativo de los riesgos asociados a los valores umbral de exposición a las radiaciones ionizantes, los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos y el benceno en Suecia
Risk comparisons between limit values for ionizing radiation, PAH, and benzene in Sweden [en inglés]
Se comentan los datos que sirven de base para los valores umbral de exposición a los agentes cancerígenos, ilustrándolos con ejemplos de la exposición profesional y medioambiental al benceno, los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (en especial el benzo [a] pireno, BAP), las radiaciones ionizantes y el radón. Se comparan los riesgos estimativos de cáncer para diferentes valores umbral, y la cifra estimativa anual de casos de cáncer debidos a los actuales niveles de contaminación. Si bien los riesgos individuales de cáncer a lo largo de la vida son mucho más elevados en los valores umbral de exposición profesional al benceno y los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos que en los valores recomendados para el conjunto de la población, la cifra estimativa anual de casos de cáncer es menor en los niveles actuales de contaminación . El riesgo individual de cáncer a nivel del valor umbral de exposición profesional a las radiaciones ionizantes es comparable al riesgo de cáncer profesional debido a los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, pero superior al derivado del benceno. La cifra estimativa de casos de cáncer debido cada año a las radiaciones es bajo y comparable a la cifra estimativa señalada para los contaminantes químicos del aire objeto del presente estudio.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, dic. 1993, vol.18, n°3, p.381-391. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1345 Hirsch A., Goldberg M., Martin J.-P., Masse R.
Prevención de las enfermedades respiratorias
Prevention of respiratory diseases [en inglés]
En el sumario de este manual de nivel universitario: epidemiología de los riesgos respiratorios de origen profesional; factores profesionales de cáncer pulmonar, de vías respiratorias superiores y naso-sinusal; epidemiología del cáncer de pleura; asma profesional; exposición profesional y patología pulmonar no específica crónica; predisposición genética al cáncer de pulmón y factores de riesgo ambientales de las enfermedades respiratorias (radón, partículas multicontaminantes en suspensión en el aire, edificios climatizados, alergenos en suspensión en el aire, polución atmosférica interior o exterior); marcadores biológicos; tabaquismo y enfermedades respiratorias (humo de tabaco presente en el medio ambiente, el tabaco como cancerígeno para las vías respiratorias).
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1993. xxvi, 693p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: USD 199,00.

CIS 95-312 Domański T., Kluszczyński D., Chruścielewski W., Olszewski J.
Métodos informatizados para evaluar los riesgos de cáncer derivado de la exposición a radiaciones entre los mineros
Computer-aided methods for evaluating cancer risk in miners due to radiation exposure [en inglés]
Inventario de los métodos de evaluación de la exposición de los mineros al radón natural así como a sus productos de filiación presentes en el ambiente de las minas, y estudio del papel que desempeña el método empleado para la evaluación de los riesgos de irradiación. Se presentan los principios de métodos informatizados, concebidos para interpretar los datos dosimétricos con el fin de determinar las probabilidades de riesgo de cáncer, así como los resultados para los mineros del carbón, los trabajadores de minas metalíferas y las minas de materias primas destinadas a la industria química en Polonia.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, vol.6, n°4, p.369-381. 13 ref.

CIS 95-257 Willeke K., Baron P.A.
Medición de aerosoles - Principios, técnicas y aplicaciones
Aerosol measurement - Principles, techniques and applications [en inglés]
La primera parte de este manual presenta los principios básicos de los métodos de medida de los aerosoles (muestreo y transporte de aerosoles, técnicas de medida generales, factores que influyen en la calidad de los resultados, métodos de análisis de la distribución granulométrica). La segunda parte expone con detalle las técnicas instrumentales, y la tercera parte describe las aplicaciones (higiene industrial, determinación de las concentraciones de amianto y de otras fibras, medida de los aerosoles en el aire de las minas, muestreo atmosférico, emisiones de polvos, aerosoles existentes en el interior de locales y exposición, medida de los aerosoles en quirófanos, partículas radioactivas.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1993. xviii, 876p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice. Disponible de: International Thomson Publishing Services Ltd., Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire SP10 5BE, Reino Unido. Precio: GBP 82,50.

CIS 95-190
Health and Safety Executive, HM Inspectorate of Mines
Informe 1993 sobre Seguridad Minera emitido por la Oficina Consultora de Investigación a la atención de la Comisión de Higiene y Seguridad (HSC)
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Board 1993 report to the Health and Safety Commission [en inglés]
Este informe contiene una síntesis de los trabajos de investigación examinados en 1993 por la Oficina Consultora de Investigación en Seguridad Minera en los siguientes campos: incendios y explosiones; extracción y transporte; detección, control y supervisión de los gases y vapores en las minas; factores humanos y ergonomía; medicina del trabajo.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, 1993. 18p.

CIS 94-1605 Kabir H., Bilgi C.
Ontario gold miners with lung cancer - Occupational exposure assessment in establishing work relatedness
Determination of the work-relatedness of the compensation claims of Ontario gold miners who had primary lung cancer could not be based upon any strict occupational criteria. However, a relationship between exposure to silica, arsenic, and radon progeny was derived from results of the epidemiological studies. A retrospective occupational exposure assessment of silica dust, arsenic and radon decay products was made in 11 individual cases presented in this paper. The exposure parameters provided persuasive evidence when the data were consistent with the key epidemiological findings, e.g. the miner's age at first exposure, length of dusty exposure, and latency.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1203-1207. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1257
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment
Researching health risks
The Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress analyzed the nature and organization of federally funded research on health risk assessment in terms of the resources and priorities of the agencies concerned (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, among others), the linkage of research to decision-making and the limits of research-based information in making social policy. Assessment of the risks associated with radon exposure was taken as a case study. Promising areas for future research and factors of importance for successful assessment were identified. Risk assessment activities outside the USA were surveyed.
US Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328, USA, Nov. 1993. viii, 228p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 13.00 (+25% for international orders).

CIS 94-1385 Ziegler J.F., Zabel T.H., Curtis H.W.
Video display terminals and radon
Recent reports indicate that video display terminals (VDTs) can collect radon daughters from the air. This occurs especially when they are turned off and may have negative electric fields which attract positively charged radioactive dust. Various techniques were evaluated for removing the gettered radioactivity while the video display terminal is both off and on. An evaluation was also made of what happens when the video display terminal is switched, thereby reversing the electric field near the screen. In addition, possible inhalation effects experienced by a video display terminal operator during field reversal were studied; it was found that although some radioactivity may be released during the cycle, room air currents redistribute it into the room with no detectable levels being inhaled by users.
Health Physics, Sep. 1993, Vol.65, No.3, p.252-264. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1383 Underhill D.W.
Basic theory for the diffusive sampling of radon
From the closed-form solution of the Fickian equation describing the uptake of radon by a diffusive sampler, the following are calculated: (1) the optimal estimate of the time-weighted average radon concentration; (2) the effect of the geometry of the diffusive sampler on performance; (3) the maximum sampling time consistent with a predetermined maximum error in the estimated time-weighted average concentration of radon; and (4) the effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of the sampler. It is shown that the maximum sampling error can be greatly reduced by dividing the adsorbent bed into two layers placed in series and by using a weighted average of the uptakes on the two layers.
Health Physics, July 1993, Vol.65, No.1, p.17-24. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 94-1379 Laurer G.R., Gang Q.T., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Kan C.S., Xiang Y.S., Jian C.Z., Yi H., De G.W., Blot W.J.
Skeletal 210Pb levels and lung cancer among radon-exposed tin miners in Southern China
A preliminary case-control study of 19 lung cancer cases over 55 years of age and 141 age-matched controls was carried out among underground tin miners exposed to 222Rn and its decay products. Radon exposure was estimated through measurement of 210Pb activity levels in the skull, and in working level months. There was a smooth gradient of lung cancer risk with categories of skeletal 210Pb level at time of last radon exposure; relative risks of 1.0, 2.9, 3.2, and 4.7 for categories <51.8, 51.8-77.7, 77.8-107.3, and >107.3Bq (<1,400, 1,400-2,099, 2,100-2,899, and >2,899pCi), respectively. Relative risks were unaffected by adjustment for exposure to arsenic in the mine or by adjustment for working level months. Risks also increased with cumulative working level month exposure, but the gradient of risk lessened after adjustment for exposure to arsenic. 210Pb, at the time of last radon exposure (p=0.13) and at the current 210Pb level (p=0.01), was not highly correlated with the working level month estimate.
Health Physics, Mar. 1993, Vol.64, No.3, p.253-259. 23 ref.

CIS 94-1377 Xiang-Zhen X., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Li-Fen Y., Sheng L.Q., Lan Y., Jian-Zhang W., Blot W.J.
A cohort study in Southern China of tin miners exposed to radon and radon decay products
The report is an historical cohort study of exposure to radioactive radon gas among Chinese tin miners. The cohort consists of 17,143 workers with 175,143 person-years of observation and 981 lung cancer events. The excess relative risk increased linearly with exposure, rising 0.6% per working level month (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4-0.8). Adjustment for exposure to arsenic dust, a known lung carcinogen, reduced the effect of radon exposure to 0.2% per working level month (95% CI = 0.1-0.2). The excess relative risk/working level month declined significantly with attained age and with radon exposure rate as measured by the cumulative working level month divided by duration of exposure. Lung cancer risk did not vary consistently with age at first radon exposure. A joint analysis of radon exposure and smoking status rejected both an additive and multiplicative association; the relationship was consistent with an intermediate association.
Health Physics, Feb. 1993, Vol.64, No.2, p.120-131. 35 ref.

CIS 93-1643 Seifert B., van de Wiel H.J., Dodet B., O'Neill I.K.
National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)
Environmental carcinogens. Methods of analysis and exposure measurement. Volume 12 - Indoor air
This volume reviews the scientific background to the problem of analysis and exposure measurement of environmental carcinogens and the approaches available for analysing the agents covered. Introductory chapters cover: the effects of indoor air pollution on human health; sources of pollution in indoor air; indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogenss; indoor air controls; bioassay of complex mixtures of indoor air pollutants; sampling and analytical procedures; exposure assessments from field studies. Methods and protocols for indoor air pollutants are described for radon and radon-daughters, asbestos, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, environmental tobacco smoke, respirable particles, carbon monoxide and pesticides.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1993. xiii, 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1008 Tomášek L., Darby S.C., Swerdlow A.J., Plaček V., Kunz E.
Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer among uranium miners in West Bohemia
Report on a site-specific cancer mortality study of 4,320 uranium miners in Western Bohemia (Czech Republic), who have been followed up for an average of 25 years, and among whom a 4-fold radon-related excess of lung cancer had already been established. For all cancers other than lung cancer the number of deaths was slightly greater than expected from national rates, but the increase was not statistically significant (O/E 1.11, 95% CI=0.98-1.24). There was no relationship between mortality on one hand, and duration of employment underground and cumulative radon (Rn) exposure on the other. There was a significant increase (unrelated to cumulative Rn exposure) in non-lung cancer mortality among men who started mining work aged under 25. Of the 28 site-specific cancers examined, significant increases were found for cancers of the liver (O/E=1.67) and gallbladder and extrahepatic bileducts (O/E=2.26, related to cumulative Rn exposure). There were no significant increases in overall mortality from multiple myeloma (O/E=1.08) and leukaemia (O/E=0.91), but mortality from these causes increased with cumulative Rn exposure and increased employment duration, respectively. Further research is needed to confirm any association between Rn exposure and cancers other than lung cancer.
Lancet, 10 Apr. 1993, Vol.341, No.8850, p.919-923. 30 ref.

1992

CIS 94-1022 Leinster P., Mitchell E.
Commission of the European Communities
A review of indoor air quality and its impact on the health and well-being of office workers
A review of the literature concerning problems related to indoor air quality and other factors which affect the indoor environment in offices is presented. Topics covered: symptoms associated with problem buildings; psychological aspects; perceptions and sensory effects; common features of buildings with problems; scale of the problem; costs; evaluation criteria; building investigation protocols; airborne contaminants; physical factors; other considerations (odour, lighting, noise and vibration; ions, electrostatic charge); building design and services; activities within the European Communities and the USA.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1992. ix, 109p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 12.00.

CIS 94-366
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
Radiation protection slide sets
Three slide sets, based on the NRPB At-a-Glance series of broadsheets (see CIS 94-365), aimed at providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. The sets are: (1) Radiation doses - Maps and magnitudes; (2) Radon (characteristics of the gas, how it accumulates in buildings, nature and level of the risk, prevention); (3) Medical radiation (production and use of X-rays in diagnosis, protection of staff and patients, use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy, use of magnetic resonance imaging). A copy of the relevant broadsheet is included with each slide set.
Finance and Accounts Office, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 3 slide sets (each of 20 slides with captions). Price (per set): GBP 25.00 + VAT (UK); GBP 25.00 (Europe); GBP 35.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 94-365
National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)
At-a-Glance Series
A series of nine broadsheets (illustrated posters), providing easily understandable information on radiation protection. The broadsheets are: (1) Radiation doses - Maps and magnitudes; (2) Radon; (3) Radiation protection; (4) Transport of radioactive materials; (5) Non-ionizing radiations; (6) Nuclear emergencies; (7) Medical radiation; (8) Partners in protection (the role of industry, various levels of government, professional bodies and interest groups in radiation protection); (9) The NRPB at a glance. Three slide sets on the same topic are also available (see CIS 94-366).
Publication Office, NRPB, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 1992. 9 broadsheets (posters). Illus. Price: GBP 0.15 per broadsheet.

CIS 93-1991 Leslie G.B., Lunau F.W.
Indoor air pollution. Problems and priorities
Contents of this manual: introduction to indoor air pollution problems; the perception of indoor air quality; legionella; bacteria, fungi and other micro-organisms; the oxides of nitrogen; mineral fibres; radon; formaldehyde; hazards from solvents, pesticides and PCBs; vegetable dusts and lung disease; danders, etc. from domestic and laboratory animals; environmental tobacco smoke; industrial environments; extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation; contributions from outdoor pollutants; ventilation for control of airborne pollutants. Each chapter covers exposure levels, sources of pollution and routes of uptake, health effects, control measures and regulatory guidelines.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1992. xi, 329p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 45.00; USD 84.95.

CIS 93-694 Holdsworth B., Sealey A.F.
Healthy buildings - A design primer for a living environment
A book written primarily for architects and people designing working and living environments. It discusses the problem of sick buildings, and emphasises the need for designing buildings for the needs of the people living and working in them, always keeping the local climate in mind. Chapters deal with: health as a design element; climate and human life; factors of influence (external: radiation, wind, outside temperature, precipitation and humidity, air composition and pollution, soil composition, radon, toxic and biological waste, noise and vibration, vegetation; internal: moisture, heating, ventilation, hypersensitivity to chemicals (tight building syndrome), legionnaires' disease, dust and microorganisms, other indoor pollutants (units: 1 olf = air pollution from one standard person; decipol: 1 decipol = 1 olf ventilated by 10L/sec of unpolluted air), indoor air quality, healthy HVAC systems design, displaced ventilation, electromagnetic radiation, internal electric services in buildings, visual appetisers and vegetation); international case studies of healthy buildings; healthy building codes; healthy and unhealthy building materials.
Longman Group UK Limited, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, United Kingdom, 1992. 148p. Illus. 103 ref. Index.

CIS 93-132 Fishbein L.
Exposure from occupational versus other sources
This overview highlights a general comparison of exposure to indoor and outdoor levels of 12 volatile organic compounds and the exposure of workers and the general public to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, phthalate esters, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, radon and electromagnetic fields.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.5-16. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 92-2033 Kluszczyński D.
Transformation of field monitoring results into miners' annual exposures to radon progeny
This paper presents a method for estimating the radiation hazard affecting miners, using the values of radon daughter concentration in the work environment. Measurements carried out in metal ore mines showed that seasonal changes in radon daughter concentration were the principal factor to be taken into consideration in the estimation of the hazard. These measurements also confirm the correctness of the method.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.1, p.77-86. Illus. 8 ref.

1991

CIS 94-872 Amandus H., Costello J.
Silicosis and lung cancer in U.S. metal miners
The association between silicosis and lung cancer mortality was estimated in 9,912 (369 silicotics and 9,543 nonsilicotics) white male metal miners. These miners were examined by the U.S. Public Health Service during 1959-1961 and were followed through 1975. The ores that were mined consisted of copper, lead-zinc, iron, mercury, lead silver, gold and gold-silver, tungsten, and molybdenum. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR, U.S. white male rates) for lung cancer was 1.73 (95% CI: 0.94-2.90) in silicotics and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98-1.42) in nonsilicotics. When lung cancer mortality between silicotics and nonsilicotics was compared, the age-adjusted rate ratio (95% CI) was 1.56 (0.91-2.68), and the age- and smoking adjusted rate ratio was 1.96 (0.98-3.67). Corresponding figures for miners who were employed in mines with low levels of radon exposure were 1.90 (0.98-3.67) and 2.59 (1.44-4.68), respectively. These findings indicate that lung cancer mortality risk was increased in silicotics, and this probably did not result from chance or bias. However, confounding from radon exposure could not be ruled out.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1991, Vol.46, No.2, p.82-89. 31 ref.

CIS 92-1997 Kellard B.
Hazardous substances - Carcinogens guide
This guide is designed for safety officers, occupational hygienists and laboratory workers and aims to provide authoritative reference information on workplace carcinogens. All substances which come within the scope of the British COSHH Regulations (see CIS 89-1092) are included. For each of the 61 substances listed, the following information is provided: chemical identity; properties; uses; carcinogenicity in humans and animals. An introduction includes details of the legislation related to occupational cancer and an overview of the identification and classification of carcinogens.
Croner Publications Ltd., Croner House, London Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT2 6SR, United Kingdom, 1991. viii, 301p. 30 ref. Indexes. Price: GBP 42.10.

CIS 92-1904 Samet J.M.
Diseases of uranium miners and other underground miners exposed to radon
In the United States, most underground uranium mines had shut down by the late 1980's but occupational exposure to radon daughters remains a concern for many other categories of underground miners and underground workers. Worldwide, uranium mining continues in Canada, South Africa, other African countries, and Australia. The paper outlines the relationship between exposure to radon daughters and dose to target cells in the respiratory tract. It summarises epidemiological studies of radon and lung cancer in miners and reviews three of the most recent risk models used to estimate the excess lifetime risk of lung cancer associated with radon daughter exposure. The paper concludes by outlining negative health effects other than lung cancer, including cancer at other sites, non-malignant respiratory disease, renal disease and reproductive outcomes.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.6, No.4, p.629-639. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 92-1613 Grot R.A., Hodgson A.T., Daisey J.M., Persily A.
Indoor air quality evaluation of a new office building
An evaluation of the thermal and environmental performance of a new U.S. government office building was performed as part of a research effort to develop methods for evaluating buildings using advanced technology during the pre-occupancy and early occupancy stages. A diagnostic centre was installed capable of monitoring several parameters, including air filtration and ventilation rates and the levels of indoor contaminants. The contaminants were measured as frequently as every 10 minutes at several locations; they include: carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; respirable particulates; formaldehyde; radon; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are at least 37 VOCs in the interior air. Although the levels of these compounds are below established limits, they are also compounds for which no extensive research has been done to establish irritant levels.
ASHRAE Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.16-18, 20, 23-25. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-423 Building air quality - A guide for building owners and facility managers
This manual prepared jointly by the US EPA and NIOSH provides guidance on preventing, identifying and correcting indoor air quality problems. Contents: factors affecting indoor air quality (IAQ); importance of effective communication; preventing IAQ problems (developing a profile of the building conditions from the perspective of indoor air quality, managing buildings for good IAQ); resolving IAQ problems (diagnosing and mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance). Appendices provide: a general guide to IAQ measurements; basic information on HAVAC system design; indoor moisture and growth of mould and mildew; brief discussions of asbestos and radon concerns.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Air Division (ANR-445 W), 401 M Street West, Washington D.C., 20277-1663; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Clearinghouse for Occupational Safety and Health Information, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1991. 229p. Illus.

CIS 92-631 Eheman C., Carson B., Rifenburg J., Hoffman D.
Occupational exposure to radon daughters in Mammoth Cave National Park
Exposure records for Mammoth Cave National Park employees were reviewed in order to: (1) better characterise the population of employees who work in caves; (2) compare the exposure patterns of cave workers with those of underground miners; (3) determine whether or not new National Park Service guidelines were needed to ensure that cave workers are not exposed to levels higher than those permitted for underground miners.
Health Physics, June 1991, Vol.60, No.6, p.831-835. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 92-630 Johnston G.
An evaluation of radiation and dust hazards at a mineral sand processing plant
This 3-part article discusses the results of a 2-year study on radiation and dust hazards in a mineral sand processing plant involving: (1) evaluation of external γ radiation levels and determination of isotopic composition of the different sand products; (2) evaluation of radiation carried in long-lived radioactive dust (LLRD) particles; (3) evaluation of Rn gas concentrations within the working environment of the plant.
Health Physics, June 1991, Vol.60, No.6, p.781-787. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-201 Samet J.M., Utell M.J.
The environment and the lung: Changing perspectives
This paper discusses the changing focus across the century of public health concern and research in regard to environmental lung diseases. Broad groups of environmental agents that produce lung disease are considered along with the currently available evidence for several air pollutants selected to be illustrative of the changing emphasis of concern. These include asbestos, radon, environmental tobacco smoke, acidic aerosols, sulfur dioxide and oxidant pollutants, including ozone and nitrogen dioxide. In the persistent concerns about adverse effects of polluted air on the lung, the focus has shifted from avoiding clinical disease among highly exposed individuals to protecting the population from an unacceptable burden of risk.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Aug. 1991, Vol.266, No.5, p.670-675. 57 ref.

1990

CIS 92-1846 Hughes D., Moseley T.J.
Commission of the European Communities
Ionising radiations: Introductory overviews - I. Types and effects; II. Origins and control
Contents of these training videotapes: (I) - History of man-made radiations; types of ionising radiation; effects of radiation on DNA; somatic and hereditary effects; units used for measuring effects; the Chernobyl disaster; stochastic and non-stochastic effects; comparative risks; dose limits. (II) - Beneficial and harmful results of radiation; units used for measurement; man-made sources; problems of reprocessing in the nuclear power industry; fall-out problems after an accident (Chernobyl); medical exposure (X-rays, nuclear medicine); problems of altitude (cosmic rays); radiation from food and drink; ground radioactivity; radon gas; survey of legislation in the UK.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1990. 2 videocassettes (22min. + 27min.). Price: GBP 24.95 each (GBP 44.95 for the two on one tape) + VAT + postage.

CIS 92-1307 Environmental hazards in your school: A resource handbook
The specific environmental hazards discussed in-depth in this booklet are asbestos, indoor air quality, radon, lead in drinking water and other contaminants in school-operated water systems. Adverse effects of the hazards are outlined along with methods of risk reduction, assistance available and relevant legislation. Other concerns briefly discussed include underground storage tanks, recycling efforts, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. A list of contacts is also provided.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Oct. 1990. 69p. Illus.

CIS 92-635 Domański T.
Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines
This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems are described: the Air Sampling System, the Environmental Control System, the Individual Dosimetry System, the Stream Monitoring System and the Exhaust Monitoring System. The following parameters of the working environments of miners were determined: average expected concentration, average observed concentration, average expected exposure cumulation rate, average observed exposure cumulation rate, and average effective exposure cumulation rate. Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, acccording to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.4, p.375-390. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 91-1695 Current issues in radiation safety: A seminar
This publication contains the proceedings of a seminar on radiation safety. The following topics are covered: introduction to both ionising and non-ionising radiation; an update on the safety issues concerning video display terminals (VDTs); a review of the relation between powerlines and cancer; radon gas; the hazards and benefits of nuclear power; radiation safety in uranium mines. Questions from the floor are included together with the speakers' responses.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 82p. Illus.

CIS 91-1626
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for radon
Several epidemiological studies of long-term exposure to radon have reported significant increases in early mortality due to cancer and noncancer diseases. Lung cancer, respiratory diseases, kidney disease and genotoxic effects have been reported among uranium miners following long-term exposure to radon and radon daughters. An increased lung cancer mortality rate has also been reported among nonuranium hard rock miners exposed to radon in groundwater. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. xi, 160p. Illus. ca. 270 ref.

CIS 91-891 Goyer N.
Chemical contaminants in office buildings
Air quality measurements were made in 17 buildings in Quebec. Contaminants measured included airborne dust, nicotine, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and radon. The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as an air quality indicator of other airborne contaminants was also evaluted. Chemical contaminant levels were found to be low, but the presence of these chemicals in indoor air is of concern because of their possible synergistic effects. Airborne concentrations of dust, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were found to be higher than the values recommended for nonindustrial air. Carbon dioxide can be used as an air quality indicator for contaminants related to occupant activity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1990, Vol.51, No.12, p.615-619. Illus. 22 ref.

1989

CIS 93-1665 Godish T.
Indoor air pollution control
Contents of this manual: problem definition (personal pollution exposures, sick building syndrome, levels of exposure to specific contaminants and possible health effects); source control of inorganic contaminants (asbestos, combustion-generated pollutants, radon), organic contaminants (formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, pesticides) and biogenic particles (allergies and asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Legionnaires' diseases, moisture control); ventilation for contaminant control; air cleaning; policy and regulatory considerations; air quality diagnostics; mitigation practice.
Lewis Publishers, Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, Michigan 48118, USA, 1989. xiii, 401p. Illus. Index. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 64.00.

CIS 92-1001 Roscoe R.J., Steenland K., Halperin W.E., Beaumont J.J., Waxweiler R.J.
Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters
In a follow-up study (1950-1984) of 516 nonsmoking uranium miners, 14 deaths from lung cancer were observed compared with 1.1 expected in a reference group of nonsmoking nonminers, yielding an overall standardised mortality ratio of 12.7. Working level months (WLM) of exposure to radon daughters were estimated and it was concluded that there is a 12-fold mortality risk of lung cancer for nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters at a median level of 296 WLM, when compared with nonsmoking nonminers. Results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent cancer-causing factor that should be strictly controlled.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 4 Aug. 1989, Vol.262, No.5, p.629-633. 23 ref.

CIS 92-160 Belli S., Comba P., Germani D., Grignoli M., Lagorio S., Paganoni R., Ronchin M.
Mortality study among lead-zinc miners of Val Seriana (Italy)
Studio di mortalità dei minatori di piombo-zinco della Val Seriana [en italiano]
The mortality experience of 1,392 lead-zinc-silver miners (Gorno, Northern Italy) employed during the period 1950-1980 and followed up to the end of 1986 was examined. Two separate estimates of the radon exposure level are available: 0.60 and 0.36WL (working levels) respectively. The silica exposure level was not assessed. Vital status was ascertained for 95.6% of the cohort members and their mortality was compared with expected deaths based on national rates. Significant excess mortality from oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, respiratory tuberculosis, respiratory diseases and deaths from external causes was found among underground miners. Surface workers show significantly increased mortality from liver and bile duct cancer, hepatic cirrhosis, respiratory tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Based on the 16.4 excess lung cancer cases among underground miners and their cumulative radon exposure, an attributable risk estimate ranging from 9.78 and 16.31 cases per million person-years and WLM (Working Level Month) was calculated.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.467-478. Illus. 17 ref.

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