Gastrointestinal diseases - 143 entradas encontradas
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Burns P.B., Swanson G.M.
Riesgo de cáncer de estómago entre los hombres y mujeres de raza negra y blanca: influencia de la profesión y el consumo de tabaco
Stomach cancer risk among black and white men and women: The role of occupation and cigarette smoking [en inglés]
Se realizó una encuesta por teléfono para establecer los antecedentes profesionales y hábito tabáquico de un colectivo de 739 individuos enfermos de cáncer de estómago y 3750 controles extraídos de la población. En relación a los controles, los fumadores de cigarrillos presentaron un riesgo de cáncer de estómago un 50% más alto, riesgo que aumentaba proporcionalmente al tabaquismo. La mayoría de las profesiones asociadas a un riesgo significativo de cáncer de estómago entre los hombres blancos eran las de agricultor, conductor profesional, los oficios de los talleres de montaje, los mecánicos y los transportistas de materiales. Las mujeres negras empleadas en talleres de montaje y las mujeres blancas trabajadoras de la industria de la alimentación presentaban también un mayor riesgo. No se constató ninguna relación entre la exposición a polvos y el cáncer de estómago.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, oct. 1995, vol.37, n°10, p.1218-1223. 35 ref.
Boulard J.C., Hanslik T., Mowlonguet Doleris L.M., Prinseau J., Baglin A.
Amianto y fibrosis idiopática retroperitoneal
Asbestos and idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis [en inglés]
Esta carta dirigida a la redacción presenta brevemente el caso de dos hombres que habían estado expuestos al amianto y padecían una fibrosis retroperitoneal acompañada de afecciones pleurales. Dado que no se encontró ninguna de las causas habituales de la fibrosis retroperitoneal, se estimó que la exposición al amianto pudo ser el origen de la enfermedad.
Lancet, 27 mayo 1995, vol.345, n°8961, p.1379. 3 ref.
Lagast H., Tomenson J., Stringer D.A.
Producción de polipropileno y cáncer colorectal: balance de las pruebas epidemiológicas
Polypropylene production and colorectal cancer: A review of the epidemiological evidence [en inglés]
Los estudios epidemiológicos realizados anteriormente sobre los trabajadores, unos sobre aquellos empleados en la producción de polipropileno, otros que utilizan esta sustancia para la fabricación de moquetas revelaron un excedente significativo de cánceres colorectales. Actualizaciones recientes de estos dos estudios no han confirmado ese excedente, por lo que se piensa que se trataba de una agregación témporo-espacial fortuita. Asimismo, las investigaciones efectuadas en numerosos países sobre los trabajadores expuestos al polipropileno no demostraron ninguna asociación entre este producto y el cáncer colorectal. De forma global, las pruebas epidemiológicas y la ausencia de datos toxicológicos no apoyan la existencia de una relación de causa-efecto entre el polipropileno y el cáncer colorectal.
Occupational Medicine, abr. 1995, vol.45, n°2, p.69-74. 30 ref.
Kaleja R., Horbach L., Amsel J.
Cáncer colorectal en los trabajadores de la producción de propileno en Alemania: un breve informe
Polypropylene production workers and colorectal cancer in Germany: A brief report [en inglés]
Para evaluar la asociación entre el cáncer colorectal y el propileno, se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en Alemania, de 1956 a 1990, sobre un grupo de 640 trabajadores de la producción de propileno. Los resultados de este estudio no confirmaron los de otros estudios anteriores que sugerían la existencia de una asociación entre la producción de propileno y el cáncer colorectal, pero sí concordaban con los de algunos estudios recientes que no indicaban relación alguna entre la exposición a este producto y el riesgo patológico. Dado el pequeño tamaño de la muestra de este estudio y de otros similares, no puede descartarse un aumento del riesgo entre débil a moderado.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, nov. 1994, vol.51, n°11, p.784-785. 10 ref.
Chow W.H., McLaughlin J.K., Malker H.S.R., Weiner J.A., Ericsson J.L.E., Stone B.J., Blot W.J.
Cáncer de estómago de etiología profesional en una cohorte de individuos suecos de sexo masculino
Occupation and stomach cancer in a cohort of Swedish men [en inglés]
Utilizando los datos del Registro Sueco del Cáncer y el Medioambiente, se realizó un estudio, basado en una muestra de población, de la incidencia del cáncer de estómago por rama industrial y profesión entre individuos suecos de sexo masculino, en el período de 1.961 a 1.979. Durante este tiempo se diagnosticaron casi 17.000 casos de cáncer de estómago. La incidencia fué elevada entre los mineros y canteros, los agricultores y pescadores, los artesanos y los sujetos empleados en el sector de fabricación. La incidencia era reducida entre los empleados de oficina. Una investigación más profunda demostró que en general, los índices de cáncer de estómago eran elevados en los hombres expuestos a ambientes contaminados de polvo. Estos resultados corroboran la hipótesis según la cual la profesión desempeñaría un papel pequeño pero cierto en la aparición del cáncer de estómago.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1994, vol.26, n°4, p.511-520. 43 ref.
Sorohan T., Faux A.M., Cooke M.A.
Mortalidad en una cohorte de trabajadores de fábricas de acero en el Reino Unido, principalmente por cáncer de estómago y pulmón, de 1946 a 1990
Mortality among a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1946-90 [en inglés]
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, mayo 1994, vol.51, n°5, p.316-322. 8 ref. ###
Maier H., Sennewald E.
Factores de riesgo de epitelioma espinocelular de la cavidad bucal
Risikofaktoren für Plattenepithelkarzinome im Kopf-Hals-Bereich [en alemán]
En tres casos-estudio realizados entre 1988 y 1991 en Heidelberg, Alemania, 369 pacientes afectados de un epitelioma espinocelular de la boca y la región faringolaríngea fueron comparados con un grupo control formado por 1.476 individuos indemnes de esta patología. Profesión, consumo de tabaco y alcohol y actividades en los ratos de ocio fueron parámetros determinados en ambos grupos. El consumo habitual de tabaco y alcohol estaba en estrecha correlación con un riesgo agudo de cáncer de boca y faringe. Los trabajadores cualificados y no cualificados eran más numerosos en el grupo de los pacientes que en el grupo de control. Los operadores de máquinas, las personas que viven en casas con calefacción de carburantes fósiles así como los trabajadores expuestos al alquitrán de hulla, la brea, los colorantes y el polvo de madera constituyen las categorías de riesgo. Resúmenes en alemán, inglés, francés y español.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Abteilung Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Alemania, ene.1994. 184p. Ilus. 142 ref.
Producción de polipropileno y cáncer colorectal
Polypropylene production and colorectal cancer [en inglés]
El polipropileno se produce desde hace 35 años. Sus aplicaciones son muy numerosas y se usa en especial para el empaquetado de alimentos. La implantación experimental de polipropileno en animales ha determinado el desarrollo de sarcomas. En lo que respecta a su forma monomérica, el propileno, una experiencia de inhalación de dos años realizada sobre ratones y ratas ha demostrado que no es cancerígeno. Dos de las primeras encuestas epidemiológicas realizadas al respecto, que se efectuaron en trabajadores empleados respectivamente en la producción de polipropileno y en la fabricación de moqueta de polipropileno, ha revelado la existencia de un excedente de cáncer colorectal, aunque estudios realizados posteriormente sobre esta población no han podido confirmar la observación. Los estudios llevados a cabo en diversos países sobre trabajadores relacionados con la producción de polipropileno también han resultado negativos. Para estos trabajadores no se justifica que existan programas específicos de supervisión médica.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Ave. Van Nieuwen huyse, 1160 Bruxelles, Bélgica, feb. 1994. 40p. 108 ref.
Lewis R.J., Lerman S.E., Schnatter A.R., Hughes J.I., Vernon S.W.
Incidencia de la poliposis colo-rectal en los trabajadores empleados en la producción de polipropileno
Colorectal polyp incidence among polypropylene manufacturing workers [en inglés]
Tras unas observaciones anteriores que indicaban un excedente de riesgo de cáncer y poliposis colo-rectales, realizadas entre un grupo de trabajadores de Tejas, empleados en la producción de polipropileno (CIS 89-1215), se llevó a cabo un segundo programa de detección de cáncer colo-rectal, promovido y financiado por la empresa. Un 64 % de los 147 trabajadores varones reconocidos y exentos de pólipos en el primer reconocimiento de detección, fue examinado nuevamente. Los ratios de índice de incidencia (IRR) ajustados en función de la edad y del examinador fueron moderadamente elevados entre los trabajadores del polipropileno, en comparación con los de otros enfermos examinados por causa de pólipos totales o pólipos adenomatosos en la misma clínica. Sin embargo, el riesgo de adenoma era similar en el grupo más expuesto (IRR = 1,77) y el menos expuesto (IRR = 2,02). Los excedentes modestos y no significativos y la similitud de los riesgos constatados en las diferentes categorías profesionales parecen excluir la hipótesis de un riesgo profesional, incluso si la exigüidad de la muestra y los sesgos potenciales impiden extraer conclusiones definitivas.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, feb. 1994, vol.36, n°2, p.174-181. 25 ref.
Paoletti L., Falchi M., Batisti D., Zappa M., Chellini E., Biancalani M.
Characterization of asbestos fibers in pleural tissue from 21 cases of mesothelioma
Pleural biopsies from patients with pleural mesothelioma and different kinds of asbestos exposure were analyzed by analytical electron microscopy. The aim was to investigate the presence, quantity, types, and sizes of asbestos fibres in pleural tissue. Concentration and size of fibres were poorly correlated to asbestos type and estimated exposure level. Fibre dimension is the most important characteristic determining their translocation to the pleural region. Summary in Italian.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.373-378. Illus. 21 ref.
Kusiak R.A., Ritchie A.C., Springer J., Muller J.
Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners
A rather surprising excess mortality from stomach cancer was observed in gold miners in Ontario (Canada) in a retrospective cohort study of all miners in the province having attended compulsory chest clinics since 1928 (104 cases, SMR=152, 95% CI=125-185). Detailed exposure records and statistical analysis suggest that the probable causative agent is chromium-containing dust in gold mines, rather than, for example, arsenic or mineral fibres.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.117-126. 28 ref.
Stayner L.T., Dannenberg A.L., Bloom T., Thun M.
Excess hepatobiliary cancer mortality among munitions workers exposed to dinitrotoluene
The association between dinitrotoluene (DNT) exposure and increased risk of cancers of the liver and biliary tract was studied through an analysis of the mortality experience of exposed workers (n=4,989) and unexposed workers (n=7,436) at a study facility between 1949 and 1980. An excess of hepatobiliary cancer was observed among workers exposed to DNT. The SMR for hepatobiliary cancer was 2.67 (six cases) based upon comparison with the US population, and 3.88 based upon comparison with controls. The study was limited by the small number of workers with long-term DNT exposure, and by the lack of quantitative information on exposure to DNT and other chemicals. Nonetheless, the excess in hepatobiliary cancer mortality observed among DNT-exposed workers in this study is similar to findings from animal studies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.291-296. 16 ref.
Mastrangelo G., Serena R., Marzia V.
Mortality from tumours in workers in an acrylic fibre factory
A retrospective epidemiological cohort study of mortality was undertaken in 671 workers with at least 12 months' exposure to acrylonitrile (AN) in an acrylic fibre factory at Porto Marghera, Venezia; 571 subjects had simultaneous exposure to dimethylacetamide (DMA). Observed mortality in the cohort was compared with expected mortality, calculated on the basis of the mortality rates of the general population in the Veneto region. A statistically significant excess was found in the mortality rate from intestinal and colon tumours (SMR=10.5, 4 observed). However, this finding was significant only in subgroups with 1 to 4 years exposure or 1 to 9 years latency. It is therefore concluded that there is no relationship between AN and/or DMA exposure and mortality from tumours of the colon and intestine.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.155-158. 15 ref.
Lehnert G., Raithel H.J., Valentin H.
Asbestos exposure, asbestosis, and lung cancer
Asbestfeinstaubexposition, Asbestose und Lungenkrebs [en alemán]
The connection between asbestos exposure, asbestosis and pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma has been well established by epidemiological studies. On the other hand, it is still unclear whether asbestos-exposed persons without asbestosis are also at a higher risk of developing mesothelioma. In order to answer this question, the international literature of the past ten years is reviewed. No evidence is found in support of an asbestos-related lung cancer without asbestosis or asbestos-induced lesions of the pleura. It is recommended that this kind of lung cancer not be included in the German list of occupational diseases.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.96-101. Illus. 28 ref.
Unusual occupational gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders
This review investigates associations between workplace exposures and the following noncancerous liver and gastrointestinal diseases: steatosis, increased liver microsomal activity, cholestatic liver injury, hepatoportal sclerosis and noncirrhotic portal hypertension, granulomatous liver disease, porphyria cutanea tarda, peptic ulcer disease, pancreatitis, gastroenteritis, coeliac disease and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992. Vol.7, No.3, p.433-448. 162 ref.
Garberg P., Högberg J.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 103. Selenium
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 103. Selen [en sueco]
Review and evaluation of the relevant literature. Selenium is encountered in copper refining (where it is recovered as a by-product), in the electronics, glass and rubber industries and in medicine. Selenium acid is toxic, and may enter the body through the skin and respiratory tract. Exposure may occur incase of accidental spills. Hydrogen selenide is more likely to be encountered under normal conditions (metallurgy), and is toxic on inhalation. Short-term exposure via the diet affects primarily the gastrointestinal tract, while chronic exposure produces nail malformations. Some selenium compounds induce skin allergies. Selenium sulfide is a carcinogen at high doses in rats and mice.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 26p. 104 ref.
Owen C.V., Acquavella J.A., Lynch J., Bird M.G.
An industrial hygiene methodology developed in support of a retrospective morbidity case-control study
This study investigated a potentially increased incidence of colorectal cancer among employees who manufactured polypropylene. The design of the case-control study provided an innovative industrial hygiene approach to circumvent the problems of estimating exposures, problems which are typical of retrospective epidemiological case-control studies. The industrial hygiene methodology included assessing historical exposures, developing an exposure estimating matrix, selecting candidate aetiological agents based on a joint toxicological and industrial hygiene review, administering a work activity questionnaire, calculating exposure scores, and conducting a statistical analysis. The study design also provided an additional exposure measurement independent of the toxicological and industrial hygiene review. This provided an opportunity to compare the likelihood of exposure misclassification and, as expected, showed that a more detailed exposure estimate resulted in less misclassification.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.540-547. 29 ref.
Roscoe R.J., Steenland K., McCammon C.S., Schober S.E., Robinson C.F., Halperin W.E., Fingerhut M.A.
Colon and stomach cancer mortality among automotive wood model makers
To explore the excess risks for colon and other cancers among automotive wood model makers, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted, with follow-up from 1940 through 1984. White male wood model makers (n=2,294) employed at any time until 1980 by US automobile manufacturers were studied. Using US mortality rates for comparison, elevated standardised mortality ratios of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-1.9) for colon cancer and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.9-2.6) for stomach cancer were found. Nested case-control studies were also conducted for 20 colon and 17 stomach cancer cases and 543 age-matched controls. No trend was found of increased risk for colon or stomach cancer mortality with increased exposure to wood dust or to duration employed in wood model making. A two-page editorial on the same subject follows the article.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.34, No.8, p.759-768 (editorial: p.769-770). 38 + 4 ref.
Berger J., Manz A.
Cancer of the stomach and the colon-rectum among workers in a coke gas plant
4,908 male workers of the Hamburg (Germany) gas plant, employed for 10 or more years during the period 1 January 1900 to 31 December 1989, were traced for cancer mortality. Based on their jobs, they were grouped into three subcohorts: gas furnace workers, workers in other parts of the plant, and white-collar workers. Despite the general "healthy worker effect", gas furnace workers showed a significant incidence of cancer of all sites (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 186), particularly cancers of the lung (SMR=288), stomach (SMR=177), and the colon-rectum (SMR=184). In comparison with the death rates of white-collar workers, the manual workers in other parts of the plant also showed an excess of cancer mortality for cancer of these sites. The reason for this excess seems to be due to working conditions. The results contribute to the current evidence that exposure to coal carbonisation fumes causes not only lung cancer, but also cancers of the stomach and colon-rectum.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.22, No.6, p.825-834. 26 ref.
Gerhardsson de Verdier M., Plato N., Steineck G., Peters J.M.
Occupational exposures and cancer of the colon and rectum
The association between occupational risks and colorectal cancer was examined in a Swedish population-based, case-referent study. The study was performed in Stockholm in 1986-1988 and included 569 cases and 512 referents. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for different occupations/chemicals. Elevated risks of colon cancer were found among male petrol station/automobile repair workers (RR=2.3, 0.8-6.6) and among males exposed to asbestos (RR=1.8, 0.9-3.6), while elevated risks of rectal cancer were found among males exposed to soot (RR=2.2, 1.1-4.3), asbestos (RR=2.2, 1.0-4.7), cutting fluids/oils (RR=2.1, 1.1-4.0), and combustion gases from coal/coke/wood (RR=1.9, 1.0-3.7). However, due to a high correlation between the above-mentioned variables and the few exposed subjects, it is difficult to separate their effects properly. Further studies are recommended.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.291-303. 40 ref.
Beaumont J.J., Chu G.S.T., Jones J.R., Schenker M.B., Singleton J.A., Piantanida L.G., Reiterman M.
An epidemiologic study of cancer and other causes of mortality in San Francisco firefighters
To test the hypothesis that firefighter exposures may increase cancer risk, mortality rates were calculated for 3,066 San Francisco Fire Department firefighters employed between 1940 and 1970. Vital status was ascertained through 1982, and observed and expected rates, rate ratios (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using United States death rates for comparison. The total number deceased (1,186) was less than expected and there were fewer cancer deaths than expected. However, there were significant excess numbers of deaths from oesophageal cancer (12 observed, 6 expected), cirrhosis and other liver diseases (59 observed, 26 expected), and accidental falls (21 observed, 11 expected). There were 24 line-of-duty deaths, which were primarily due to vehicular injury, falls, and asphyxiation. Heart disease and respiratory disease deaths occurred significantly less often than expected. It was concluded that the increased risks of death from oesophageal cancer and cirrhosis and other liver diseases may have been due to firefighter exposures, alcohol consumption, or interaction between alcohol and exposures. Because this was an older cohort and firefighter exposures have changed due to the increasing use of synthetic materials, it is recommended that the effects of modern-day exposures be further studied.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.3, p.357-372. Illus. 61 ref.
Acquavella J.F., Owen C.V., Bird M.G., Yarborough C.M., Lynch J.
An adenomatous polyp case-control study to assess occupational risk factors following a workplace colorectal cancer cluster
To assess potential aetiological factors among a population of polypropylene workers previously found to have an excess of colorectal cancer, an adenomatous polyp case-control study was conducted. Cases (24) were workers found to have adenomatous polyps during a screening program, while controls (72) were workers found to be free of polyps. Exposure assessment utilised a thorough industrial hygiene and toxicologic review of operations in conjunction with work activity interviews of cases and controls to develop chemical-specific exposure scores weighted by time, exposure level, and frequency of exposure. Cases tended to have higher exposure to pre-extrusion polymer plus additives (odds ratio (OR)=2.6, 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-6.3) and higher exposure to certain finishing additives (OR=4.8, 90% CI 1.5-15.3). Analyses by job category or area of the plant did not indicate additional risk factors.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Feb. 1991, Vol.133, No.4, p.357-367. 27 ref.
Robins T.G., Weinstein R.J., Demers R.Y.
Lymphocytopenia, T-lymphocyte subsets, and colorectal polyps in automotive pattern and model makers
The association of total lymphocyte, CD4 (T-helper cell), CD8 (T-suppressor cell), CD2 (total T-cell), and CD16 (natural killer cell) counts with biopsy-proved colorectal polyp status was investigated in 70 pattern makers. In logistic regression analyses after adjusting for age or trade years, pack-years smoked, and material worked with most frequently, a history of any type of polyp was significantly associated with total lymphocyte count (odds ratio of 2.01 for a 500 cell/cc decrease, p=0.03), and somewhat associated with decreased CD4 and CD2 counts (p values of 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). In linear regression models adjusted for age, pattern and model makers had (regardless of polyp status) significantly lower CD4, CD8, CD2, and CD16 counts than did laboratory reference controls (p value less than 0.01 for each comparison). The findings appear consistent with a sequence of carcinogenesis initiated by workplace exposure of pattern and model makers that depresses immune surveillance and therefore promotes the development of colorectal polyps as a precursor of carcinoma.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.510-515. 26 ref.
Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and human cancer - Report of a case and public health implications
This is a case report of a dairyman who was exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) through contaminated animal feed. Signs and symptoms characteristic of PBB exposure lasted several years, culminating in stomach cancer. No epidemiological studies of PBB and cancer are available, but structure-activity relationships and animal studies are predictive of malignancy. The patient did not have the risk factors of alcoholism or cigarette smoking.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, 1991, Vol.7, No.3, p.197-205. 54 ref.
González C.A., Sanz M., Marcos G., Pita S., Brullet E., Vida F., Agudo A., Hsieh C.C.
Occupation and gastric cancer in Spain
The association between occupational exposure and stomach cancer was investigated in a multicentre case-referent study conducted in Spain on 354 histologically confirmed cases and 354 hospital referents, matched by age, sex, and residence. An increased risk of gastric cancer was found for coal mining workers [odds ratio (OR) 11.8]. An increased risk was observed for wood and furniture workers (OR 1.76), construction workers (OR 1.68), and glass and ceramic workers (OR 2.18), but none of these risks was statistically significant. An increased risk was also found for occupations associated with exposure to silica and mineral dust (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.59). All of the OR estimates were adjusted for the confounding factors socioprofessional status and dietary habits. The possibility of a causal association between stomach cancer and coal and mineral dust is supported by the results.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.17, No.4, p.240-247. 41 ref.
Walker A.M., Cohen A.J., Loughlin J.E., Rothman K.J., DeFonso L.R.
Mortality from cancer of the colon or rectum among workers exposed to ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate
Mortality from colon and rectum cancer was reviewed in three cohorts working in 1933-1982 in two plants manufacturing and polymerising acrylate monomers. The two cohorts with more recent dates of employment showed no excess mortality. In the earliest cohort, excess colon cancer seemed restricted to men employed extensively in the early 1940s in jobs entailing the highest exposures to vapour-phase ethyl acrylate (EA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and volatile by-products of the EA/MMA polymerisation process. The excess mortality appeared only some two decades after the equivalent of three years' employment in jobs with the most intense exposures. A smaller elevation in colon cancer mortality also appeared in a low-exposure group in the early cohort. Rectal cancer mortality was elevated in the same categories that showed excess rates of colon cancer death. Because of the lower rates, the rectal cancer results are more imprecise.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.7-19. 2 ref.
Risk of appendicectomy in occupations entailing contact with pigs
A questionnaire survey among pig farmers, abattoir workers, and farmers not exposed to pigs was conducted to determine the prevalence of appendicitis in these occupations. The author concludes the biological basis of an increased risk of appendicitis in occupations entailing close contact with pigs might be explained by Yersinia bacteria whose presence is common in pigs.
British Medical Journal, 10 Aug.1991, Vol.303, No.6798, p.345-346. 5 ref.
James M., Green R.
Airline pilot incapacitation survey
A worldwide questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the aetiology of inflight incapacitation on commercial flight decks. Results indicated that 29% of the 4345 respondents had been incapacitated at least once. Gastro-intestinal symptoms accounted for the majority of the incidents, other main causes being symptoms of nasal and sinus congestion, headaches and faintness or general weakness. Of those who had experienced an incident of incapacitation, 48% claimed that safety was actually or potentially affected. However, when all respondents were asked about safety in the event of incapacitation, only 25% expressed concern.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.62, No.11, p.1068-1072. 2 ref.
Ehrlich A., Gordon R.E., Dikman S.H.
Carcinoma of the colon in asbestos-exposed workers - Analysis of asbestos content in colon tissue
The present study evaluates the colon tissue asbestos burden, by light and electron microscopic analytical techniques, in patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure and colon cancer. Asbestos fibres and/or asbestos bodies were present in colon tissue from 14 of 44 (31.8%) asbestos workers with colon carcinoma (range 0.14-15.2 million fibres/g/wet weight, mean 2.5 million). Chrysotile was identified in 9 patients and amosite in 3 patients. Other forms of asbestos (e.g., crocidolite, tremolite, or anthophyllite) were not found. Asbestos fibres and asbestos bodies were not found in colon tissue from 20 control patients (colon carcinoma and no asbestos exposure). Asbestos fibres frequently enter and reside in the wall of the colon and are often intimately associated with tumour tissue at the site of colon carcinoma in workers with asbestos exposure and colon carcinoma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1991, Vol.19, No.5, p.629-636. Illus. 19 ref.
Suzuki Y., Kohyama N.
Translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers from the lung to other tissues
To investigate the translocation of asbestos fibres, tissue samples from 13 North American insulation workers were examined, using electron microscopy. Of the 2 major types of asbestos, chrysotile and amosite, chrysotile was much more active in the translocation than amosite, being the fibre mainly detected in mesotheliomas and hyaline plaques.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1991, Vol.19, No.6, p.701-704. 5 ref.
Ribak J., Lilis R., Suzuki Y., Penner L., Selikoff I.J.
Death certificate categorisation of malignant pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers
Accuracy of diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (pleural and peritoneal) was studied in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers in the United States and Canada. Initial clinical diagnosis, clinical diagnosis at death and death certificate diagnosis were compared with the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma ascertained by full data review at the Division of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York. In both groups the death certificate diagnosis was somewhat less frequently accurate than clinical diagnosis at death. Knowledge of the patients' occupational history by the attending physician and its relation to accuracy of diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is considered.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.137-139. 12 ref.
Rafnsson V., Gunnarsdóttir H.
Mortality study of fertiliser manufacturers in Iceland
A retrospective cohort study was carried out on workers in a fertiliser plant to assess the risk of stomach and lung cancer. The cohort comprised 603 subjects and their death rates were compared with those of the general male population in Iceland. The study period was 1954 to 1985. The results do not provide evidence of an excess of deaths from stomach or lung cancer. Total mortality was lower than expected and even lower when the analysis was restricted to those who had worked at the plant for more than one year. Shiftwork operators had the highest SMRs for all cancers, however, with a reverse dose response according to duration of employment, indicating that this might be due to factors unrelated to manufacture of fertilisers. As examples of these factors life style and social class may be implicated, as well as possible selection of weaker subjects to do this assumed easy work.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1990, Vol.47, No.11, p.721-725. 33 ref.
Ebihara I., Shinokawa E., Kawami M., Kurosawa T.
Cohort mortality study of stone masons
Ishiku no "cohort" kenkyū [en japonés]
A study of mortality experience was conducted among stone masons in the Tokyo area and cause-specific comparisons were made with the general Japanese male population. A higher total mortality was observed among stone masons. The increase in mortality was due firstly to malignant neoplasms, especially of the respiratory system and stomach, secondly to pneumoconiosis and its complications and to tuberculosis. The observed 2.7-fold increase in lung cancer was not attributed to the effects of age, smoking, radioactivity (such as radon daughters) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust exposure per se probably contributes to the development of lung cancer, and smoking is a contributory factor towards the disease.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Oct. 1990, Vol.66, No.10, p.451-458. 57 ref.
Tilley B.C., Johnson C.C., Schultz L.R., Buffler P.A., Joseph C.L.M.
Risk of colorectal cancer among automotive pattern and model makers
This paper reports the investigation of a cohort of 7545 General Motors pattern and model makers originally defined for the purpose of cancer screening. All-cause mortality for this cohort was lower than that of the US population. There were 22 colon cancer deaths v 10.9 expected, consistent with previous studies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1990, Vol.32, No.6, p.541-546. 12 ref.
Acquavella J.F., Owen C.V.
Assessment of colorectal cancer incidence among polypropylene pilot plant employees
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether colorectal cancer incidence was elevated among pilot plant workers who may have had exposures similar to those experienced on a commercial production unit. The study population included 183 employees who worked at least 6 months on either of 2 pilot plants. Overall, there were 3 observed colorectal cases versus 3.3 expected. Analysis for the process, mechanic, and laboratory subgroup showed rates consistent with expected values (3 observed, 2.8 expected). Analysis by duration of employment and latency did not show patterns consistent with the colorectal cancer excess previously reported. The likelihood of lower or different exposures on the pilot plant than would be found on commercial production units is discussed along with the need for studies of workers in other polypropylene manufacturing environments.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.32, No.2, p.127-130. 5 ref.
De Klerk N.H., Armstrong B.K., Musk A.W., Hobbs M.S.T.
Predictions of future cases of asbestos-related disease among former miners and millers of crocidolite in Western Australia
In a cohort of 6,502 male and 410 female former workers from the crocidolite (blue asbestos) mining and milling works at Wittenoom, Western Australia, there were 94 cases of malignant mesothelioma, 141 cases of lung cancer and 356 successful compensation claims for asbestosis to the end of 1986. Using various statistical techniques, predictions were made on the future incidence of these diseases to the year 2020. The number of new cases of mesothelioma is expected to rise to a peak of around 25 cases per year in 2010, with an expected total number of 692 cases of mesothelioma (95% confidence interval (CI), 394-990 cases) between 1987 and 2020. A total of 2,898 deaths (95% CI, 2,284-3,511 deaths) of any cause is expected in the same period. New cases of lung cancer and asbestosis are expected to continue at roughly the current rates of 8 and 17 cases per year, respectively, before declining after the year 2000, leading to totals of 183 cases (95% CI, 34-335 cases) and 482 cases (95% CI, 236-728 cases), respectively, being expected by the year 2020.
Medical Journal of Australia, 4/18 Dec. 1989, Vol.151, No.11/12, p.616-620. Illus. 25 ref.
Agricultural chemicals in cholesterol gallstones - with special reference to an epidemiological study on cancer of the biliary tract
Tanno koresterōru kessekichū no zanryū nōyaku bunseki - tokuni tandōgan no ekigakuteki shiten kara [en japonés]
Niigata prefecture (Japan) has a very high mortality rate from biliary tract cancer. There is a correlation between the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for biliary tract cancer and the amount of certain agricultural chemicals consumed. Agricultural chemicals were detected in cholesterol gallstones of 99 patients, including 11 patients with gallbladder cancer. DLD, pp'-DDT, β-BHC and PCB were detected in the gallstones, even though the epidemiological study showed no positive correlation between them and the SMR for biliary tract cancer. MCPA, MCPB, CNP and simetryn, which did show significant correlations with the SMR, were not detected. Further investigation of the biliary excretion of the metabolites of these chemicals is indicated.
Niigata Medical Journal, Feb. 1989, Vol.103, No. 2, p.104-111. Illus. 22 ref.
Ho M.S., Glass R.I., Monroe S.S., Madore H.P., Stine S., Pinsky P.F., Cubitt D., Ashley C., Caul E.O.
Viral gastroenteritis aboard a cruise ship
237 passengers (22%) and 28 crew members (3%) on a cruise ship were infected with viral gastroenteritis (vomiting and/or diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, headache, myalgia, fever) on a transatlantic crossing. Epidemiological findings indicate that vomitus was an important factor in the transmission of the disease, and therefore strategies for prevention of the disease should include protection against environmental contamination by viruses in airborne droplets or vomitus.
Lancet, 21 Oct. 1989, Vol.2, No.8669, p.961-965. Illus. 33 ref.
Acquavella J.F., Douglass T.S., Vernon S., Hughes J.I., Thar W.E.
Assessment of colorectal cancer screening outcomes among workers involved in polypropylene manufacture
Evaluation of polyp prevalence rates for POU (Polyolefin unit) workers of Exxon Corporation versus rates for non-Exxon employees screened at the same clinic showed a general pattern of elevated rates for POU employees, especially for mechanical and process workers. This pattern was mot marked for polyps at least 0.5cm in diameter, but findings were less clear for adenomatous polyps. The effect of factors that might bias evaluation of colorectal polyp prevalence rates is discussed, but none of these factors seemed a likely explanation for the findings observed in this study.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.785-791. 16 ref.
Park R.M., Wegman D.H., Silverstein M.A., Maizlish N.A., Mirer F.E.
Causes of death among workers in a bearing manufacturing plant
Recent studies identify digestive cancer excesses among workers exposed to cutting fluids, abrasive dusts, and oil smoke. Standardised proportional mortality and mortality odds ratio studies were carried out for a ball bearing plant. Cause of death and work histories were obtained for 702 of 768 hourly employees with 10 or more years' service who died between 1969-82. The major findings were significant excesses in proportional mortality ratios (PMR) from stomach cancer (PMR = 2.0) and rectal cancer (PMR = 3.1) among white men. There was a significant association between stomach cancer and precision grinding exposures, consisting primarily of direct contact with water-based cutting fluids and their aerosols. The pattern of stomach cancer is consistent with previous findings and suggests an association with the soluble oil cutting fluids.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1988, Vol.13, No.5, p.569-580. Bibl.ref.
Teichman R.F., Fallon L.F., Brandt-Rauf P.W.
Health effects on workers in the pharmaceutical industry: a review
Until now little has been published about the known or suspected health risks of people employed in the manufacture and formulation of pharmaceutical products. Physicians are the only segment of the health care industry that have been studied extensively. Although pharmaceutical workers experience a potential risk from carcinogenic agents, the evidence for or against a real threat to their health remains both meagre and speculative. This paper reviews the available literature concerning occupational exposure to pharmaceutical agents.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1988, Vol.38, No.3, p.55-57. 19 ref.
Gustavsson P., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C.
Excess of cancer in Swedish chimney sweeps
The incidence of cancer was investigated among 5,266 Swedish chimney sweeps employed between 1918-80. An analysis of the mortality showed an increased number of deaths from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, liver cancer, and excessed risks for cancer of the lung and oesophagus. In addition, a more than doubled risk for bladder cancer and an increase of malignancies of the haematopoietic system was found. There were, however, no cases of scrotal cancer, the classic occupational hazard among chimney sweeps. Chimney sweeps are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated by the combustion of organic material (coal, wood, coke, and oil). They are also exposed to cancerogenic metals (arsenic, nickel, and chromium). These results support the need for improved working conditions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1988, Vol.45, No.11, p.777-781. 21 ref.
Acquavella J.F., Douglass T.S., Phillips S.C.
Evaluation of excess colorectal cancer incidence among workers involved in the manufacture of polypropylene
In response to reports of an unusually high number of colorectal cancers among employees on a unit devoted to the manufacture of polypropylene, colorectal cancer incidence rates were examined for 335 workers with at least 6 months employment on this unit from 1960 to 1985. Assuming a 10-year latent period, a significant 5 to 6-fold colorectal cancer excess (7 observed/1.26 expected), concentrated among mechanical (5 observed/0.47 expected) and process workers (2 observed/0.40 expected) was found. No colorectal cancer was found among administrative/office personnel on the study roster. All of the cancers occurred in employees who initially worked on the unit during its first 6yrs of operation, and the minimum interval from start of employment to cancer development was 20yrs. Since this study was descriptive in nature, it was not possible to evaluate whether the cancer excess was related to occupational exposures, other environmental factors, or "chance".
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1988, Vol.30, No.5, p.438-442. 17 ref.
Reid J.A., White D.G., Caul E.O., Palmer S.R.
Role of infected foold handler in hotel outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis: Implications for control
Investigation of an outbreak of viral (Norwalk-like) gastroenteritis amongst staff (40 cases), resident guests (over 70 cases), and persons attending functions (54 cases) at one hotel over 8 days suggested that the main vehicle of infection was cold foods prepared by a food handler during and after a mild gastrointestinal illness. He was excreting Norwalk-like virus particles 48 hours after the illness. In addition, ill kitchen staff vomited in the kitchen area and may have contaminated surfaces and stored foods. It is recommended that food handlers should be regarded as potentially infectious until at least 48 hours after clinical recovery from viral gastroenteritis. Stored foods that may have been contaminated should be immediately discarded and areas of the work place which may have been affected should be identified and decontaminated.
Lancet, 6 Aug. 1988, Vol.2, No.8606, p.321-323. 17 ref.
Exposure to asbestos and the risk of gastrointestinal cancer: A reassessment
The notion that asbestos workers have a higher risk of gastrointestinal cancer has persisted since 1964 despite several studies that have found no increased risk. The risks of gastrointestinal cancer to workers exposed to asbestos were reassessed, based on the results of published studies on 32 independent cohorts of asbestos workers. No consistent evidence was found to indicate that exposure to asbestos increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Generally, the higher SMRs came from studies conducted in the United States or Canada and might reflect factors not related to exposure to asbestos. In studies in which asbestos exposed and non-asbestos exposed workers were evaluated the SMRs were not consistently higher for the group exposed to asbestos. There was no apparent dose response relation between accumulated asbestos dose and the risk of gastrointestinal cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1988, Vol.45, No.2, p.75-82. Illus. 44 ref.
Finkelstein M., Liss G.M., Krammer F., Kusiak R.A.
Mortality among workers receiving compensation awards for silicosis in Ontario 1940-85
The mortality experience of 1,190 miners and 289 surface industry workers receiving workers' compensation awards for silicosis in Ontario since 1940 was studied up to mid-1985. Both groups were found to have a significantly increased mortality from lung cancer (miners' SMR: 230; surface workers' SMR: 302) and stomach cancer (miners' SMR: 188; surface workers' SMR: 366). Adjustment for smoking and country of origin did not explain the excesses observed. The lung cancer findings are consistent with observations from silicosis registries in Europe. Possible explanatory factors are discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.44, No.9, p.588-594. 25 ref.
Yamada Y., Kido T., Ishizaki M., Yamaya H., Honda R., Tsuritani I., Nogawa K.
Evaluation of an x-ray mass screening programme for gastric cancer in an occupational population: Effects and problems
Shokuba ni okeru i shūdan kenshin no hyōka - sono kōka to mondai ten [en japonés]
X-ray screening of workers above 35 years of age for gastric cancer has been conducted annually in a metal-products factory in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, since 1980. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) for gastric cancer of male workers during the period from 1980 to 1984 was 35 in comparison with the prefectural population, whereas the SMR of the workers had been 147 during the period from 1975 to 1979. Nine cases of gastric cancer were found in x-ray examinations from April 1980 to December 1986, but 4 cases of gastric cancer were missed during the same period. Endoscopic examination was done in 85% of the workers who visited large hospitals for closer examination, but it was done only in 18% of the workers who visited small clinics.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Aug. 1987, Vol.14, No.1, p.47-53. Illus. 19 ref.
Swaen G.M.H., Aerdts C.W.H.M., Slangen J.J.M.
Gastric cancer in coalminers: Final report
A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk of gastric cancer in coalminers in the southern part of Limburg (Netherlands). All 683 histologically confirmed cases of gastric cancer in males were identified at the 5 pathology departments in the area. For each case a control patient, free of gastric cancer, was selected matched by date of birth. Of the 1,366 patients enrolled in the study, an occupational history was collected regarding previous employment in a Dutch coal mine. Of the patients with gastric cancer, 28% had been employed as underground workers in a coalmine compared with 25% of the control group. The odds ratio for underground coalmining and gastric cancer was 1.15 (95% confidence limits: 0.89-1.47). The study did not provide support for the hypothesis that underground coalmining increases the risk of gastric cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.44, No.11, p.777-779. 21 ref.
Jeyaratnam J., Lee J., Lee H.P., Phoon W.O.
Stomach cancer incidence in a cohort of fishermen in Singapore
A retrospective cohort study of 279 Chinese fishermen in Singapore was undertaken to examine the possibiity of an elevated incidence of stomach cancer. The fishermen as a group had a greater than twofold excess in stomach cancer relative to controls but the difference was not statistically significant. Four stomach cancer cases were observed among the subgroup of divers. The standardised incidence ratio for the divers was 4.3. There was no evidence of an increased risk for cancer of any other site (lung, nasopharynx and liver) in this cohort. Dietary factors are suggested as a possible explanation for the increased risk for stomach cancer among fishermen, but larger studies are required to test this hypothesis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1987, Vol.13, No.6, p.524-526. 25 ref.
Sánchez Añon A.
Las enfermedades gastroduodenales en los trabajadores del hospital/Las enfermedades gastroduodenales en los trabajadores del hospital
In this article, the incidence of work-related gastroduodenal diseases in workers at a hospital in Valenica, Spain, is examined. The causes of the diseases are analysed (toxic factors, working periods, responsibility etc.) and the presence of gastroduodenal ulcer, gastritis and hiatus hernia is quantified. The cases are compared according to age, sex, professional category, blood group and working hours.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1987, Vol.34, No.134, p.42-54. 13 ref.
Brandt-Rauf P.W., Fallon L.F.
Ampullary cancer in chemical workers
Although a relatively uncommon neoplasm, cancer of the ampulla of Vater accounts for over 300 deaths a year in the USA. Among biliary tract tumours, ampullary cancer has a relatively favourable prognosis. An examination of mortality statistics for chemical workers showed 11 cases of this cancer, instead of the < 5 expected, giving a statistically significant (p = 0.011) proportional mortality ratio (PMR) of 228.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1987, Vol.44, No.8, p.569-570. 5 ref.
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