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Cartwright C.E., Breysse P.N., Booher L.
Magnetic field exposures in a petroleum refinery
Petroleum refinery workers were classified into groups based on the type of exposure sources and work conducted. Electricians were divided into three categories: high voltage electrical distribution (HVED) workers; low voltage electrical distribution (LVED) workers; and maintenance electricians (MNTE). A total of 48 individuals, 11 HVED electricians, 12 LVED electricians, 11 MNTE workers, and 14 controls were monitored for an 8-hour shift. Both the HVED and LVED groups were found to have average full-shift mean exposures slightly greater than 10 milligauss (mG). The MNTE group and the controls exhibited lower magnetic flux density exposures, with means between 2mG and 3mG. A special group of high voltage electricians were monitored during maintenance work on large current-limiting coils in the power distribution system. Individual full-shift magnetic field means ranged from 0.06 to 2.0 gauss (G), with an overall mean of 0.93G. Peak exposures ranged from 2.1 to 18G, with an average of 12.1G.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1993, Vol.8, No.6, p.587-592. Illus. 9 ref.
Ziegler J.F., Zabel T.H., Curtis H.W.
Video display terminals and radon
Recent reports indicate that video display terminals (VDTs) can collect radon daughters from the air. This occurs especially when they are turned off and may have negative electric fields which attract positively charged radioactive dust. Various techniques were evaluated for removing the gettered radioactivity while the video display terminal is both off and on. An evaluation was also made of what happens when the video display terminal is switched, thereby reversing the electric field near the screen. In addition, possible inhalation effects experienced by a video display terminal operator during field reversal were studied; it was found that although some radioactivity may be released during the cycle, room air currents redistribute it into the room with no detectable levels being inhaled by users.
Health Physics, Sep. 1993, Vol.65, No.3, p.252-264. Illus. 22 ref.
Council Directive 93/68/EEC of 22 July 1993 amending Directives 87/404/EEC, 88/378/EEC, 89/106/EEC, 89/336/EEC, 89/392/EEC, 89/686/EEC, 90/384/EEC, 90/385/EEC, 90/396/EEC, 91/263/EEC, 92/42/EEC and 73/23/EEC [European Communities]
Directive 93/68/CEE du Conseil, du 22 juillet 1993, modifiant les directives 87/404/CEE, 88/378/CEE, 89/106/CEE, 89/336/CEE, 89/392/CEE, 89/686/CEE, 90/384/CEE, 90/385/CEE, 90/396/CEE, 91/263/CEE, 92/42/CEE, 73/23/CEE [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
This directive amends a number of EEC directives with provisions concerning the "CE" mark of conformity with pertinent standards and specifies: shape of the mark, conditions for use of the mark, obligations of authorities when dealing with marked products. The "CE marking" replaces the "EC mark". Several of the affected directives have been abstracted by CIS: 87/404/EEC (simple pressure vessels) (see CIS 87-1166), 89/106/EEC (construction products) (see CIS 93-3), 89/392/EEC (machinery) (see CIS 89-1442), 89/686/EEC (personal protective equipment) (see CIS 90-381), and 73/23/EEC (electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits) (see CIS 75-1239).
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 Aug. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.220, p.18-38. Illus.
Accidents d'origine électrique [en francés]
Illustrated training booklet aimed at workers and supervisors. It describes typical electrical accidents and the lessons to be drawn from them. Accident statistics (for France), analysis of accident causes and major preventive measures are also given. The following safety points are emphasized: the smallest case of negligence may lead to serious accidents; regulations and safety rules are there to be obeyed.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, May 1993. 37p. Illus.
Raha K., Chhabra J.S.
Static charge development and impact sensitivity of high explosives
The development of static electric charge as result of compression of single crystals was measured for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), N,2,4,6 tetranitro-N-methylaniline (tetryl) and cyclotrimethylene trinitroamine (RDX). Their electrical and mechanical properties are tabulated. The charge developed by a given explosive at a given pressure was correlated with its impact sensitivity. Although the mechanism of charge development in PETN and TNT is different in detail from that in tetryl and RDX, all four form soft crystals of low symmetry, and have low dielectric constants and high compressibility. Their high resistivity enables them to develop electrostatic charges.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1993, Vol.34, No.3, p.385-391. Illus. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Electricity at work. Safe working practices
This booklet gives guidance on the essential elements that need to be considered when devising safe working practices for people who carry out work on or near electrical equipment in circumstances in which danger may arise. Assessment procedures are described for deciding whether to work dead or live and for actions in relation to both dead and live working. Typical electrical hazards are described along with the need for careful design and selection of electrical equipment. An example of a permit-to-work is included. Reference is made throughout to provisions of the British Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 89-1439).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 24p. 32 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Prevención de riesgos eléctricos: Nociones básicas
Guía de formación que constituye una introducción a los riesgos debidos a la electricidad. En el sumario: circuitos eléctricos; tipos de accidentes eléctricos; factores determinantes de la gravedad de las lesiones causadas por una descarga eléctrica; causas más comunes de los accidentes eléctricos; medidas generales de prevención.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565, Correo Central, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 1992. 16p. Ilus.
Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
Earth it - It's worth it
This video concentrates on the problems of static electricity (SE) in the paints and resins manufacturing industry. It deals with the practical steps needed for discharging static electricity (SE) safely or for avoiding its generation altogether. Some of the topics considered: flammability ranges; generation of static; "anti-static" doping of chemicals; earthing (grounding), bonding, inerting and dispersion; protection against the formation of SE during the unloading of tankers, the transfer of liquids by pipes, the handling of solids, and various other operations (agitation, filtration, container filling, spray filling); the use of plastics; safe behaviour by workers. The video is designed to be used with the accompanying booklet.
Athena Publishing Co. Ltd., Mast House, Derby Road, Liverpool L20 1EA, United Kingdom, 1992. Videocassette (35min) + accompanying booklet (35p., Illus.). Price: GBP 325.00 + VAT.
Electricity (Workers' Safety) Regulation [Australia - New South Wales]
These regulations (effective 1 Sep. 1992) were issued under the Electricity Act 1945. They apply to work on or near high-voltage conductors or equipment, as well as to work on or near low-voltage conductors or equipment used for the supply of electricity or the provision of service to the public. Contents: definitions; scope; qualifications and training; general safety provisions; work on or near low-voltage and high-voltage exposed conductors; additional requirements for work in electrical stations, for cable work and for overhead line work.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 15p. (pages numbered 58,371 - 58,403).
Hée G., Lacoste-Labrit M.
Equipment for gas and plasma arc cutting - Air contamination control
Machines de coupage thermique des métaux - Traitement de la pollution [en francés]
This practical guide discusses the safety problems connected with gas cutting and plasma arc cutting. Safety measures are given both to counter mechanical hazards and to deal with the control of air contamination. A table is presented to show the various risks, their causes and aggravating factors, as well as the corresponding preventive measures.
Travail et sécurité, June 1992, No.501, p.403-306. Illus.
Provisional guide for setting exposure limit values for electric and magnetic fields in the 50-60Hz frequency range
Guide provisoire pour l'établissement de limites d'exposition aux champs électriques et magnétiques aux fréquences de 50/60Hz [en francés]
This document, issued by the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), defines the quantities measured and units used, the limits for occupational and general public exposure (excluding the deliberate exposure of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes), the methods for evaluating fields and the recommended protective measures. It also presents the arguments in favour of setting such exposure limits (based inter alia on studies already completed) and examines the particular case of the exposure of pacemaker users to "extremely low frequency" electric or magnetic fields. Originally published in the journal Health Physics (1990, Vol.58, No.1, p.113-122).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1992, No.149, Note No.1897-149-92, p.487-495. 43 ref.
Electrical worker safety: It's a matter of life or death
Accident descriptions involving electrical workers are briefly described followed by safety suggestions in this pamphlet.
Ontario Hydro, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X6, Canada, 1992. 14p. Illus.
What everyone should know about electrical safety
Topics covered in this booklet for homeowners: home wiring; GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupters); cord care; electrical appliances; safe practices around the home; children and electricity; power failures; electrical emergencies.
Ontario Hydro, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X6, Canada, 1992. 18p. Illus.
Danger of death: The dangers of working near overhead power cables
Videotape on the dangers of construction work near overhead power (electric) lines carrying electricity at voltages of 240V-400kV. Simulated accidents are shown. Suggestions for safe working practices in the construction industry. A trainer's manual, with suggested course formats and discussion topics, is included.
CITB (Construction Industry Training Board), Bircham Newton, King's Lynn, Norfolk PE31 6RH, United Kingdom, 1992. Videotape (20min) + trainer's manual + 3 overhead masters. Price: GBP 90.00 (UK), GBP 135.00 (elsewhere).
Electrical safety on construction sites
Elektroschutz auf Baustellen [en alemán]
Safety guide to the use of electricity on construction sites. Contents: sources of electricity on construction sites; protection against water; non-fixed connections; plugs; machinery and equipment; portable hand tools; warning signs; first aid in case of electric shock; survey of legislation in effect in Austria. Update of former Merkblatt M 57 issued in 1989 (CIS 89-1344).
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1992. 22p. Illus.
Safety of information technology equipment, including electrical business equipment - Amendment 1
Sécurité des matériels de traitement de l'information, y compris les matériels de bureau électriques - Amendement 1 [en francés]
Amendments to the following sections of the 2nd edition of the standard originally abstracted under CIS 86-1216: definitions, general conditions for tests, components, power interface, limited power source, wiring, connections and supply, abnormal operating and fault conditions, protection against voltages in the telecommunication network and Annex D.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Feb. 1992. 30p. Illus.
Lacosta Berna J.M.
Valoración del riesgo de incendio de los materiales plásticos utilizados en aplicaciones eléctricas
The use of plastics with high-voltage electrical wires creates a significant fire risk. Causes, prevention and assessment of this fire risk are discussed. Relevant standards for safety testing of electrical apparatus are reviewed.
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1992, No.45, p.27-35. Illus.
Dei-Svaldi D., Paques J.J., Gilet J.C.
Direct contact of construction site machinery with overhead electric power lines
Contact direct d'engins avec les lignes électriques aériennes [en francés]
Many occupational accidents (some fatal) involving electricity are due to contact of construction site machinery with overhead electric power lines. By analysis of accidents occurring in France, Quebec, Ontario and the USA, a typology of the risks involved has been established, according to: machine type (self-propelled mobile cranes, auxiliary truck-mounted cranes, etc); worker activity: machine operator or back-up work on the ground; type of contact: contact by vehicle, or man as contact elements or responsible for arcing; sector of activity. In order to prevent the risks, prevention techniques suited to each case are required, based on the different recommendations provided: procedure to follow in the event of accidental contact, staff training and information, safety by design, power supply cut-off, safety distances, driver or vehicle insulation, insulating structures or barriers, warning signs and instructions, insulating slings, alarms, etc. The problems associated with the detection of electric power lines are explained at length: survey of existing devices, difficulty in measuring electrical quantities. Power line detectors must be considered as operator aids for machines at risk, rather than as distance indicators.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1879-147-92, p.177-194. Illus. 22 ref.
Instalaciones y equipos eléctricos en zonas con riesgos de explosión
Les installations et équipements électriques dans les zones à risques d'explosion [en francés]
Este folleto tiene como objetivo servir de ayuda a los técnicos responsables del desarrollo de las medidas de prevención adecuadas en el diseño, realización y utilización de las instalaciones y equipos eléctricos en zonas potencialmente explosivas. Contenido principal de la información: textos reglamentarios y normativos; determinación y delimitación de las zonas potencialmente explosivas; diferentes tipos de materiales eléctricos utilizables; principios técnicos de utilización.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, Francia, 1a ed., 1991. 58p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice.
Health and Safety Executive
Peligro de muerte
Power to kill [en inglés]
Cinta de video sobre la aplicación de las explotaciones agrícolas del Reglamento británico de 1989 sobre Seguridad Eléctrica
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, Reino Unido, 1991. Videocasete. Duración: 20min. Precio: GBP 11,49 (alquiler), GBP 38,30 (venta). ###
del Hierro Gil H.
Instalaciones eléctricas en obras de construcción
Principales temas tratados en esta nota documental sobre instalaciones eléctricas en obras de construcción: conexiones eléctricas; equipos eléctricos y aislamiento; diseño de los circuitos eléctricos; equipos eléctricos de alumbrado; protección contra las sobrecargas eléctricas.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 8p. Ilus. 3 ref.
Instructivo No.22 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad en los centros de trabajo en donde la electricidad estática represente un riesgo
Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It provides for safety precautions in workplaces where static electricity presents a risk, in particular as they apply to machinery and equipment, measurement techniques and personal protective equipment (antistatic footwear and clothing, frictionless tools). In annex: definition of terms; examples of antistatic and frictionless devices and earthing equipment.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 8p. Illus.
Contents of this training manual on electrical hazards in mines: electrical accidents; basic characteristics of electricity; shock due to contact with live wires or surfaces; areas of special risk (electrical enclosures, mills and preparation plants, high voltage cables, trolley systems, trailing cables); protective measures (circuit and cable protection, protection of wires, grounding); particular issues (machine guards, batteries). Glossary of terms.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1991. 51p. Illus. 7 ref.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer - The epidemiologic evidence
The paper reviews the epidemiological evidence that low-frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may cause cancer. Residential exposure studies as well as studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiological criteria for inferring causal associations, the evidence strongly suggests that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukaemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Nov. 1991, Vol.95, p.147-156. 56 ref.
Thind K.S., Karmali S., House R.A.
Occupational exposure of electrical utility linemen to pentachlorophenol
Exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) by electrical utility linemen was monitored over a six-month period. Urine samples were collected from two groups, plus one control group. Group A was required to use new gloves after each four-week work period; Group B changed gloves as per normal operating procedure. The results showed that the linemen experienced a seasonal exposure pattern with exposures peaking in July and August. This seasonal effect was also observed with glove contamination data. The glove contamination levels were significantly associated with urine PCP concentrations when both these variables were expressed as geometric means for the individuals in Group A. Over the study period, the difference in long-term exposures of Group A and Group B linemen was not statistically significant. The long-term individual exposures, calculated as the geometric mean of each individual's sequential sample readings, were all below the biological monitoring guideline value of 1000µgPCP/g creatinine.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1991, Vol.52, No.12, p.547-552. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical test equipment for use by electricians
This revised guidance note (see CIS 88-618 for original) advises on the selection of suitable test probes, leads, lamps, voltage indicating devices and other measuring equipment and their use by electricians when working on or investigating power circuits. Risks associated with work on or near live conductors are described along with the causes of electrical accidents and the safety requirements for this type of test equipment.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, revised May 1991. 4p. Illus. Price: GBP 2.00.
La electricidad estática y sus consecuencias
The basics of static electricity and the types of damage that it provokes are reviewed. Electric shocks affecting personnel and fires and explosions are mentioned among the occupational risks of static electricity. The supression of static charge in the working area in order to have protected work stations is discussed. Ten basic points for establishing a programme for the control of static electricity are presented. Areas in which electrostatic discharge is common (particularly in the electronics and printing industries) are identified.
Mapfre seguridad, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.11 (3rd Quarter), No.43, p.15-23. Illus.
Resistance against high-voltage, low-current dry arc for electrical insulating materials of organic solids in pressurised air
Kaatsu kūkichū ni okeru yūki zetsuen zairyō no kōden'atsu shōdenryū āku ni taisuru [en japonés]
Standards for insulators, such as ASTM D-495 or JIS K-6911, determine arc resistance at atmospheric pressure. Such criteria may not provide adequate protection when electrical equipment is used in caissons or other high-pressure environments. High-voltage, low-current, dry arc resistance of organic insulating materials was investigated in dry air compressed up to 1.9MPa by slightly modified versions of the ASTM and JIS methods. Specimens tested were a melamine-glass laminated sheet, an epoxy-glass laminated sheet, a phenolic-resin sheet, an ABS-resin sheet and a poly-carbonate resin sheet. When pressure increased, the arc-resistance time of most specimens dropped sharply down to almost one tenth of that under the ordinary atmospheric pressure. The reason is that the electric arcs approach more closely the surface of the test specimen with increasing atmospheric pressure and thereby accelerate carbonisation of the specimen.
Research Reports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety, 10 May 1991, p.75-87. Illus. 6 ref.
Okuno T., Jonai H., Kawakami T.
Exposure of workers to electric and magnetic fields from radiofrequency dielectric heaters for processing polyvinyl chloride material
Pori enka biniru kakō yō kōshuha yūden kanetsu setsubi ga hassei suru denjiba e no sagyōsha no bakuro [en japonés]
Exposure to electric and magnetic fields from radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RF heaters) used to process polyvinyl chloride was measured for 10 workers operating seven RF heaters at three plants in Japan. Six of the RF heaters were of the sewing machine type and the other of the shuttle tray type. The frequency of all the radiofrequency generators was 40MHz. The power output was 0.83-1.8W for the sewing machine type and 2.4W for the shuttle tray type. Measurements were made at 5cm from the surface of the hand, eye, chest, waist, knee and foot. The meter readings were converted to equivalent plane wave power density and corrected for duty cycle. All the workers surveyed were exposed to electric and magnetic fields of greater than 1mW/cm2 (the ACGIH TLV). For the hand, eye, chest, waist, knee and foot, 95%, 63%, 32%, 47%, 36% and 27% of the measured fields exceeded 1mW/cm2, respectively. For the sewing machine type, 100%, 75% and 38% of the electric fields measured at the hand exceeded 1mW/cm2, 10mW/cm2 and 100m/cm2, respectively, and 88% and 25% of those at the eye exceeded 1mW/cm2 and 10mW/cm2, respectively.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 20 Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.491-500. 11 ref.
Chou B.R., Cullen A.P.
Evaluation of ocular hazards due to electric arc flash at an in-line switch
The ocular damage resulting from operation of a solid blade pole-mounted in-line electrical switch at between 16 and 17kV with current loads between 38A and 340A was investigated. Spectroradiometric data for the electric arcs produced as the switch was opened were obtained over the waveband 200-1500nm. The eyes of rabbits were exposed to the flash arc at a distance of 2m. The ocular tissues were assessed clinically and histologically up to 48h postexposure. Threshold damage was clinically detectable only in eyes exposed to a 340A arc. It is concluded that at the normal current loads on a 17kV electric power transmission line, the principal oculovisual hazards are due to molten metal fulminated from the switch by the arc, and after-images due to the bright visible light flash. At a working distance of 2m the ultraviolet ocular hazard is negligible. Adequate eye protection is provided by clear polycarbonate safety lenses.
Health Physics, Oct. 1991, Vol.61, No.4, p.473-479. Illus. 15 ref.
Rosenthal F.S., Abdollahzadeh S.
Assessment of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields in microelectronics fabrication rooms
Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields were measured in four microelectronics fabrication rooms that utilised a variety of electrical devices. Magnetic field levels measured in the aisles of the workrooms ranged from 0.2-7.0mG; electric field levels ranged from 0.1-5.0V/m. At 2" (ca. 5cm) from the surfaces of various workroom devices, magnetic field levels ranged from 5.0-400mG; at 2ft (ca. 60cm) from the device surfaces, levels ranged from 0.5-70mG. From the measured levels and information obtained on typical work patterns, 8-hour time-weighted average personal exposures were estimated for various work scenarios.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.9, p.777-784. Illus. 21 ref.
Kodama T., Tabata Y.
Electrostatic charging of dielectric liquids mixed with powders caused by agitation and prevention of charging
Koeki nisōkei no kakuhan kongō ni yoru seidenki taiden no teiryōka to taiden bōshi [en japonés]
A dispersed phase of solid particles or water droplets in a poorly conductive liquid produces a large electrostatic charge during agitation and thereby may lead to fires or explosions due to electrostatic discharges. Experiments using a cylindrical stainless vessel, 310mm in diameter and 315mm in depth with a paddle impeller, were conducted. Mixing of glass powders (frit), glass beads, adipic acid, titanium dioxide or epoxy resin, into kerosene or xylene gave not only a high charge density (>10µC/m3) during agitation but also a large increase of electric potential after cessation of agitation when the median particle diameter was below 200µm. Addition of a commercial conductivity additive, "ASA-3" or polar organic solvents such as methanol and acetone to the hydrocarbon liquids greatly reduced charge density (to 0.1µC/m3) both during and after the agitation, when the conductivity of liquid was raised to about 1nS/m.
Research Reports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety, 10 May 1991, p.89-100. Illus. 9 ref.
Keyes D.L., Chesson J., Ewing W.M., Faas J.C., Hatfield R.L., Hays S.M., Longo W.E., Millette J.R.
Exposure to airborne asbestos associated with simulated cable installation above a suspended ceiling
Installing cable above a suspended ceiling in the presence of asbestos-containing fireproofing is an example of an activity that may disturb in-place asbestos and associated dust and debris. Two simulations of cable installation were conducted in a room of an unoccupied school to test the extent of such disturbance and resulting elevations in airborne asbestos. Average airborne asbestos concentrations in the room increased over 500-fold during the simulations, with several samples exceeding 50 structures per cubic centimetre (s/cm3), as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an indirect preparation technique. Elevated concentrations persisted during a subsequent cleaning of horizontal surfaces in the room and for several hours thereafter. Personal samples collected on the cable installers yielded TEM measurements averaging approximately 68s/cm3 for the two simulations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1991, Vol.52, No.11, p.479-484. Illus. 16 ref.
Sienkiewicz Z.J., Saunders R.D., Kowalczuk C.I.
National Radiological Protection Board
Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation. II. Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields
This report concludes that most of the established effects of expousre to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields result from acute responses to surface charge (electric fields only) and induced current density; these effects become annoying and stressful if sufficiently intense. Consideration of these responses and the results of neurophysiological studies suggests that subtle central nervous system functions, such as reasoning and memory, may be affected by current densities above 10mA/m2. Other biological effects have been reported, but most are not sufficiently well established to justify limits of human exposure.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1991. 101p. Illus. 313 ref. Price: GBP 7.00.
Kowalczuk C.I., Sienkiewicz Z.J., Saunders R.D.
National Radiological Protection Board
Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation. I. Static electric and magnetic fields
This report concludes that there is no experimental evidence of any adverse effects on human health due to exposure to static electric fields or to short-term exposure to static magnetic fields of up to about 2T, although effects on cardiac function and behaviour from exposure to much higher flux densities cannot be ruled out. Evidence suggests that restricting occupational exposure to magnetic fields to less than about 2T will avoid acute responses such as vertigo or nausea. There is little experimental information describing the possible effects of chronic exposure; so far no long-term effects have become apparent.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1991. 32p. 129 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Avoidance of danger from overhead electric lines
This guidance note is a revision of the 1990 edition (see CIS 91-980). The dangers of work where there may be contact with overhead electric lines and legal obligations of those responsible for such work are outlined. The precautions to be taken at construction sites where there is or is not work or passage of plant under the lines are set out, with plans and drawings of the arrangements of barriers and access points. Precautions to be taken during blasting operations are also outlined.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Aug. 1991. 8p. Illus. Price: GBP 2.25.
Bossé M., Dion J.L., Courtois P.A., Bouchard B.
Portable electronic apparatus for identification and verification of grounded electrical cables
Appareil électronique portatif d'identification et de vérification d'un câble électrique mis à la terre [en francés]
The opening of a junction or the accidental re-powering of a cable may result in severe injuries to repairmen working on medium voltage cables (25kV) in narrow underground rooms. As a solution to this problem, a portable and sturdy electronic cable identifier (IDÉCA) has been developed to verify the absence of voltage on the cable. This device can send over the cable to be repaired a repeated personal identification message, digitally recorded on a special integrated circuit memory. A transmitter unit sends this message for about 10 seconds in the form of an electric current induced in the cable by a magnetic device clamped over the cable. At the receiving end, which may be a few kilometers away, a similar device is also clamped over the cable. The electric signals in the cable induce a voltage in the clamp which is amplified in the receiver. If an intelligible message is heard by the repairman after clamping the receiver on the chosen cable, this is a clear indication that no voltage is present on the cable, and that it is grounded. This article explains the operating principles of the IDÉCA and describes its components. It also reports on preliminary field trials which gave very satisfying results.
Travail et santé, Summer 1991, Vol.7, No.2, p.S-17 to S-20. Illus. 9 ref.
Bierbaum P.J., Peters J.M.
Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop on the Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Workers
Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop on the Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Workers held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 30-31 January 1991. Five papers were presented: in vitro studies on low frequency electromagnetic fields; in vivo studies on biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields; epidemiologic studies on health effects of electromagnetic radiation in workers; occupational exposure assessment for electric and magnetic fields in the 10-1000Hz frequency range; magnetic field management and methods for reducing exposures. Major research needs in each of these five programme areas are also discussed. Glossary.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1991. xiii, 229p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Finkelstein M.M., Boulard M., Wilk N.
Increased risk of lung cancer in the melting department of a second Ontario steel manufacturer
A study of lung cancer among workers at an electric arc steel-making operation was performed to follow up on the observation of a lung cancer cluster in the melt shop of another plant. The study group comprised 335 deceased men identified from plant records. Eight of 30 men who had ever worked in the pouring pit area died of lung cancer (PMR 276; p<0.01), but increased risk was not found elsewhere in the melting department. There was a significant trend in lung cancer risk with the length of employment in the pit area during a time window 18-30yrs before death. An industrial hygiene assessment found present exposures to carcinogenic metals and silica to be within current guidelines. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected. This is the 2nd steel plant for which an increased risk of lung cancer has been found in the pouring areas. The causative factors have not yet been identified.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.19, No.2, p.183-194. Illus. 8 ref.
Loomis D.P., Savitz D.A.
Mortality from brain cancer and leukaemia among electrical workers
The relation of brain cancer and mortality from leukaemia to electrical occupations was investigated in a case-control study based on all deaths in 1985 and 1986 in the 16 states in the United States that report occupational data from death certificates to the national vital statistics registry. The case series comprised all 2173 men who died of primary brain cancer and all 3400 who died of leukaemia. The excess of deaths from brain cancer was concentrated among men aged 65 or older, whereas leukaemia was associated with electrical work only among younger decedents and those with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. These results from a large and geographically diverse population corroborate reports of increased mortality from brain cancer among electrical workers, but give only limited support to suggestions of excess deaths from leukaemia.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1990, Vol.47, No.9, p.633-638. 28 ref.
Unit: Safety technology - Module: Electrical safety
Draft training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are 5 sections: 1. The fundamentals of AC electricity, and standards, guidelines and regulations; 2. Overcurrent, earth leakage and earth fault, circuit considerations, and earth fault devices; 3. Additional means of protection (portable tools and apparatus; separation methods; methods of working); 4. Hazardous atmospheres (standards and regulations; labelling of electrical apparatus; the practice of electrical apparatus in hazardous atmospheres; report of an explosion); 5. Inspection and testing of electrical installations.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1990. 111p. Illus.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields
This draft document summarises and evaluates the available literature relating to the potential carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 3Hz to 30GHz. Although made available to the public as a discussion paper for hearings in Jan. 1991, the report is not a statement of the views of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Agency discourages quotation or citation of the document. Topics covered: human epidemiological studies relating in some way to carcinogenesis, chronic animal studies, and short-term and in-vitro studies related to the carcinogenic effects of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation. Extremely low frequency (3-3000Hz) and radiofrequency (0.003-30,000MHz) fields are emphasised. There are epidemiological studies that indicate an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and certain types of cancer, but other epidemiological studies have failed to substantiate them, and laboratory studies to date are insufficient to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and cancer.
Office of Research and Development Publications Office, CERI-FRN, USEPA, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA, Oct. 1990. 1 vol. Illus. ca. 200 ref. Not officially published.
Physiological and psychological effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields on humans
Research into the hypothetical adverse effects on health that might result from living or working in the proximity of high-voltage power lines has been intense over the last decade. The present paper provides a brief review of the human studies concerned with the physiological and psychological effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. It was concluded that, on the basis of available experience, electric and magnetic fields associated with transmission lines do not cause physiological or psychological effects to be considered as health hazards.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1990, Vol.16, Suppl.1, p.51-54. 41 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable coating powders using stationary equipment (Electrostatic powder coating)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren Beschichtungspulvern mit ortsfesten Sprühanlagen (elektrostatisches Pulverbeschichten) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace those issued in Oct. 1971. Contents: scope and definitions; general requirements; design of installations; marking; general safety precautions; locales; ventilation; fire and explosion prevention; spray stands and booths; powder recovery equipment; air ducting; spray-guns; installations of stationary spray-guns; other electric equipment; grounding; operating instructions; inspection; coating of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; access to the booths; personal protective equipment; work in flammable atmospheres. In annexes: preventive measures against fires and explosions; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives and regulations in Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 37p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable coating powders using manual equipment (Electrostatic powder coating)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren Beschichtungspulvern mit Handsprüheinrichtungen (elektrostatisches Pulverbeschichten) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace those issued in Oct. 1971. Contents: scope and definitions; general requirements; design of installations; marking; locales; ventilation; fire and explosion prevention; floors; spray stands and booths; powder recovery equipment; air ducting; spray-guns; other electric equipment; grounding; operating instructions; inspection; workplaces; coating of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; personal protective equipment; work in flammable atmospheres. In annexes: prevention of fires and explosions during spraying with flammable powders; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives and regulations in Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 36p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable liquids using stationary equipment (Electrostatic painting)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren flüssigen Beschichtungsstoffen mit ortsfesten Sprühanlagen (elektrostatisches Lackieren) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace in part those issued in Oct. 1979 (see CIS 80-1535). Contents: scope and definitions; design of stationary spraying installations; responsibility of manufacturers; marking; locales; ventilation (exposure limits); fire and explosion prevention; floors; spray stands and booths; air ducting; spray guns; installation of stationary spray-guns; electric equipment; operating instructions; training; workplaces; painting of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; access to the booths; personal protective equipment; inspection (pre-installation and periodical). In annexes: prevention of fires and explosions during spraying with flammable liquids; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives and regulations in Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 34p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable liquids using manual equipment (Electrostatic painting)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren flüssigen Beschichtungsstoffen mit Handsprüheinrichtungen (elektrostatisches Lackieren) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace in part those issued in Oct. 1979 (see CIS 80-1535). Contents: scope and definitions; design of manual spraying installations; responsibility of manufacturers; marking; locales; ventilation (exposure limits); fire and explosion prevention; floors; spray booths; air ducting; spray-guns; auxiliary equipment; electric equipment; grounding; operating instructions; training; workplaces; painting of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; personal protective equipment; work in flammable atmospheres; inspection. In annexes: prevention of fires and explosions during spraying with flammable liquids; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 33p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Avoidance of danger from overhead electric lines
This guidance note is a revision of the 1977 edition (CIS 77-1727). The dangers of work where there may be contact with overhead electric lines and legal obligations of those responsible for such work are outlined. The precautions to be taken at construction sites where there is or is not work or passage of plant under the lines are set out, with plans and drawings of the arrangement of barriers and access points. Precautions to be taken during blasting operations are also outlined.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 8p. Illus.
Paureau J., Rollin M.
Antistatic safety footwear - Assessment of the main methods used to determine insulation resistance
Chaussures de sécurité anti-électrostatique. Evaluation des principales méthodes de détermination de la résistance d'isolement [en francés]
The main methods used by manufacturers and test laboratories are DIN 4843, ISO 2878, draft ISO-TC 94/SC3 and tentative standard T 47-132. The test results provide useful information for users and manufacturers as to the suitability of antistatic footwear commercially available in France. To test the different methods used, an apparatus was developed and validated on the basis of on-foot tests (considered as a reference). 40 antistatic shoes representing most of the products on the market in France were tested to evaluate ISO, AFNOR and DIN methods. The results of these standard methods differed considerably from those obtained by the INRS: the differences varied from a ratio of 1 to 3 in the case of the ISO-TC 94/SC3 draft (the best of the standard methods currently in use) to a ratio of 1 to 360 in the case of the DIN 4843 method. The factors at the root of these differences were identified and studied by using the INRS method. Almost all the shoes tested were satisfactory from the point of view of electrical risk protection, but over 40% were too well insulated for adequate static charge dissipation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1781-139-90, p.405-419. Illus. 9 ref.
A guide to the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. An open learning course
This course is intended to provide training for Inspectors and others who have duties under the Regulations. Following some basic information about electricity, there are 4 main modules. Module 1 establishes the context in which the Regulations are set and briefly reviews the types of hazard which may arise and the injuries associated with them. Module 2 reviews in more detail the common causes of electrical hazards and the measures taken to eliminate them. Modules 3 and 4 examine the detailed requirements of the individual Regulations. Each module contains self assessment tests with answers.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 204p. Illus. Price: GBP 14.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety in schools (Electricity at Work Regulations 1989)
This guidance note deals with safety precautions necessary in respect of danger of electric shock or burns to pupils in primary and secondary schools. Advice is given on fixed electrical installations, which should be installed and maintained in accordance with the Institution of Electrical Engineers Regulations for Electrical Installations, and on the safe use of electrical apparatus. Special safety precautions are outlined for science laboratories and other practical areas and for work involving contact with live conductors. References are given to relevant safety regulations and a checklist summarises routine electrical checks for portable apparatus.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London, SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 7p. 16 ref.
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