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Natural phenomena - 188 entradas encontradas

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  • Natural phenomena

1997

CIS 97-1311 Musson R.M.W., et al.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Riesgo sísmico sobre la plataforma continental británica
UK Continental Shelf seismic hazard [en inglés]
En este informe se describe un estudio que permite evaluar el riesgo sísmico sobre la plataforma continental británica. Se preparó un catálogo unificado de los temblores de tierra registrados en la zona en cuestión, así como un mapa con los puntos de origen de los seismos y otros mapas que recogen los contornos de riesgo sísmico. Se tratan igualmente los riesgos secundarios de los temblores de tierra, como son los corrimientos de tierras y los procesos de erosión. Los mapas muestran una gran variedad de riesgos sísmicos a los largo de las costas, se identifican las zonas con un riesgo sísmico superior al normal. El informe incluye una versión abreviada con el catálogo de seísmos y los mapas de actividad sísmica.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, 1997. vii, 101p. Ilus. 95 ref. Precio: GBP 35,00.

1996

CIS 99-421 Seguridad durante el verano
Summer safety [en inglés]
Temas tratados: agotamiento debido al calor; ahogamiento; material didáctico; picaduras; plantas venenosas; radiación solar; trabajo al aire libre; USA; verano; videocinta.
Tel-A-Train, 309 North Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1996. Videocasete (duración 10min). Precio: USD 295,00.

CIS 97-731 Gas - Seguridad del Gas (Derechos de Acceso) Reglamento de 1996 [Reino Unido]
Gas - The Gas Safety (Rights of Entry) Regulations 1996 [United Kingdom] [en inglés]
Este Reglamento (en vigor el 1 de nov. de 1997) regula el derecho de acceso de los "transportadores públicos de gas" y " de las autoridades pertinentes" a las instalaciones, con el fin de prevenir las fugas de gas, proceder a las inspecciones, desconectar los racores de gas, etc.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, Reino Unido, 1996. 6p. Precio: GBP 1,55.

CIS 96-2264 Glaser A.N.
Los efectos globales de las erupciones volcánicas sobre la salud humana y la agricultura
The global effects of volcanic eruptions on human health and agriculture: A review [en inglés]
Enumeración de los efectos de los riesgos volcánicos considerando en primer lugar los efectos directos sobre la salud humana de cada uno de los fenómenos físicos producidos por los volcanes, y a continuación se consideran sus más amplias consecuencias secundarias. Los riesgos incluyen: producción de tefra, (fragmentos de roca, polvo y cenizas), gas volcánico, explosiones volcánicas y ondas expansivas atmosféricas, lahares o inundaciones de barro, fluidos piroclásticos, avalanchas de fragmentos, ríos de lava, inundaciones y terremotos. Los agricultores son especialmente vulnerables a los efectos de las erupciones, en particular al polvo y a las cenizas en suspensión y depositadas.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, vol.3, n°2, p.31-43. 46 ref.

CIS 96-1470 Standing R.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Análisis de los datos NESS relativos al viento
Analysis of NESS wind data [en inglés]
Este informe describe las técnicas de análisis de velocidad del viento que sopla a lo largo de las costas del Reino Unido, a partir de los datos elaborados por el NESS (North European Storm Study). Se ha establecido una carta de velocidades horarias medias para ciclos de 50 años, y se ha comparado con los datos publicados en la guía del HSE que lleva el título Installations en mer: directives pour la conception, la construction et la certification. Se describe la metodología de análisis, así como la validación de los resultados y las consecuencias para la evaluación de la altura de las olas.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, 1996. vi, 81p. Ilus. 17 ref. Precio: GBP 20,00.

CIS 96-689 Wilks J., Walker S., Wood M., Nicol J., Oldenburg B.
Trabajo en el paraíso: servicios de salud que se ofrecen en las estaciones turísticas insulares
Working in paradise: Health services provided for staff at island tourist resorts [en inglés]
Informe de un estudio realizado sobre 1.123 consultas de trabajadores en los centros de atención médica de tres estaciones balneario situadas en las islas tropicales de la costa de Queensland (Australia) durante el período Enero-Junio de 1994. Los problemas médicos (sobre todo respiratorios, digestivos, cutáneos o del sistema nervioso) constituían la causa del 81 % de las visitas, y las lesiones corporales (destacando los rasguños, torceduras y las mordeduras y picaduras de animales) explican el 19 % restante. En la mayoría de los casos, se demostró suficiente la administración de primeros auxilios y medicación, con o sin la consulta telefónica a un médico del continente; sólo siete pacientes tuvieron que ser evacuados al continente por razones médicas. Se subrayan las necesidades del personal en las zonas alejadas y el papel crítico de la enfermera residente. Se utilizó uniformemente el sistema de codificación ICD-9-CM para el análisis de las lesiones corporales y las alteraciones de la salud.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, feb. 1996, vol.12, n°1, p.41-48. Ilus. 20 ref.

1995

CIS 97-1237 Gilli G., et al.
Contaminación química y microbiológica de ambientes confinados: evaluación de la exposición profesional con parámetros físicos fluctuantes, variaciones estacionales y corrientes del exterior
Contaminazione chimica e microbiologica in ambiente confinato: misure dell'esposizione professionale al variare di parametri fisici, condizioni stagionali e flussi dall'estero [en italiano]
Esta investigación estaba dirigida a determinar hasta qué punto los diferentes parámetros ambientales ejercen una influencia sobre los efectos de la exposición de personal de oficina a diversos agentes químicos y microbiológicos (especialmente bacterias y hongos). Las sustancias químicas examinadas incluían los hidrocarburos aromáticos y alifáticos, así como los carbonilos. Los principales parámetros ambientales tenidos en cuenta fueron los ciclos de trabajo diarios, semanales y anuales, la presencia de humo de tabaco y el microclima. En conjunto, la modificación de los parámetros ambientales producía muy pocos efectos sobre la exposición. No obstante, los resultados del estudio mostraron la necesidad de mejorar la ventilación en los meses de invierno y en áreas de mucho tránsito, donde se había detectado una acentuada fluctuación de la concentración de ciertas sustancias químicas y de determinados microorganismos.
Prevenzione oggi, jul.-set. 1995, vol.7, n°3, p.77-104. Ilus.

CIS 96-1852 Di Giovanni D., Lo Piparo G.B., Mazzetti C.
Métodos de evaluación de la probabilidad de accidentes causados por rayos
Metodi di valutazione della probabilità di fulminazione atmosferica [en italiano]
Este artículo describe diferentes modelos que permiten calcular la frecuencia con que un rayo puede afectar a una determinada estructura, y trata de la eficacia de los sistemas de protección. La fiabilidad relativa de los diferentes modelos se ha confirmado, siempre que ha sido posible, comparándolos con los resultados obtenidos experimentalmente. Por razón de la naturaleza compleja del fenómeno del rayo,así como de las interacciones entre su formación y las diferentes estructuras, estas cuestiones no pueden tratarse mas que en términos probabilísticos.
Prevenzione oggi, ene.-jun. 1995, vol.7, n°1-2, p.95-121. Ilus. 32 ref.

CIS 96-819 Wood G.O.
Caracterización de las mezclas de gases en los conductos de evacuación
Characterization of gas mixing in an exhaust stack [en inglés]
(67018).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, ago. 1995, vol.56, n°8, p.788-793. Ilus. 4 ref. ###

CIS 96-1024 Wypych G.
Manual sobre la exposición de materiales a los agentes atmosféricos
Handbook of material weathering [en inglés]
Contenido de este manual: fotofísica - absorción, dispersión y conversión de la energía; fotoquímica; condiciones ambientales; condiciones climáticas; equipos de protección contra los agentes atmosféricos artificiales; preparación de muestras para la investigación de la resistencia a la intemperie; condiciones de exposición a los agentes atmosféricos naturales; categorías de los ciclos de exposición a los agentes atmosféricos; comparación de las exposiciones a los agentes atmosféricos artificiales y naturales; variables importantes de la resistencia a la intemperie; decoloración de los materiales textiles; métodos de evaluación de las muestras expuestas a la intemperie; datos de algunos polímeros; efectos de la morfología de los polímeros sobre la cinética de la fotodegradación; efectos de los aditivos sobre la exposición a los agentes atmosféricos de productos compuestos; estabilización y estabilizadores; biodegradación.
ChemTec Publishing, 38 Earswick Drive, Toronto-Scarborough, Ontario M1E 1C6, Canadá, 2a ed., 1995. x, 564p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: USD 175,00.

CIS 96-296 Rew P.J., Gallagher P., Deaves D.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispersión de los vertidos submarinos - Inventario de metodologías de predicción
Dispersion of subsea releases - Review of prediction methodologies [en inglés]
Este informe presenta un inventario de los métodos utilizados para la simulación de vertidos submarinos de gas y una estimación de las consecuencias de utilización de esta simulación en la evaluación de los riesgos. Mientras que se tiende a utilizar las aproximaciones simples y empíricas para la evaluación de los riesgos, se aplica la modelización por ordenador derivada de la dinámica de fluidos en el campo de la investigación. La indisponibilidad de datos a gran escala no ha permitido validar los modelos para tasas elevadas de vertido, que son corrientes en los casos de explosión o de ruptura de conductos submarinos. En general las hipótesis normalmente formuladas a la hora de simular los efectos de los vertidos submarinos de gas tienden a subestimar los riesgos.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, Reino Unido, 1995. iv, 59p. Ilus. 63 ref. Precio: GBP 15,00.

CIS 95-2218 Carter D.
Fugas de sustancias peligrosas
Hazardous substances on spillage [en inglés]
Este informe trata de integrar los efectos del "tiempo en origen" en los modelos de dispersión atmosférica. Estos efectos, directamente asociados a las características de la fuga, dependen de los factores siguientes: el momento inicial de la fuga y modo de disipación; para las fugas de líquidos, los efectos de la dispersión y la evaporación en el depósito sobre la formación de vapores y sobre la consiguiente dilución en la atmósfera; para las fugas en dos tiempos, los procesos de expansión del avance inicial. Se describen estos efectos y la dinámica de la interfaze entre el tiempo en origen y los modelos de dispersión, con comentarios al respecto. Se incluyen de igual modo los códigos informáticos de que se dispone hoy en día.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, Warwickshire, Reino Unido, 1995. vi, 60p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Indice.

CIS 95-2033 Guía de seguridad de los trabajadores en condiciones climáticas frías
Cold weather worker's safety guide [en inglés]
Guía formativa dirigida a los trabajadores en climas fríos. En el sumario: elementos de seguridad en el trabajo; inspección de seguridad; investigaciones y declaraciones post-accidente, primeros auxilios; seguridad del trabajo en climas fríos - riesgos del frío, medición del frío (incluyendo el factor de refrigeración eólica, trajes caldeados; mantenimiento de los trajes de protección contra el frío, seguridad del trabajo en la nieve y el hielo, resistencia del hielo en las superficies de agua heladas, signos vitales de lesiones debidas al frío (se incluye la prevención y el tratamiento de las congelaciones, la hipotermia, los pies helados y el síndrome del dedo blanco y el canal carpiano); trabajo en regiones aisladas de climas fríos; seguridad general de los trabajos que se realizan en el exterior (seguridad eléctrica, escaleras, sierras de cadena, cargadoras, máquinas sopladoras de nieve, para palear y cavar, manutención manual de materiales, arranque de los vehículos, residuos infecciosos); líneas directrices de seguridad en el medio laboral; equipos de protección personal; legislación sobre la prevención en Canadá.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) (CCOHS), 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canadá, 1995. 104p. Ilus. Precio: CAD 10,00 (Canadá); USD 10,00 (otros países).

CIS 95-1794 Lines I.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Fabricación y utilización del fluoruro de hidrógeno, incidentes y tipos de riesgo: Revisión
A review of the manufacture, uses, incidents and hazard models for hydrogen fluoride [en inglés]
En este folleto se revisan las características y la envergadura de la fabricación y utilización del ácido fluorhídrico (AF) en los países de la Unión Europea, así como los incidentes a que ha dado lugar este producto a nivel mundial. Se presentan de forma sintética las técnicas de simulación de escapes, de termodinámica, de dispersión y atenuación de los escapes accidentales de AF. Según los datos emitidos por este informe, la fabricación, almacenamiento, transporte y utilización de AF en la industria comportan riesgos de que se produzcan accidentes mayores. Hasta el momento, los estudios de simulación de la dispersión de AF en condiciones de humedad elevada, habituales en el Noroeste de Europa, dejan planteadas considerables dudas. Por otro lado, estas condiciones son determinantes para los planes de ocupación de los suelos, así como para la implantación de este tipo de instalaciones.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, Reino Unido, 1995. vi, 157p. Ref.bibl. Precio: GBP 35,00.

CIS 95-1119
Health and Safety Executive
Acción del viento sobre las estructuras temporales
Wind loading on temporary structures [en inglés]
Actas de una conferencia en torno a la acción del viento sobre las estructuras temporales, celebrada en Harpur Hill, Buxton, Reino Unido, el 26 de mayo de 1994. Temas tratados: posibilidad de reducir los accidentes mediante la utilización de andamios revestidos; repaso de los daños provocados por el viento en el Reino Unido; técnicas de revestimiento de andamios en Alemania y el Reino Unido; ventajas comerciales de los andamios revestidos; manual práctico relativo a la acción del viento, puesto al día (BS 6399: 2ª parte); cálculo de estructuras del andamiaje para soportar la acción del viento; estudio de la acción del viento sobre estructuras ligeras; pruebas de simulación con andamios revestidos en un túnel de viento; investigación sobre los efectos de la carga eólica sobre las estructuras del andamiaje revestido; diseño de estructuras temporales revestidas y flexibles.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, 1995. iii, 156p. Ilus. Ref.bibl. Precio: GBP 10,00.

1994

CIS 94-2059 Tóth J., Lakatos J.
A thermodynamic model for coal gas outbursts
A thermodynamic model for coal-methane outbursts is described based on laboratory modelling of results of gas/coal outbursts and sorption properties of gas/coal systems. The basic idea of the model is that a potential barrier exists between two equilibria in coal/gas systems; when this barrier is crossed, a considerable amount of energy is released. Development of protection processes requires exact and continuous measuring of the potential barrier and determination of its distribution. An instrument for such measurement is under development.
Mining Engineer, June 1994, Vol.153, No.393, p.359-361. Illus. 4 ref.

1993

CIS 96-1851 Protección contra los rayos. Parte 1: Principios generales. Sección 1: Guía A: Elección de los niveles de protección para las instalaciones de protección contra los rayos
Protection of structures against lightning. Part 1: General principles. Section 1: Guide A - Selection of protection levels for lightning protection systems [en inglés]
Protection des structures contre la foudre. Partie 1: Principes généraux. Section 1: Guide A: Choix des niveaux de protection pour les installations de protection contre la foudre [en francés]
Esta norma internacional trata de la protección de las estructuras contra los rayos. La primera parte especifica los principios generales: selección de los niveles de protección para los sistemas de protección contra los rayos. Contenidos: generalidades; clasificación de las estructuras; parámetros de los rayos; selección de los niveles de protección para los Sistemas de Protección contra los Rayos (LPS). Figuras y anexo.
Commission électrotechnique internationale, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Suiza, 1a ed., ago. 1993. 43p. Ilus.

CIS 94-1358 Kukkonen J., Savolainen A.L., Valkama I., Juntto S., Vesala T.
Long-range transport of ammonia released in a major chemical accident at Ionava, Lithuania
An estimate is made of the atmospheric dispersion of ammonia released in a major chemical accident in Lithuania in 1989. Emphasis is placed on possible long-range effects. The computations were made using trajectory and dispersion models based on gradient-transfer diffusion theory and using actual meteorological data. The computer concentrations were compared with available observations obtained from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme stations. Results indicate that most of the ammonia escaped the monitoring stations in Finland.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-16. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1312 Henneberger P.K., Ferris B.G., Sheehe P.R.
Accidental gassing incidents and the pulmonary function of pulp mill workers
A previous investigation of workers in pulping operations identified decrements in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). A subset of those data (230 workers) were reanalyzed to consider accidental exposure to high levels of irritant gases, such as chlorine (CL2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Gassing events were more common among pulp mill workers (34%) than workers in other parts of the company (9%). Average changes of -291.9mL in FEV1 (p<0.05) and -5.00% in FEV1/FVC (p<0.05) were associated with gassing. Also, in each of the regression models for the three measures of pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC), there was a three-way interaction of cumulative smoking, cumulative pulp mill exposure, and gassing. The greatest decreases in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC associated with gassing were evident in the dual smoking/pulp mill exposure categories of none/high and high/none. Changes in pulmonary function persisted after cessation of exposure.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.63-67. 12 ref.

CIS 94-1389 Tochihara Y., Ohnaka T., Nagai Y., Muramatsu T.
Survey of physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer
Kaki ni okeru asubesuto bōgo fuku chakuyō sagyō no rōdō futan ni kansuru chōsa kenkyū [en japonés]
Asbestos abatement projects in schools are planned during summer vacation. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing. Physiological strains in 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatement work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. The workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoe covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6°C and 28.8°C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was the result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces with vinyl sheets, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working periods were 46 and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were 217-605g/h. These values were greater than estimated values for similar work done wearing light clothing. Heart rates did not exceed 150 beats/min where the temperature was 25°C-27°C, but where the temperature was 28°C-29°C one worker's heart rate increased to 170 beats/min. During this work (136 minutes), rectal temperature increased 2.3°C; body weight loss was 1,300g. There is a high risk of suffering from heat illness in asbestos abatement work during the summer.
Annals of Physiological Anthropology, 1 Jan. 1993, Vol.12, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-962 Wilhelm V.
Occupational safety and health on waste disposal sites - Hazards and pollution by gas emissions
Arbeitsschutz an Deponien - Gefährdungen und Belastungen durch Deponiegas [en alemán]
Anaerobic decomposition of the organic components in waste produces a gas which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and methane. It also contains traces of harmful substances such as dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, benzene and vinyl chloride. A design of outgassing facilities which prevents explosions and health hazards is outlined.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, Vol.105, No.9, p.614-616, 618-619. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 94-1045 Baker M.
Surviving the elements - Outdoor workers' safety
The hazards associated with work in Australia's extreme climatic conditions are examined along with an outline of the legal responsibilities of employers and safety precautions. Government guidelines have established a clear recognition of the hazards of solar radiation and the risk of skin cancer and the precautions necessary. While no specific regulations exist with regard to climatic heat, an employer's basic obligations are usually encapsulated under relevant state occupational safety and health legislation. Policies adopted for both hot and cold conditions should be based on common sense and education of personnel along with proper protective equipment.
Australian Safety News, Dec. 1993, Vol.64, No.11, p.28-39. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-711
Health and Safety Commission
The prevention of inrushes in mines
This approved Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to two sets of Regulations: the Mines (Precautions against Inrushes) Regulations 1979 (the legal framework; risk assessment; duties of the owner, manager and surveyor; procedures and schemes of work to prevent inrushes); and Parts II and VI of the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 (general duties of the owner of the mine; appointment and duties of surveyors; working plans, ventilation plans and geological map; facilities and information to be given to the surveyor; plans relating to abandoned mines or discontinued seams and vein-systems; faulty plans).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. vi, 32p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.50.

CIS 93-1685
Health and Safety Executive
Release of chemicals from International Biosynthetics Ltd.
Report of the investigation by the British Health and Safety Executive into the chemical emission from International Biosynthetics Ltd. on 7 Dec. 1991. During a process involving a reaction between phosgene and dimethylaniline, an unexpected chemical reaction led to over-pressurisation of the reactor and consequent failure of an inlet connection in a condenser. Some 3.5 tonnes of chemicals were emitted and the vapour cloud was blown 4km, affecting about 60 people. A prosecution was made under the Health and Safety at Work Act and recommendations were made for a number of improvements in the company's arrangements, including emergency organisation.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 15p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.

1992

CIS 95-1534 Takala E.P., Viikari-Juntura E., Moneta G.B., Saarenmaa K., Kaivanto K.
Variaciones estacionales de los síntomas en el cuello y los hombros
Seasonal variation in neck and shoulder symptoms [en inglés]
Se realizó una encuesta por correspondencia (tasa de respuesta 74-90 %) en septiembre de 1988 entre 351 trabajadores de banco con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y 50 años, y que desempeñaban tareas profesionales sedentarias y ligeras. Posteriormente se repitió la encuesta en los siguientes meses de diciembre, marzo y mayo, con el fin de estudiar la evolución de los síntomas en el cuello y los hombros. Se observó un cambio en la frecuencia de dichos síntomas en el 40,5% de los sujetos durante el período de seguimiento, comprendido entre el otoño y la primavera. La frecuencia de los síntomas disminuía a medida que se pasaba del otoño y el invierno a la primavera. Se constató una asociación positiva entre la estabilidad de la frecuencia y la edad. Las variaciones estacionales de los síntomas deben tenerse en cuenta a la hora de elaborar los programas de prevención de las afecciones cervicobraquiales.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ago. 1992, vol.18, n°4, p.257-261. Ilus. 28 ref.

CIS 93-1718 Jones M.E., Leddra M.J., Goldsmith A.S., Edwards D.
Health and Safety Executive
The geomechanical characteristics of reservoirs and reservoir rocks
This report discusses the mechanical behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks from theoretical, experimental and practical standpoints. The in situ stress and deformation states existing in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the details of how these can be altered during hydrocarbon production are discussed. Data on rock reservoir deformations is necessary in assessing the probability of a deformation problem occurring, estimating its cost and the impact of any safety and environmental implications. A knowledge of the geomechanics of the reservoir rock may influence the design of the hydrocarbon production strategy.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 202p. Illus. 100 ref. Price: GBP 40.00.

CIS 93-1614 Mwaniki D.L., Guthua S.W.
Occupational exposure to glutaraldehyde in tropical climates
This letter reports cases of adverse reactions to glutaraldehyde fumes among workers in an outpatient clinic in Nairobi (Kenya). The glutaraldehyde, used for instrument decontamination and housekeeping, was left in an open vessel in locations with limited ventilation. The reactions probably corresponded to development of hypersensitivity to glutaraldehyde. There is a need for manufacturers to provide precautionary information on the volatile nature of glutaraldehyde, especially in warm climates, and the possible toxicity of its fumes.
Lancet, 12 Dec. 1992, Vol.340, No.8833, p.1476-1477. 8 ref.

CIS 93-976
Steel Construction Institute
Gas/vapour build up on offshore structures
This report is one of a series concerning blast loading on offshore structures. Information relevant to the prediction of gas or vapour build-up in offshore structures is summarised and reviewed. This includes data on the natural or forced ventilation flows in a module during normal operation and on the flow field set up by the release itself. The limited amount of information available on how these motions are likely to interact is also examined. A summary of the current state of knowledge is given along with current uncertainties.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 56p. Illus. 65 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-1022 Robinson R.W., Hamilton J.
Health and Safety Executive
A criterion for assessing wind induced crossflow vortex vibrations in wind sensitive structures
The current state of the art for assessing the sensitivity of offshore structures to wind induced vortex vibrations is reviewed. Data are presented indicating that the level of structural damping decreases for slender tubulars and appropriate damping values are proposed. Based on these assumptions, a screening method is proposed for tubulars and a methodology presented for assessing the maximum stresses and the fatigue life. This document supersedes the original report OTO 88 021.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iv, 48p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 93-971
Steel Construction Institute
The prediction of single and two-phase release rates
This report is one of a series addressing general issues relevant to blast and fire engineering for offshore structures. Information relevant to the prediction of the rate of release of material from vessels or pipework on offshore structures is summarised and reviewed. The survey considers releases through holes or punctures with a diameter of up to 100mm in pipework or vessels containing pressurised gases or liquids. Particular attention is given to the nature of the likely flows and the uncertainties involved in predicting two-phase flows.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 61p. 54 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-921 Johnson A.T., Grove C.M., Weiss R.A.
Respirator performance rating tables for nontemperate environments
Respirator performance rating tables have been constructed for hot, humid (29°C, 95% RH); hot, dry (49°C, 30% RH); and cold, dry (-32°C, 70% RH) conditions. These tables convey expected wearer performance percentages compared to unmasked workers for various mask elements and work rates. The hot, humid condition was found to be the most severe overall. Many table entries approach 100%, thus leading to difficulties in correcting mask deficiencies.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.548-555. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 93-635 Glickman T.S., Golding D., Silverman E.D.
Acts of God and acts of man - Recent trends in natural disasters and major industrial accidents
Trends and patterns in natural disasters and major industrial accidents are examined both worldwide and in the US. Data are taken from a new database developed at Resources for the Future which covers the years 1945-1989 for the US and 1945-1986 for the world. The database development process is discussed in the appendix which includes a summary table listing all events in the database with month and year of disaster, country or region, type of disaster, and reported deaths. Results of the analysis showed that there is a need for more complete and consistent information on how and why such events occur.
Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, May 1992. 65p. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 92-2020 Papazoglou I.A., Christou M., Nivolianitou Z., Aneziris O.
On the management of severe chemical accidents - DECARA: a computer code for consequence analysis in chemical installations - Case study: ammonia plant
A computer programme (DECARA) for assessment of the risk of accidental releases of hazardous substances is presented. DECARA provides an integrated risk analysis including source-term strength evaluation, estimation of the hazardous cloud dispersion and quantification of health impacts. Multiple accidents, each with a certain probability of occurrence can be handled and dispersion of heavier, as well as lighter-than-air gases, released instantaneously or continuously, can be simulated. The programme is described with reference to the probabilistic safety analysis of an ammonia storage plant. The programme is available for personal computers.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1992, Vol.31, No.2, p.135-153. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1334 Pin N.T., Ling N.Y., Siang L.H.
Dehydration from outdoor work and urinary stones in a tropical environment
A questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary stone disease among 406 male workers in several occupations in Singapore: quarry drilling and crusher workers, quarry truck and loader drivers, postal delivery men and hospital maintenance workers. The prevalence of urinary stone disease was found to be 5 times higher in outdoor workers compared to indoor workers, and contrary to expectation, no increased risk of urolithiasis was apparent in physically inactive workers. Chronic dehydration is likely to be the most important factor for increased risk of urolithiasis in outdoor workers in the tropics, and should be easily prevented by increased water intake.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.42, No.1, p.30-32. 9 ref.

CIS 92-604 Brockhoff L., Styhr Petersen H.J., Haastrup P.
A consequence model for chlorine and ammonia based on a fatality index approach
A simple consequence model for chlorine and ammonia is proposed based on the concept of fatality indices, i.e. that a given release amount will on average result in the same number of fatalities. The model uses actual data from accidents involving the two chemicals. Consequences were estimated for three different population density classes: rural, semi-urban (industrial), and urban. Results are presented as curves showing the frequency of getting a certain number of fatalities. The curves show that the fatality index model gives results closer to actual observations than do traditional models and its use is therefore recommended for public policy-related risk assessments.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.405-425. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 92-603 Alexeeff G., Lewis D., Lipsett M.
Use of toxicity information in risk assessment for accidental releases of toxic gases
One of the factors involved in emergency planning to avert or manage toxic gas releases is consideration of "acceptable" levels for a once-in-a-lifetime exposure. Currently available sources of such values are discussed and it is seen that these can vary by 100-fold or more. It is considered that the lack of generally acceptable acute exposure levels or of standard procedures to calculate such levels encourages arbitrariness in emergency planning. It is concluded that development of toxicity values could be substantially improved with more experimental data on non-lethal end points and with explicity accounting for sensitive populations.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.387-403. Illus. 40 ref.

1991

CIS 93-1486 Winter alert
This training manual concerns winter hazards and their prevention in coal mines. Section A deals with hazards in underground mines: fires and explosions; roof and ground control; frozen and stiff equipment controls; ice build-up in shafts and slops; frozen water pumps. Section B deals with surface mining hazards in winter: effect of bad weather and cold temperatures on soil stability; explosives and blasting hazards; equipment hazards; electrical hazards; welding hazards. Glossary.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1991. 64p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 93-1023 Jowsey M.D.
Development of calibration techniques for HDRK's loose rock detection system
Current methods for loose rock detection are reviewed and calibration techniques used for the HDRK Mining Research Limited loose rock sensing and assessment device are described. Results from sample surveying are discussed which illustrate the inconsistency of loose rock interpretation by individuals using the traditional hand-held scaling bar technique. The resultant effect of inconsistent objective assessment on mine safety is also discussed.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1991. 18p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 92-1376 Futatsuka M., Inaoka T., Ohtsuka R., Moji K., Sakurai T.
A preliminary study on the function tests of the vibration syndrome in tropical rain forest workers
In a study of working situations and health hazards among tropical rain forest workers in Papua New Guinea, peripheral circulatory and sensory tests were used to investigate vibration syndrome due to chain saw operation. Among the 61 workers tested, including 16 chain saw operators, no clear evidence was found of harmful effects related to hand-arm vibration, although there was a possibility of subclinical dysfunction of peripheral circulation and peripheral neuropathies among chain saw operators. Results suggest that the reactiveness of peripheral circulation is closely related to exposure to hand-arm vibration.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1991, Vol.20, No.1, p.95-99. 8 ref.

CIS 92-286 Bridgman S.A.
Peripheral cold acclimatisation in Antarctic scuba divers
Peripheral acclimatisation to cold in scuba divers stationed at the British Antarctic Survey's Signy Station was investigated during a year in Antarctica. Five divers and five non-diver controls underwent monthly laboratory tests of index finger immersion in cold water. Index finger pulp temperature and time of onset of cold-induced vasodilatation were measured. No significant differences were found among the variables recorded from divers and non-divers, thus there is no evidence that the Signy divers peripherally acclimatised to cold. It is suggested that these findings occur either because of the whole-body cooling which divers undergo inhibits peripheral acclimatisation or because of insufficiently frequent or severe cold exposure while diving.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.62, No.8, p.733-738. Illus. 31 ref.

1990

CIS 92-1617 Machefer J., Bidron P., Guigner P.M.
Exposure of garage mechanics and pump attendants to benzenoid hydrocarbons from motor-fuels
Exposition aux hydrocarbures benzéniques des carburants automobiles chez les mécaniciens et les pompistes [en francés]
Exposure of garage mechanics and pump attendants to benzene, toluene and xylene was studied at different seasons of the year by an activated charcoal badge dosimeter and through determination of metabolites in urine. 12% of the mechanics and 14% of pump attendants were exposed to more than 3.2mg benzene per m3 air. Mechanics working in small garages and pump attendants had higher exposures than did controls, and exposure was greater during the autumn and winter than during summer.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.2, p.89-94. 11 ref.

CIS 92-1639 Chester G., Adam A.V., Inkmann Koch A., Litchfield M.H., Tuinman C.P.
Field evaluation of protective equipment for pesticide operators in a tropical climate
In order to extend the practical advice and information on personal protection when using pesticides in tropical climates, a GIFAP-FAO Working Group carried out a study on protective equipment worn by pesticide workers in hot and humid conditions in Thailand. Items assessed included protective garments worn by workers mixing and loading the organophosphorus insecticide formulation Tamaron and by spraymen applying the diluted formulation for several hours per day to a cotton crop with knapsack sprayers. The mixer-loaders also wore nitrile rubber gloves and a faceshield. The protective garments were made up of two pieces, an upper garment of a double apron design and separate trousers. Garments made up of different materials were assessed for their acceptability to the workers, their comfort and durability and their protectiveness against the insecticide. As a result of the study, it is considered that cotton protective garments are appropriate for pesticide workers in these conditions if additional protection is necessary. The nitrile rubber gloves and faceshield were also found to be suitable for mixer-loaders in these circumstances. It is emphasised that the effective use of protective equipment must go hand in hand with safe handling precautions and the adoption of good personal hygiene.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.480-488. 3 ref.

CIS 91-1991 Brighton P.W.M.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Similarity solutions for two-dimensional steady gravity currents
When a heavy gas is emitted at ground level, buoyancy forces tend to make it spread sideways and upwind while at the same time the wind tries to transport it in the opposite direction. The purpose of this paper is to present some solutions to equations describing this complex interaction in two dimensions. Similarity solutions have been found for steady two-dimensional laminar flow in which dense fluid is emitted upwards from a horizontal plane into a laminar flow or into a uniform flow. The solutions also apply to a light fluid released at an upper horizontal surface and the method can be extended to certain turbulent flows.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, 1990. 42p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 91-1340 Holmér I.
Work in hot environments - Consequences of assessment using the WBGT
Arbete i värme - Konsekvenser av bedömning med WBGT [en sueco]
The WBGT is a heat stress index, recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 7243, see CIS 83-288), for estimating the heat load on working man. The method is suitable for assessment of heat exposure in industry. Measurements of the WBGT and calculations of the WBGT on the basis of meteorological data indicate that the method is relevant and useful for Swedish industry and that some workplaces exceed the recommended reference values. During the warm season, other, non-industrial types of work could also suffer from heat overload problems. In Sweden, hot weather conditions are most likely in July, when normally people are on vacation, so that heat-related productivity losses, calculated as a drop in work output per hour, are probably modest at this time. After determining local correlations between the WBGT at work places and external climatic conditions, factories with heat problems should devise routines for monitoring and remedying heat stress.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 22p. 36 ref.

CIS 91-325 Abeysekera J.D.A., Shahnavaz H.
Adaptation to discomfort in personal protective devices: an example with safety helmets
In this trial, identical industrial safety helmets were worn by 10 subjects in a tropical environment, repeatedly (6h a day) for a period of one month. Subjective evaluations of discomfort were carried out at intervals. The selected helmet was not ideal, considering the head sizes of the subjects and the fact that the helmet was designed for a cold climate. Results showed a good degree of adaptation to discomfort, heat, heaviness and bad fit. Since adaptation took place over a period of 30 days, it was difficult to draw any conclusions on the optimum adaptation period for each discomfort factor. It is concluded that a significant adaptation to unavoidable discomfort in protective wear is possible.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1990, Voo.33, No.2, p.137-145. Illus. 7 ref.

1989

CIS 96-1269 Normas sobre las medidas de protección personal al utilizar productos fitosanitarios en climas calurosos
Guidelines for personal protection when using pesticides in hot climates [en inglés]
Directives pour les mesures de protection personnelle pendant l'utilisation de produits phytosanitaires sous conditions climatiques chaudes [en francés]
Folleto formativo dirigido a los usuarios de pesticidas en los países en vías de desarrollo. En el sumario: vías de penetración de los productos fitosanitarios en el cuerpo humano; precauciones generales; protección personal en climas cálidos; materiales, diseños y disponibilidad de trajes y otros artículos de protección.
Groupement international des associations nationales de fabricants de produits agrochimiques (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Bélgica, set. 1990 (ed. inglesa, ago. 1989). 34p. Ilus.

CIS 92-270 Brighton P.W.M.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Pressures produced by instantaneous chlorine releases inside buildings
This report concerns the overall thermodynamics of an instantaneous release of pressurised liquid chlorine inside a building. The ranges of release sizes and of building sizes of practical interest are reviewed. Results of calculations show that over the major part of the relevant range of conditions for releases of 1-30 tonnes, a pressure change of over 0.1 atmospheres can occur, making it likely that a large proportion of the building's walls or cladding will be removed. This pressure change is a function mainly of the volume of the storage room in relation to the quantity of chlorine released and is also slightly dependent on ambient temperature.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, Mar. 1989. 22p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 90-303 Wemhöner H.
Locking of cranes to avoid damage by wind
Sicherung von Kranen gegen Abtreiben durch Wind [en alemán]
Locking devices for cranes at wind speeds of about and above 15m/s are described. They include brakes, catch hooks, eye bolts, rail pinch bars, self-locking levers, eccentric rollers and rail pinch bars which close by spring force and are opened electrohydraulically. The latter are considered the safest but most expensive locking devices.
Fördern und Heben, 1989, Vol.39, No.1, p.23-26. Illus.

1988

CIS 90-774 Parahonskij Ė.V.
Occupational safety and health in quarries
Ohrana truda na kar'erah [en ruso]
Contents of this training manual written for vocational training school students: general aspects; fundamentals of Soviet OSH legislation; OSH organisation; occupational injuries and diseases; general requirements for the protection of workers and environment at the stage of quarry design and operation; workplace climate and microclimate; noxious dust and gas control; workplace lighting; radiation protection; safety of the main processes; safety of the pressure vessels and systems, hoisting and lifting equipment and repair work; electrical safety; fire safety; flood and snow-drift control; mine rescue fundamentals.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 197p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: SUR 0.30.

CIS 88-1991 Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Tenaglia R.D.
Emissions from the evaporative casting process
The emissions generated during the pouring, cooling, and shakeout of a water-pump casting made by the evaporative casting process (ECP) were compared with those from a conventional green sand process. The ECP moulds produced more soot, hydrocarbons (styrene, benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons than the green sand process. Benzene was a major hazard.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 8 ref.

1987

CIS 89-644 Staroń T.
Crump prevention by forcing water into unmined coal
Zapobieganie tąpaniom przez wtłaczanie wody do calizny węglowej [en polonés]
Examples of crump prevention by forcing water into holes in unmined coal are presented. An attempt was made to determine the extent of crack propagation and establish a criterion of destruction of coal bed structure by forcing water. Destruction of coal bed cohesion limits crump hazard. A model is presented for selecting hydraulic parameters of liquid spreading in the coal bed during water injection. Observations are presented that can be used in practice to limit crump and tremor hazard.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.133, p.93-106. 8 ref.

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