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  • Biological hazards


CIS 86-1760 Satoh K., Fujii S.
Bio-hazard preventing facilities
Description of some buildings in Japan with bio-hazard containment facilities. A presentation of the design criteria for preventing bio-hazards from pathogenic microorganisms and recombinant DNA is followed by examples of pathogenic microorganism facilities: the maximum isolation ward of Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara Hospital, the maximum safety laboratory of the Murayama Branch of the National Institute of Health (class 4 level), the Virus Infection Research Department of the Medical Institute of Tokyo University and the Virus Isolation Laboratory of the Domestic Animals Sanitary Examination Institute (class 3 level). As for recombinant DNA facilities, the maximum containment laboratory of the life science facilities of the Tsukuba Centre Institute of Physics and Chemical Research and the DNA Experiment Laboratory of the Chemical Institute of Kyoto University are presented as examples of P4 and P3 levels respectively.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Sep. 1984, Vol.22, No.2, p.1-13. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 86-791 Manual of accident prevention in livestock raising
Manual de prevençăo de acidentes na pecuária [en portugués]
This illustrated manual, written in simple language, is aimed at workers directly working with farm animals (mainly, cattle and horses) in Brazil. Chapter 2 covers the main sources of risk: accidents during the handling of animals; diseases transmitted by animals (brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, anthrax, tuberculosis, rabies, leptospirosis, hydatid disease (echinococcosis), cysticercosis, tetanus); risks associated with the administration of drugs and vaccines to animals; inadequate buildings used for animal housing; exposure to animal excrement; exposure to dangerous chemicals; hand tools; machinery and equipment; electricity; horse- and ox-drawn transportation. Chapter 3 covers general and specific first-aid measures: artificial respiration; cardiac arrest; injuries; fracture; burns; poisoning (tables present symptoms and treatment connected with commonly used pesticides and herbicides, and with commonly ocurring poisonous plants); stings and bites by poisonous animals (spiders, bees, wasps, snakes); transport of the injured. Chapter 4 covers the accident insurance coverage of rural workers in Brazil.
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 Săo Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1984. 73p. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 85-709
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of pathogens according to hazard and categories of containment
A classification of pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) according to the hazards they represent. Requirements for safe operation of laboratories are listed for 4 levels of containment, as well as for the handling of vertebrate animals experimentally infected with one of these 4 categories of pathogens. In the appendix: safe use of microbiological safety cabinets; use of respiratory protective equipment; containment of latently infected animals; safe use of invertebrate animals in laboratories; handling of patients infected with pathogens, and safe use of associated laboratory specimens; handling rabies and hepatitis B virus; training of laboratory personnel.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1984. 48p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: Ł4.50.

CIS 84-1653 Macher J.M., First M.W.
Personal air samplers for measuring occupational exposures to biological hazards
Gelatin filter media, an impinger sampler and spiral cascade impactors were tested for collection efficiency for small (≤2µm) latex spheres and for recovery of bacterial aerosols. The impinger and cascade impactor showed excellent collection efficiencies for 0.8µm latex aerosols and bacteria (E. Coli, 2µm). Gelatin and membrane filter media were not satisfactory for sampling vegetative bacterial cells sensitive to dehydration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.76-83. 34 ref.


CIS 88-2075 Micro-organisms as an occupational hazard - A report on needs for research in the medical field
Contents of this report concerning the medical aspects of airborne microorganisms: exposure to microorganisms in different work environments (spores from fungi and actinomycetes, bacteria, endotoxins and mycotoxins, odours from moulds); effects of exposure (cell reactions, symptomatology, allergic alveolitis, reactions to toxins); limitation of exposure; needs for research (investigations of exposure, epidemiological investigations, investigations of the course of disease, measures to improve the work environment).
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, July 1983. 22p. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1742 Clark R.P., Hughes D.
The performance, installation, testing and limitations of microbiological safety cabinets
This guide covers the performance and testing of microbiological safety cabinets particularly in regard to establishing a firm and quantifiable basis for containment tests on open-fronted cabinets. Aspects of installation, instrumentation and the design and performance of complete containment facilities are also discussed. Contents: history and standards; cabinet types; airflows and performance; containment testing; filter tests; performance of open-fronted cabinets; installation; choice of cabinet; sterilisation; special facilities; rooms housing containment facilities.
Science Reviews Ltd., C/o 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1983, No.9, 106p. Illus. 74 ref.

CIS 84-1341 Hay R.J., Campbell C.K., Wingfield R., Clayton Y.M.
A comparative study of dermatophytosis in coal miners and dermatological outpatients
234 coalminers and 244 dermatological patients, all with tinea pedis, were compared. Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest causation organism in both groups (71% and 77% respectively). Susceptibility factors such as atopy are less important in coalminers, in whom there is a high risk of endemic dermatophytosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.353-355. 10 ref.

CIS 84-1337 Lundholm M., Rylander R.
Work related symptoms among sewage workers
199 workers at 6 sewage plants and 41 at 3 drinking water plants (controls) were questioned about symptoms and examined for serum immunoglobulin concentrations, white blood cell counts and fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) concentrations in the urine, and the number of airborne Gram-negative rods were determined. A significantly higher number of sewage workers reported skin disorders, diarrhoea, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Haematological findings showed no significant differences. Among non-smokers a higher proportion of sewage workers had increased fibrinogen degradation product levels in the urine.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.325-329. 25 ref.

CIS 84-711 Microorganisms as a problem in the workplace - Present situation and directions for research
Mikroorganismer som arbetsmiljöproblem - Lägebeskrivning och analys av FoU-behov [en sueco]
Contents of this report: a survey of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, molds, lichens, protozoa, viruses), their activities, their modes of life and reproduction, and the workplaces where they pose health problems (alphabetic list of various occupations and tasks); physiological effects (the body's defense mechanisms, especially the immune system, allergic reactions, cytological reactions, symptoms, allergic alveolitis, reactions to toxins; prevention and therapy; areas where research is needed); qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis (determination of live and dead microorganisms in the air); antimicrobial measures; necessity of worker education; bibliography; definitions. In an appendix: research projects of the Swedish Worker Protection Fund.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 1983. 87p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-498 Saxinger W.C., Blayney D.W., Postal M., Blattner W.A.
Risk of infection of laboratory workers with the human T-cell leukaemia virus
Viral antibodies were looked for in 125 workers at virology, tissue culture, pathology, and cytogenetics laboratories and patient care areas, all of whom were studying human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV) or HTLV-infected patients. One (black female) laboratory worker had serum antibodies to HTLV, probably acquired before she began work in the USA. The use of safety procedures similar to those for hepatitis appears to have been adequate. The results demonstrate the usefulness of pre-employment serum storage for biological workers.
Lancet, 30 July 1983, Vol.2, No.8344, p.274-275. 10 ref.

CIS 84-337 Malker H.R., Malker B.K., Blot W.J.
Mesothelioma among sugar refinery workers
This letter reports a 7.7-fold excess of mesothelioma incidence in 4 workers from a cohort of 3,051 male workers at sugar refining factories in Sweden. The role of asbestos or organic fibrous dusts or other exposures is unclear.
Lancet, 8 Oct. 1983, Vol.2, No.8354, p.858.

CIS 84-336 Newman R.H.
Asbestos-like fibres of biogenic silica in sugar cane
Before sugar cane is harvested, the field may be set on fire, creating large quantities of airborne plant residue. Electron images of the residues showed structures from the mature leaf composed almost entirely of silicon, symmetrically distributed along the fibres. 5g of mature leaf digest yielded 150 hypoderm fibres, 0.85µm in diameter and 10-300µm long. The percentage weight of biogenic silica in mature dried leaf was 5-7%. There may be implications for carcinogenesis among sugar cane workers.
Lancet, 8 Oct. 1983, Vol.2, No.8354, p.857. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-473 Dworsky M.E., Welch K., Cassady G., Stagno S.
Occupational risk for primary cytomegalovirus infection among pediatric health care workers
The prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody was determined in medical students, house staff, nurses and physicians, and pregnant and non-pregnant women in the community. Exposure of health-care workers was estimated by determining the prevalence of CMV infection in 3 groups of asymptomatic infants for whom they provided care. CMV was excreted in the urine or saliva of 1.6% of 2,899 newborns, 13% of 24 premature infants hospitalised for over a month, and 5% of 44 older infants seen as outpatients. Annual attack rates in the hospital students and staff were not higher than in the women in the community, and the risk of occupational contact is no larger than that faced by young women in the community at large.
New England Journal of Medicine, 20 oct. 1983, Vol.309, No.16, p.950-953. 15 ref.

CIS 84-186 Glioblastoma and chemical mutagenesis in biology laboratories
Glioblastomes et mutagénčse chimique dans les laboratoires de biologie [en francés]
Report on 4 cases of malignant tumours, of which 3 were fatal glioblastomas. The tumours all appeared in workers at the same institute; all had handled mutagens, especially N-methyl-N'-nitronitrosoguanidine, in the course of mutation experiments. A causal connection between the mutagens and the cancers is suggested.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.6, p.411-418.

CIS 83-1429 Hill E.C.
Microbial aspects of health hazards from water based metal working fluids
A review of the identity and properties of microorganisms found in water-based cutting fluids and related systems showed that only Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Aspergillus are likely to be encountered. As these organisms are only opportunistic pathogens, they present a hazard only to persons with reduced resistance to infection (e.g., workers undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs).
Tribology International, June 1983, Vol.16, No.3, p.136-140. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 83-1916
Environment Experts Group of the Swedish Foundation of Occupational Safety and Health (ASF's expertgrupp pĺ omrĺdet)
Microorganisms as a problem in the working environment
Mikroorganismer som arbetsmiljöproblem [en sueco]
Contents of this report on inflammatory or immunological reactions to inhalation of microorganisms: exposure to the spores of fungi and actinomycetes, to bacteria, to endotoxins and mycotoxins, to moulds; effects due to the exposure (reactions at the cell level, allergic alveolitis, reactions to toxins); prophylactic and therapeutic measures; survey of areas needing research (exposure studies, epidemiological studies, study of the courses of diseases, experimental studies, improvements in workplace conditions).
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Mar. 1982. 21p. 16 ref.

CIS 82-1634 Stuart D.G., Greenier T.J., Rumery R.A., Eagleson J.M.
Survey, use, and performance of biological safety cabinets
The types of cabinet available, how they are designed to function, their proper use and their expected performance are discussed. A class II Type A biological safety cabinet was evaluated by challenge with Bacillus subtilis spores at line voltages of 85-130V in order to determine performance during simulated brownout and power surge conditions. With a 20.3cm high work opening the cabinet passed both personnel and product protection tests at all voltages. With a 25.4cm high work opening the cabinet passed the same tests with the exception of the personnel protection test at 85V. The motor-blower performance characteristics were adequate for this cabinet to perform its safety function over a considerable range of line voltages.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1982, Vol.43, No.4, p.265-270. Illus. 18 ref.


CIS 82-1058 Health effects of combined exposures in the work environment
Effets sur la santé de l'exposition professionnelle ŕ des agressions multiples [en francés]
Theoretical considerations on the effects of combined occupational exposure to multiple agents (physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial); current state of the art in this field: animal experiments, human observations (in particular the influence of factors such as medical treatment, smoking, alcohol intake, nutrition), epidemiological approach; practical implications for occupational health practice, standard-setting and research.
World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1981. 76p. 171 ref. Price: SF.4.00.

CIS 82-1151 Harrington J.M.
Health and safety in medical laboratories
A review of the microbiological, chemical and physical hazards of work in a medical laboratory carrying out research or routine and diagnostic examinations, under the headings: infectious diseases (tuberculosis, serum hepatitis, salmonellosis, brucellosis, and other micro-organisms such as herpes B viruses and Marburg and Lassa fever viruses); non-infectious illnesses (accidents, skin disease, cancer and other hazards related to inhalation of toxic and anaesthetic gases, and injury due to broken glass). Current laboratory safety and health practices for different classes of laboratory are reviewed and recommendations made for tightening up on these practices, especially in laboratories where there is high individual risk due to biological agents. Safety requirements in genetic manipulation are considered. The work of the WHO Special Programme on Safety Measures in Microbiology is referred to.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1982, Vol.60, No.1, p.9-16.

CIS 82-896 Nordic workshop on the International Occupational Safety and Health Hazard Alert System
Report of the Workshop (Helsinki, 24-25 Mar. 1981), organised by the Nordic Council of Ministers, with the cooperation of the ILO. Items discussed were: nature of the Alert System, field of application (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, physiological and psychosocial hazards), technical content, types and format of communications, experience of the experimental phase; role of designated bodies: receiving an alert, launching an alert; role of research institutes and employers' and workers' organisations in the Alert System. Annexes: criteria concerning the information (e.g. on carcinogens) to be entered in the Alert System; guidelines for dissemination of communications at the national level; list of participants.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genéve 22, Switzerland, Apr. 1981. 48p. Illus.

CIS 81-1401 Hansen J.P., Falconer J.A., Hamilton J.D., Herpok F.J.
Hepatitis B in a medical center.
Over a 40-month period, there were 1,235 cases of exposure to blood product or body fluids. Of the 155 workers exposed to HBsAg-positive blood, 101 were not immune to hepatitis B. 3 of them developed clinical hepatitis, as did 24 other employees. The cumulative incidence was 106 per 100,000 employee-years.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.338-342. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 81-1003 Price A., Le Serve A., Parker D.
Biological hazards - The hidden threat.
This is one of a series of concise guides on hazards at the workplace addressed to shop stewards and trade union safety representatives. Contents: general remarks; how hazards enter the body (inhalation, direct contact, ingestion); biological health hazards (bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasitic worms, plant diseases); case studies (smallpox, humidifier fever, bacterial contamination of soluble oils and coolants, diseases of agricultural workers); sampling and monitoring; action on biological hazards (shop floor organisation, inspections and checklists, medical records and surveys, access to information); diseases and infections of biological origin.
Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., Nelson House, Mayfield Road, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey KT12 5PL, United Kingdom, 1981. 89p. Illus. Price: Ł1.40.


CIS 81-1610
Council of the European Communities
Council Directive of 27 November 1980 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work
Directive du Conseil du 27 novembre 1980 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés ŕ une exposition ŕ des agents chimiques, physiques et biologiques pendant le travail [en francés]
Directive prescribing (1) the general measures to be adopted by the Member States (inter alia, limitation of use of the agent and number of workers exposed, prevention by engineering control, establishment of limit values, etc.) to ensure the protection of workers, and (2) additional measures (medical surveillance, communication of results of measures taken, informing workers and/or their representatives when limit values are exceeded) in the case of exposure to acrylonitrile, asbestos, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, mercury, nickel, lead and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The Directive also prescribes: measures necessary to ensure surveillance of workers' health status in the case of work involving the use of asbestos and lead; communication of information on the occupational hazards of asbestos, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. Provisions concerning consultation with employers' and workers' associations prior to the application of the above measures.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, B.P. 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 3 Dec. 1980, Vol.23, No.L 327, p.8-13.

CIS 81-1324 Castegnaro M., Hunt D.C., Sansone E.B., Schuller P.L., Siriwardana M.G., Telling G.M., Van Egmond H.P., Walker E.A., Davis W.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in laboratory wastes.
In descriptions of 4 methods, sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate methods are used for the destruction of aflatoxins in non-specific laboratory wastes, ammonia for animal feed and litter waste, and quicklime for carcass waste. Nomenclature and chemical and physical data for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and some of their metabolites and degradation products are provided in an appendix.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1980. 59p. 99 ref. Price: SF.18.00.

CIS 80-1753 Research on DNA recombination - Work with recombinant DNA in CI and CII laboratories
Recombinant DNA-onderzoek - Het werken met recombinant DNA in CI- en CII-laboratoria [en holandés]
Draft directive prepared with the assistance of the microbiology laboratory of the Netherlands Applied Scientific Research Organisation: definitions; categories of laboratories; committee for work on recombinant DNA; danger symbol; responsibilities; safety rules; laboratory layout and equipment (access; air renewal and ventilation, easy-to-disinfect sanitary and electrical installations, floor and wall surfaces, doors and furniture); fume cupboards; warning notices; personal hygiene; clothing to be worn; safe work techniques; disinfection and sterilisation; repair and maintenance; procedures in case of fire or spillage.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Arbeidsinspectie, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, no date. 36p. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 75-570 Biological hazard symbol.
This standard, sponsored by the National Safety Council, specifies the design and conditions of use of a pictorial warning symbol for the identification of the biological hazards due to infectious agents.
ANSI Z35.5-1974, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 1974. Standard approved 14 Feb. 1974. 2p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: US-$1.50.


CIS 72-2500 Franz et al.
Asbestos-hazards data
Informationen zum Thema Gesundheitsgefahren durch Asbest [en alemán]
Basic data of asbestos types, location of deposits, sources of exposure, measurement and control of asbestos dust, health hazards (absorption, mode of action, clinical picture of asbestosis), the legal basis of the medical supervision of asbestos-exposed workers, and occupational medical-care examinations.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, May 1972, No.5, p.186-189.

CIS 73-130 Lehaye D.
Removal from a hazardous workplace due to the danger of occupational disease
L'écartement du milieu nocif de travail en raison d'un risque de maladie professionnelle [en francés]
This brochure, designed for the industrial medical officer and the insurance physician, explains the procedures for changing jobs within a firm or between firms due to an occupational-disease hazard, and comments on the Belgian regulations in this context. Appendices contain the various forms that have to be completed in different cases.
Fonds des maladies professionnelles, ave. de l'astronomie 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1972. 70p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 73-349 Dalgaard J.B.
Fatal poisoning and other health hazards connected with industrial fishing
The literature on disease and severe or even acute poisoning due to work in confined spaces with trash fish used for fish-meal production is reviewed and 3 cases of fatal hypoxia in fishing boats and several cases of non-fatal illness in trash-fish handling are described. A survey carried out on air composition in the holds and forecasting of Danish fishing boats is described; in several instances, the low oxygen and/or high carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide concentrations encountered were considered hazardous to life. The poisoning hazards seems greatest during the landing of trash-fish or trash-fish processing in meal plants. Persons under the influence of alcohol may be particularly susceptible. Raw material quality should be improved, safety belts and lifelines should be provided for work in confined spaces, mechanical ventilation should be employed and air testing carried out; fishermen should have an adequate medical service.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1972, Vol.29, No.3, p.307-316. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 73-323 Nogawa K.
Lead and cadmium hazards to pottery painters
In a study of the health hazards of lead and cadmium in pottery glaze of pigments, physical examinations were carried out on 283 pottery painters. Urinary concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher than in controls, suggesting abnormal but slight accumulation of these metals within the body. High urinary lead concentrations were accompanied by low haematocrits and haemoglobin levels. Workers with high urinary concentrations of both lead and cadmium presented particularlymarked anaemia, and it is suggested that these metals may exert a synergic action.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, June 1972, Vol.27, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 72-2537
American Industrial Hygiene Association, Westmont, New Jersey
Sulfur trioxide (sulfuric anhydride) - SO3
Main physical properties, hazards to health and relevant control measures. The recommended maximal atmoshperic concentration (8H) is 1mg/m3 or 0.3ppm by volume. Methods of sampling and analysis in air are outlined, and advice is given on emergency treatment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1972, Vol.33, No.1, p.53-55. 12 ref.

CIS 73-40 Suciu I.
Arterial hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon in polyvinylchloride production workers
Hypertension artérielle et syndrome de Raynaud chez les ouvriers occupés ŕ la fabrication du polychlorure de vinyle [en francés]
Paper read at the 1st International Symposium of Plant Physicians of the Chemical Industry (Ludwigshafen, 27-29 April 1972). Report on a 9-year (1961-1969) study of 112 young polyvinylchloride workers. During this period systolic and diastolic pressures and the incidence of arterial hypertension increased, and this is attributed to the prolonged action of vinylchloride monomer on vasomotor centres and a generalised vasoconstriction. (For the complete proceedings of this symposium, see CIS 73-32.)
I. Internationales Symposium der Werksärzte der chemischen Industrie, Medichem, BASF Ärztliche Abteilung, 67 Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 9p. 10 ref.

CIS 73-641 Johansson B., Kylin B., Roepstorff S.
Investigation of noise in the metalworking industry - Part I: Evaluation of the hearing damage risk from exposure to irregular noise. A field and laboratory study
Undersökning av buller i verkstadsindustri - Del I: Bedömning av hörselskaderisk vid exposition för oregelbundet buller. En fält- och laboratoriestudie [en sueco]
Report on audiometric tests on 170 young workers exposed to non-steady-state work-shop noise. The authors converted the intermittent noise according to ISO Recommendation R 1999 to an equivalent steady-state noise and correlated the results with the audiograms. The correlation showed that hearing damage increases on the average proportionally to noise level. The results also suggest that the conversion method tends to shift the risk limit by about 5 dB towards more tolerable values. In the laboratory, 20 persons with normal hearing were exposed to equivalent levels of steady-state and intermittent industrial noise. The temporary threshold shifts recorded 15 min after exposure showed that intermittent noise, as converted according to the recommended method, produces a lower threshold shift than steady-state noise.
Arbetsmedicinska Institutet, Fack, S-104 01 Stockholm 60, Sweden, June 1972, 18p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 73-1124 Taylor W.
The weavers of Dundee
A review of the noise hazard and levels of exposure amongst jute weavers in Dundee, Scotland. A report is given on the examination of 96 subjects with a minimum of 20 years' exposure to noise in jute weaving mills. The mean noise-exposure time to 100dB(A) weaving noise for the group of 96 weavers was 41.6yrs; mean age was 64.7yrs. It was found that these weavers had an average hearing loss of 36.6dB at 0.5, 1 and 2kHz, compared with 12.8dB for matched controls. The main handicap found amongst weavers in this survey was difficulty in speech communication. The problems involved in grading degrees of deafness are discussed.
Transactions of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1972, Vol.22, No.2, p.37-43. Illus.

CIS 73-1194 Von Lüpke A., Ickenroth K.H.
Audiometric examination of noise-exposed workers
Audiometrische Untersuchungen an Lärmarbeitern [en alemán]
In a practical experiment with the exposure test laid down by the directive of the Association of German Engineers, VDI 2058, page 2 (see CIS 71-1150), a study was made of persons employed in noisy premises. Details are given of the examinations carried out and of their results together with information on the difficulties encountered (need for a quiet examination room, small number of persons meeting the necessary criteria, length of time required). It is concluded that audiometric testing can be carried out during working hours but that the selection criteria for the detailed medical examination should be modified to ensure that the examining physician is not overwhelmed.
Arbeitsschutz, Oct.-Nov. 1972, No.10-11, p.361-364. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 73-1196 Schulz G.
Special features of noise exposure and noise control at the workplace
Besonderheiten der Lärmbelastung und Lärmminderung am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Following an introduction on the effects of workplace noise and maximum permissible noise levels, the author provides information on the design of soundproofed control cabins designed for short-term or long-term occupation. Additional heat stress and the effect of noise on stereoscopic acuity are also considered. General advice on noise-control measures is also given.
Stahl und Eisen, 9 Nov. 1972, Vol.92, No.23, p.1170-1173. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 73-1379 Mullin L.S.
Halogenated hydrocarbon-induced cardiac arrhythmias associated with release of endogenous epinephrine
Certain unsubstituted and halogenated hydrocarbons are known to release endogenous epinephrine and to cause cardiac sensitisation. Experiments were carried out on exercising dogs exposed to known concentrations of flurocarbons 11, 12 and 114; exercise was chosen as a means of increasing the production of epinephrine to a level where cardiac sensitisation could occur. It was found that, whereas fluorocarbons 12 and 114 did produce cardiac sensitisation, a much higher concentration was needed to produce this effect than with intravenous epinephrine administration. Fluorocarbon 11 did not produce the same effect at the test concentrations chosen.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.389-396. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 73-1597 Reist P.C., Cole H.M.
A simple procedure for the routine testing of respirator sorbents
Description of a simplified procedure for testing respirator sorbents for breakthrough, using chemical detector tubes in place of sophisticated analytical methods. The apparatus consists mainly of a test gas bottle, glass tubing, valves and meters, a cartridge holder and a detector tube suitable for the test gas concerned. The detector tube is used qualitatively only to measure breakthrough time. Experiments carried out with SO2 sorbent cartridges showed good agreement with the standard ASTM electrical conductivity method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1972, Vol.33, No.8, p.523-525. Illus. 3 ref.


CIS 73-139 Žarković G.
Health damage in workers exposed to high concentrations of arsenicals
Oštećenija kod radnika izloženih povišenoj koncentraciji arsenovih spojeva [en serbocroata]
158 ferrosilicon workers (with exposure to high arsine concentrations) and 152 gypsum-plant workers (control group) were examined for arsenic absorption; chemical analysis of urine, fingernails and hair revealed no differences. Analysis of medical findings showed no statistical difference between the 2 groups - except for a higher incidence of acute hepatitis in the arsenic-exposed group. The only significant difference was revealed by dermatological examination: arsenic-exposed workers suffered more from melanoderma, hyperkeratitis, leuco-melanoderma and nail changes.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.3, p.245-252. 9 ref.

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