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- Psychology of work organization
Stress prevention at work checkpoints
This manual includes easy-to-apply checkpoints for identifying stressors in working life and mitigating their harmful effects. It also provides guidance on linking workplace risk assessment with the process of stress prevention. These checkpoints consist of good practices for enterprises and organizations in general, and are especially useful for companies and organizations that wish to incorporate stress prevention into their overall occupational safety and health policy and management systems. The checkpoints are grouped under the following headings: job demands; job control; social support; physical environment; work-life balance and working time; recognition at work; protection from offensive behaviour; job security; information and communication. Each of the checkpoints describes an action, indicates why it is necessary and how to carry it out, and provides further hints and points to remember.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2012. xvi, 119p. Illus. Price: CHF 35.00; USD 35.00; GBP 25.00; EUR 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Stress_prevention_at_work_checkpoints_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Flintrop J., eds.
Mental health promotion in the workplace - A good practice report
Mental health promotion (MHP) includes all the actions that contribute to good mental health. Its primary aim is to focus on what maintains and improves our mental wellbeing. It is important to highlight that optimally effective MHP should include a combination of both risk management and health promotion. This good practice report includes information on how to integrate MHP into a comprehensive approach to enhancing and promoting the safety, health and wellbeing of employees at work. Several case studies based on innovative and creative approaches are included.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, Sep. 2011. 41p. Illus. 30 ref.
Mental_health_promotion_in_the_workplace_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Liira J., Karlsbakk J., Joensuu M., Sidorov P., Novikova I., Ketinka O., Loginova T., Bojko E., Lehtinen S.
Psychological workload and return to work
Collection of articles on occupational stress, mental health and work aptitude of relevance to Nordic countries and Russia. Contents: Norwegian language training of young Russians with disabilities; psychological load, education and social systems, and return to work after a long sickness absence; strategy for occupational burnout prevention among physicians in Russia; evaluation of the psycho-physiological and functional status of young people in a northern region of Russia. Other topics addressed: Other topics brief reports on OSH conferences during 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey, Riga, Latvia and Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2011, Vol.14, No.3, p.63-91 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Psychological_workload_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Bagaajav A., Myagmarjav S., Nanjid K., Otgon S., Chae Y.M.
Burnout and job stress among Mongolian doctors and nurses
This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of burnout among doctors and nurses in Mongolia. A self-administered questionnaire addressed to 180 doctors and 212 nurses resulted in a response rate of 87%. Burnout was measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) in three scales: personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout. Job stress was measured by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Compared with the prior studies of hospital staffs in other countries, doctors and nurses in Mongolia had relatively higher burnout rates, with personal, work-related and client-related average scores of 45.39, 44.45, and 32.46, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ERI significantly influenced all dimensions of burnout, while over-commitment significantly influenced personal and work-related burnout.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.582-588. 26 ref.
Burnout_and_job_stress_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Kai Y., Nagamatsu T., Yamaguchi Y., Tokushima S.
Effect of leisure-time physical activity and commuting by walking on depressive symptoms among Japanese workers
The objective of this study was to investigate the prospective association of leisure-time physical activity and commuting to work by walking with depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. It was based on one-year follow-up longitudinal survey data collected from 634 Japanese individuals (536 men) aged 20-60 years working at an information technology company and exhibiting no depressive symptoms at baseline. The duration of leisure-time physical activity and commuting by walking were measured using an online self-report questionnaire. Findings suggest that leisure-time physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of depressive symptoms among Japanese workers, independent of job stress, whereas commuting to work by walking has no anti-depressive effect.
Bulletin of the Physical Fitness Research Institute, Apr. 2011, Vol.109, p.1-8. 30 ref.
Effect_of_leisure-time_physical_activity_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Influencing attitudes and behaviours
Pour influencer les attitudes et les comportements [en francés]
This article presents the highlights and main findings after 18 months of a programme carried out in a metalworking plant in Quebec, Canada, taking into account human factors and psychology for influencing safety attitudes and behaviours. The programme had a highly successful outcome, one of the notable results being a 92% lower accident frequency rate.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2011, Vol.27, No.4, p.24-27. Illus. 3 ref.
Pour_influencer_les_attitudes_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en francés]
Innstrand S.T., Langballe E.M., Falkum E, ., Aasland O.G.
Exploring within- and between-gender differences in burnout: 8 different occupational groups
The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in burnout within and between occupations. Burnout was measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. A total of 4965 workers (50.5% women) from eight occupational groups in Norway were investigated: lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers, church ministers, bus drivers and people working in advertising and information technology. Significant latent mean differences in the two dimensions of burnout between men and women were demonstrated. In general, the analyses indicate that overall, women report more exhaustion, but not more disengagement, than men. However, separate analyses indicate that the gender differences vary across occupational groups, especially for the disengagement dimension. Within-gender analyses suggest an approximately similar burnout profile across occupational groups for men and women.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2011, Vol.84, No.7, p.813-824. Illus. 58 ref.
Exploring_within_and_between-gender_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Lehmann A., Burkert S., Daig I., Glaesmer H., Brähler E.
Subjective underchallenge at work and its impact on mental health
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between subjective underchallenge at work and the degree of depressiveness and life satisfaction. It involved a representative sample of 1178 German workers (52.5% men, average age 40.4 years) who responded to a questionnaire on satisfaction with life, state of heath and a ten-item scale developed for the purpose of this study. The association between subjective underchallenge at work, life satisfaction and depressiveness was examined by means of path analyses. A significant positive association was found between subjective underchallenge at work and depressiveness, mediated by life satisfaction. This association was not moderated by income but by level of education. Participants with a medium educational level displayed a weaker association than participants with either a high or a low educational level. Not only work overload but also feeling underchallenged at work can have a negative impact on mental health and well-being.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.655-664. Illus. 59 ref.
Subjective_underchallenge_at_work_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Salmela-Aro K., Rantanen J., Hyvönen K., Tilleman K., Feldt T.
Bergen burnout inventory: Reliability and validity among Finnish and Estonian managers
This study introduces a short measure for burnout (the Bergen Burnout Inventory, BBI) and examines its validity and reliability among managers in Finland and Estonia by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Burnout comprises three dimensions: exhaustion at work (emotional component); cynicism toward the meaning of work (cognitive component); sense of inadequacy at work (behavioral component). A total of 742 young Finnish managers and 414 Estonian managers responded to burnout and effort-reward imbalance scales. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that the BBI can be used for the measurement of burnout in both research and occupational health contexts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.635-645. Illus. 42 ref.
Bergen_burnout_inventory_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Morse T., Dussetschleger J., Warren N., Cherniack M.
Talking about health - Correction employees' assessments of obstacles to healthy living
The objective of this study was to describe health risks and obstacles to health among correctional employees. It involved combining the results from four focus groups, 10 interviews, 335 surveys and 197 physical assessments. Obesity levels were higher than national averages (40.7% overweight and 43.3% obese), with higher levels associated with job tenure, male gender, and working off-shift. Despite widespread concern about the lack of fitness, leisure exercise was higher than national norms. Respondents had higher levels of hypertension than national norms, with 31% of men and 25.8% of women hypertensive compared with 17.1% and 15.1% for national norms. Stress levels were elevated. Officers related their stress to concerns about security, administrative requirements, and work/family imbalance. High stress levels are reflected in elevated levels of hypertension. Correctional employees are at high risk for chronic disease, and environmental changes are needed to reduce risk factors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1037-1045. Illus. 51 ref.
Talking_about_health_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Carey M.G., Al-Zaiti S.S., Dean G.E., Sessanna L., Finnell D.S.
Sleep problems, depression, substance use, social bonding, and quality of life in professional firefighters
Little attention has been given to factors contributing to firefighters' well-being. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine such contributing factors in a sample of 112 professional firefighters. Overall, many firefighters reported sleep deprivation (59%), binge drinking behavior (58%), poor mental well-being (21%), current nicotine use (20%), hazardous drinking behavior (14%), depression (11%), poor physical well-being (8%), caffeine overuse (5%) and poor social bonding (4%). Small-to-medium correlations were identified between sleep deprivation, depression, physical/mental well-being and drinking behaviors. High-risk behaviors that impact psychosomatic well-being are prevalent in professional firefighters, which require environmental and individual-based health promotion interventions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.928-933. Illus. 31 ref.
Sleep_problems_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Sorensen G., Stoddard A.M., Stoffel S., Buxton O., Sembajwe G., Hashimoto D., Dennerlein J.T., Hopcia K.
Role of the work context in multiple wellness outcomes for hospital patient care workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between low-back pain (LBP), inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency among patient care workers. It was carried out in the form of a cross-sectional survey of 1572 patient care workers (response rate 79%). A total of 53% reported LBP, 46%, inadequate physical activity, and 59%, sleep deficiency. Inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency were associated, but LBP was not significantly related to either. Increased risk of LBP was significantly related to job demands, harassment at work, decreased supervisor support and job title. Inadequate physical activity was significantly associated with low decision latitude. Sleep deficiency was significantly related to low supervisor support, harassment at work, poor ergonomic practices, people-oriented culture and job title. These findings point to shared pathways in the work environment that jointly influence multiple health and well-being outcomes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.899-910. 99 ref.
Role_of_the_work_context_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Greubel J., Kecklund G.
The impact of organizational changes on work stress, sleep, recovery and health
The study objective was to investigate the impact of various types of organizational changes, as well as anticipation of such changes, on work-related stress, sleep, recovery and health. It was hypothesized that impaired sleep and recovery increase the adverse health consequences of organizational changes. The data consisted of cross sectional questionnaire data from a random sample of 1,523 employees in the Swedish police force. It could be shown that extensive organizational changes including downsizing or a change in job tasks were associated with a small increase in work stress, disturbed sleep, incomplete recovery and health complaints. However, less extensive organizational changes such as relocation did not affect these outcome variables. Anticipation of extensive organizational changes had almost the same effect as actual changes. Furthermore a moderating effect of sleep and work stress on gastrointestinal complaints and depressive symptoms was found.
Industrial Health, May 2011, Vol.49, No.3, p.353-364. Illus. 37 ref.
The_impact_of_organizational_changes_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Butterworth P., Leach L.S., Strazdins L., Olesen S.C., Rodgers B., Broom D.H.
The psychosocial quality of work determines whether employment has benefits for mental health: Results from a longitudinal national household panel survey
This study used longitudinal data to investigate whether the benefits of having a job depend on its psychosocial quality (levels of control, demands and complexity, job insecurity, and unfair pay), and whether poor quality jobs are associated with better mental health than unemployment. It involved the analysis of seven sets of annual data (2001 to 2007) from 7,155 respondents of working age. Longitudinal regression models evaluated the concurrent and prospective association between employment circumstances and mental health. Overall, unemployed respondents had poorer mental health than those who were employed. However the mental health of those who were unemployed was comparable or superior to those in jobs of the poorest psychosocial quality. This pattern was evident in prospective models. The health benefits of becoming employed were dependent on the quality of the job. Moving from unemployment into a high quality job led to improved mental health, however the transition from unemployment to a poor quality job was more detrimental to mental health than remaining unemployed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2011, Vol.68, No.11, p.806-812. Illus. 48 ref.
The_psychosocial_quality_of_work_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vézina M.
Long-term effects of an intervention on psychosocial work factors among healthcare professionals in a hospital setting
This case-control study assessed the long-term effects of a workplace intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and effort-reward imbalance) and mental health problems among health care professionals in an acute care hospital. Pre-intervention and 3-year post-intervention measures were collected by telephone interviews with validated instruments. Three years after the intervention, all adverse psychosocial factors except one were reduced in the experimental group, and the improvement was statistically significant for five out of the nine factors. In addition, all health indicators improved. In the control hospital, three work factors improved significantly but two deteriorated significantly: decision latitude and social support. All health problems deteriorated, although not significantly, in the control hospital. Moreover, three years after the intervention, the mean of all adverse factors except one (psychological demands) and all health indicators was significantly more favourable in the experimental than the control hospital, after adjusting for pre-intervention measures. These results support the long-term effectiveness of the intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.479-486. Illus. 43 ref.
Long-term effects of an intervention_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Maina G., Bovenzi M., Palmas A., Prodi A., Filon F.L.
Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and ambulatory blood pressure: Results of a cross-sectional study in call handler operators
The objective of this study was to examine the association between two job stress models, namely the job strain (JDC) and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among call handler operators. Participants included 74 women and 26 men who were monitored on two workdays for ambulatory blood pressure. Measures of both job stress models were related to blood pressure by the generalized estimating equations method while adjusting for potential confounders (gender, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, educational level, marital status, time of day, and work schedule). Findings are discussed. Overall, they do not support work stress as a significant factor influencing ABP among call handlers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.383-391. Illus. 45 ref.
Job_strain_effort-reward_imbalance_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Fournier P.S., Montreuil S., Brun J.P., Bilodeau C., Villa J.
Exploratory study to identify workload factors that have an impact on health and safety - A case study in the service sector
The new types of work organization could have negative impacts on employees (fatigue, chronic stress, musculoskeletal disorders) just as on employers (absenteeism, personnel turnover). The scientific literature designates workload as a common denominator in this case, except that evidence on the conceptualization of this phenomenon is limited and does not take into account its complexity. The objective of this study was to define and characterize workload according to a systematic approach. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire survey among the employees of an insurance company. Findings are presented and discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. ix, 55p. Illus. Approx. 80 ref.
Exploratory_study_to_identify_workload_factors_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Ford M. T, Cerasoli C.P., Higgins J.A., Decesare A.L.
Relationships between psychological, physical, and behavioural health and work performance: A review and meta-analysis
The relationships between health and job performance problems have received increased attention in business and scientific communities. This paper attempts to synthesize theoretical and empirical work in this arena. First, the theoretical links between health and work performance are presented. This is followed by a meta-analysis of the relations between psychological, physical, and behavioural health variables and work performance criteria. Meta-analytic results from 111 independent samples obtained from a search of the literature indicate that psychological health, in the form of psychological well-being, depression, general anxiety and life satisfaction, is a moderate-to-strong correlate of work performance. Associations between physical health, particularly somatic complaints and hypertension, and performance were weak-to-moderate. Regarding health behaviour, alcohol consumption and smoking were weakly and sleep problems moderately associated with performance problems. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, 2nd quarter 2011, p.185-204. Approx. 65 ref.
Bruursema K., Kessler S.R, Spector P.E.
Bored employees misbehaving: The relationship between boredom and counterproductive work behaviour
In this study, the relationships among boredom proneness, job boredom, and counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) were examined. Boredom proneness consists of several factors, which include external stimulation and internal stimulation. Given the strong relationships between both the external stimulation factor of boredom proneness and anger as well as the strong relationship between trait anger and CWB, it was hypothesized that examining boredom proneness would help to better understand why employees commit CWB. Five types of CWB have previously been described: abuse against others, production deviance, sabotage, withdrawal and theft, to which a sixth, horseplay, was added. Based on responses from 211 participants, support for the central premise was found. Indeed, both boredom proneness and job boredom showed significant relationships with various types of CWB. The boredom proneness factor also moderated the relationship between job boredom and some types of CWB, suggesting that a better understanding of boredom is imperative for designing interventions to prevent CWB.
Work and Stress, 2nd quarter 2011, p.97-107. Illus. 41 ref.
Bored_employees_misbehaving.pdf [en inglés]
Langevin V., François M., Boini S., Riou A.
Psychosocial hazards: Evaluation tools
Risques psychosociaux: outils d'évaluation [en francés]
This document analyses four frequently-used questionnaires for the diagnosis and prevention of occupational stress and psychosocial hazards according to the criteria defined in the article analyzed under (see CIS 11-0587). These questionnaires are the template for identifying psychosocial hazards at work of Quebec Institute for Public Health (INSPQ), the Working conditions and control questionnaire (WOCCQ), the positive and negative occupational stress (SPPN) and the INRS questionnaire for the evaluation of occupational health (SATIN).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.297-316. 24 ref.
FRPS_5.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_6.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_7.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_8.pdf [en francés]
Chouanière D., Boini S., Colin R.
Working conditions and health in call centres
Conditions de travail et santé dans les centres d'appels téléphoniques [en francés]
This epidemiological survey on working conditions on call centres and the state of health of phone operators was carried out by INRS. It involved more than 4000 voluntary operators who were examined by one of 40 participating occupational physicians throughout France. The aim of the survey was to identify relationships between organizational factors, occupational health constraints perceived by the operators and health markers. Fourteen organizational factors were identified as being most frequently associated with constraints. Furthermore, the study highlighted indirect relationships between organizational factors and health markers, which most often involve perceptions of constraints.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.241-259. Illus. 80 ref.
TF_191.pdf [en francés]
Uusitalo A., Mets T., Martinmäki K., Mauno S., Kinnunen U., Rusko H.
Heart rate variability related to effort at work
The objective of this study was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures are based on neural network modelling of individual baseline heart rate and HRV information. Nineteen healthy hospital workers were studied during two work days during the same work period. Daytime, work time and night time heart rate, as well as physical activity were recorded. An effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire was used to assess chronic work stress. The emotions of stress, irritation and satisfaction were assessed six times during both days. Seventeen subjects had an ERI ratio over 1, indicating imbalance between effort and reward. Of the daily emotions, satisfaction was the predominant emotion. The daytime relaxation percentage was higher on day 2 than on day 1 and the night time relaxation was significantly higher than daytime or work time relaxation on the both days. Chronic work stress correlated with the vagal activity index of HRV. However, effort at work had many HRV correlates: the higher the work effort the lower daytime HRV and relaxation time. Emotions at work were also correlated with work time (stress and satisfaction) and night time (irritation) HRV. These results indicate that daily emotions at work and chronic work stress, especially effort, are associated with cardiac autonomic function.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2011, Vol.42, No.6, p.830-838. 57 ref.
Mejías García A., Carbonell Vajá E.J., Gimeno Navarro M.Á., Fidalgo Vega M.
Procedimiento de solución autónoma de los conflictos de violencia laboral (II)
The second of a series of two (see also NTP 891, ISN 112116) on the prevention of violence at the workplace, this technical information note describes the step-by-step process of the procedure, the necessary resources required for its implementation and the recommendations for its use.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2011. 8p. Illus. 11 ref.
NTP_892.pdf [en español]
Mejías García A., Carbonell Vajá E.J., Gimeno Navarro M.Á., Fidalgo Vega M.
Procedimiento de solución autónoma de los conflictos de violencia laboral (I)
This technical information note and the next note (see also NTP 892, ISN 112117), propose an integrated preventive procedure against situations of violence at work. This first part outlines the scope of the procedure, the context of its application and its features.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2011. 6p. 12 ref.
NTP_891.pdf [en español]
Öztürk N., Esin M.N.
Investigation of musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risk factors among female sewing machine operators in Turkey
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risks in female sewing machine operators at a textile company. The sample included 283 sewing machine operators, of mean age 30.2 years. Data were collected by means of an adapted Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and by direct observations via the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) to determine ergonomic risks. Women have both a high level of musculoskeletal disorders and high ergonomic risks. "Feeling pressured because of work" was the strongest predictor. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.585-591. 38 ref.
Investigation_of_musculoskeletal_symptoms.pdf [en inglés]
Bojar I., Humeniuk E., Owoc A., Wierzba W., Wojtyła A.
Exposing women to workplace stress factors as a risk factor for developing arterial hypertension
The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's exposure to stress-inducing factors at work, to define the extent of the problem and to assess the impact of occupational activity on arterial pressure. The research was conducted on four professional groups of women: working in agriculture, in clerical jobs, as seamstresses and as medical representatives in a region of Poland. A total number of 416 women were examined, aged 30-40 years, who had not been previously treated due to arterial hypertension. The women under examination had their arterial blood pressure measured twice on a working day and responded to a questionnaire on work and stress. High levels of subjective stress were observed for all groups. Strong correlations were found between subjective stress levels and arterial pressure among medical representatives and office workers. No significant dependencies were found between stress and socio-demographic variables. Implications of these findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2011, Vol.18, p.175-182. 44 ref.
Exposing_women.pdf [en inglés]
Bridger R.S., Brasher K., Dew A., Kilminster S.
Job stressors in naval personnel serving on ships and in personnel serving ashore over a twelve month period
Sixty one percent of United Kingdom Navy respondents to a questionnaire survey of occupational stress (Phase I) returned follow-up questionnaires twelve months later (Phase II). The questionnaires measured psychological strain resulting from exposure to occupational stressors and measured the presence of stress buffers and demographic, psychological and lifestyle-related confounding factors, including age, rank and gender, mood state and the occurrence of stressful life events outside of work. The prevalence of strain was 31% at Phase I and 33% at Phase II. Fifty percent of personnel had no strain on either occasion, 15% had strain on both occasions and the remainder had strain on one occasion. The main stressor associated with strain at Phase I was an inability to disengage from work and this stressor accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in strain in personnel serving on ships than those serving ashore. The twelve-month follow-up questionnaire (Phase II) re-assessed psychological strain. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors measured at Phase I that predicted strain at Phase II in previously strain-free individuals. A lack of autonomy and control and dissatisfaction with living conditions predicted strain twelve months later in those serving on ships. Of the living conditions assessed, lack of privacy was the most strongly associated with strain twelve months later in those serving on ships. These stressors were not associated with strain twelve months later in those serving ashore. The findings suggest that improvements to the design of the environment on ships may have benefits for the psychological health of personnel.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.710-718. Illus. 28 ref.
Wu S.Y., Li H.Y., Tian J., Zhu W., Li J., Wang X.R.
Health-related quality of life and its main related factors among nurses in China
The present study is to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and analyze the effect of occupational stress, job burnout and coping resource on the HRQOL among nurses in China. A total of 1,012 nurses were recruited from eight hospitals of two provinces in 2008. Data on HRQOL, burnout, occupational stressors, personal strain and coping resources were obtained by means of questionnaires. HRQOL in the nurses was lower than that in the general population. Occupational stressors, personal strain and job burnout correlated negatively with the HRQOL while coping resources was positively related to the HRQOL. Among the predictive factors for HRQOL, occupational stressors (indicated by role insufficiency and physical environment), personal strain (indicated by physical strain and psychological strain), job burnout (indicated by emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy), length of work hours (≥10h per day), diet irregularity and age were the main risk factors for HRQOL, while recreation and self-care were the main protective factors for HRQOL. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.49, No.2, p.158-165. 45 ref.
Health-related_quality.pdf [en inglés]
Questions concerning mental health: What prevention means exist against so-called psychosocial hazards?
La santé mentale en questions? Quelle prévention possible des risques dits psychosociaux? [en francés]
This article addresses some of the workplace conditions that can affect mental health, in particular decision latitude, emotions, social support and ethical conflicts.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2011, No.116, p.78-81. Illus. 10 réf.
Greubel J., Kecklund G.
The impact of organizational changes on work stress, sleep, recovery and health
The study objective was to investigate the impact of various kinds of organizational changes, as well as anticipation of such changes, on work-related stress, sleep, recovery and health. It was hypothesized that impaired sleep and recovery increase the adverse health consequences of organizational changes. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected by means of questionnaires from a random sample of 1,523 employees in the Swedish police force. It was found that extensive organizational changes including downsizing or a change in job tasks were associated with a small increase in work stress, disturbed sleep, incomplete recovery and health complaints. However, less extensive organizational changes such as relocation did not affect these outcome variables. Anticipation of extensive organizational changes had almost the same effect as actual changes. The implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.353-364. Illus. 37 ref.
The_impact.pdf [en inglés]
Langevin V., François M., Boini S., Riou A.
Psychosocial hazards: Evaluation tools
Risques psychosociaux: outils d'évaluation [en francés]
This document analyses the four most frequently-used questionnaires for the diagnosis and prevention of occupational stress and psychosocial hazards according to the criteria defined in article TC 134 (see INS 1111836). These questionnaires are the INRS psychosocial hazards screen, the job content questionnaire (or "Karasek questionnaire"), the effort-rewards imbalance questionnaire (or "Siegrist questionnaire") and the perceived stress level questionnaire.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.101-120. Bibl.ref.
FRPS_1.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_2.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_3.pdf [en francés]
FRPS_4.pdf [en francés]
Langevin V., François M., Boini S., Riou A.
Questionnaires for occupational stress prevention interventions
Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail [en francés]
Questionnaires are often used for the diagnosis and prevention of occupational stress and psychosocial hazards. This article explains that the structure and use of these questionnaires require that certain rules be followed, in particular with respect to the validity, consistency and sensitivity of the psychometric parameters. The article also describes a project currently underway aimed at comparing the most frequently-used evaluation tools available in French for studying occupational stress and psychosocial hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.23-35. 12 ref.
TC_134.pdf [en francés]
Le poids allostatique [en francés]
Allostasis refers to the mechanisms that ensure sustainable physiological stability under chronic stress conditions. This article addresses allostatic load, which designates the consequences of biological adaptation to persistent stress, such as intense fatigue, insomnia, digestive disorders, irritability and migraine.
Travail et santé, June 2011, Vol. 27, No.2, p.16-20. Illus. 2 ref.
Stanislavoviene J., Pajarskiene B., Jankauskas R., Veniute M.
The psychosocial factors at work related to depression among female white-collar workers in Vilnius (Lithuania)
The aim of this study was to establish which psychosocial factors at work are related to depression among female white-collar workers in Vilnius, Lithuania. The data was collected in a case-control study in 2002-2004. The cases were selected from patients treated at Vilnius mental health centers. The controls were randomly selected from employed Vilnius residents. A descriptive statistic and logistic regression was applied. Three psychosocial factors and possible confounders within the evaluated model were statistically reliable: adjusted odds ratios for uneven work, job control and family esteem were 2.17, 10.81 and 2.13 respectively.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.2, p.166-176. 36 ref.
Park S.G., Kim H.C., Min J.Y., Hwang S.H., Park Y.S., Min K.B.
A prospective study of work stressors and the common cold
Psychological stress is considered to be a risk factor for infectious diseases. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate whether work-related stress affected the occurrence of the common cold in South Korean workers in small- to medium-sized manufacturing companies. It involved 1241 workers. At the outset, information regarding socio-demographic and work characteristics was collected. At follow-up after six months, the subjects were asked whether they had experienced common cold symptoms during the preceding four months. Male subjects experiencing stress at the outset were more likely to report having experienced the common cold at follow-up (odds ratios: high job demand group 1.74; insufficient job control 1.42; inadequate social support 1.40). For women, no significant association between work stress and occurrence of the common cold was detected.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.53-56. Illus. 10 ref.
Albini E., Zoni S., Parrinello G., Benedetti L, Lucchini R.
An integrated model for the assessment of stress-related risk factors in health care professionals
This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the risk from exposure to occupational stress and burnout in health care workers, and to compare objective data that can represent potential job stressors in hospital wards and subjective symptoms reported by the workers. A total of 230 medical doctors, nurses and ancillary workers of several internal medicine wards of a large public hospital in Northern Italy participated in the study. Data were collected by means of several questionnaires. The average scores of subjective and objective parameters resulted significantly higher in the same sub-units. The correlation analysis showed that the subjective questionnaires were highly inter-related. The multivariate analysis showed that the days of sick leave were significantly related to the subjective questionnaires, and the subjective subscales of emotional exhaustion, job demand and decision latitude were significantly related to some of the objective parameters. These results support the integrated use of multiple subjective and objective assessment tools as the most appropriate approach for the evaluation of occupational stress.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.15-23. 35 ref.
An_integrated_model.pdf [en inglés]
Nixon A.E., Mazzola J.J., Bauer J., Krueger J.R., Spector P.E.
Can work make you sick? A meta-analysis of the relationships between job stressors and physical symptoms
A meta-analysis of 79 studies reporting cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between physical symptoms and various occupational stressors was conducted. Stressors were organizational constraints, interpersonal conflict, role conflict, role ambiguity, workload, work hours, and lack of control. The relationships between stressors and eight physical symptoms were quantitatively summarized and contrasted, for both individual symptoms and composite symptom scales. All of the occupational stressors were significantly related to physical symptoms in cross-sectional analyses, and the effect sizes of these relationships varied both by the stressor and the individual symptom examined. The longitudinal relationships were similar to the cross-sectional results, and provided some evidence of temporal consistency of the occupational stressor/physical symptom relationship. Organizational constraints and interpersonal conflict had the strongest relationships with symptoms in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Gastrointestinal problems and sleep disturbances were significantly related to more stressors than other symptoms examined. These findings show that it is important to examine physical symptoms, as they are related to a wide range of job stressors and these relationships prevail over time. Potential underlying mechanisms, including the immediacy of physiological reactions to stressors, participants' attributions concerning stressor/physical symptom relationships, and the possible multidimensional nature of symptoms, are proposed and discussed.
Work and Stress, 2011, Vol.25, No.1, p.1-22. 75 ref.
Lilley R., LaMontagne A.D., Firth H.
Combined exposures to workplace psychosocial stressors: Relationships with mental health in a sample of NZ cleaners and clerical workers
A combined measure of two common psychosocial stressors, called job pressure has previously been shown to be strongly associated with poor mental health in high status workers. This study tests the generalizability of this association to lower status workers. A national random cross-sectional sample of 596 cleaners and clerical workers was obtained from the New Zealand electoral roll by occupational title. Cross-sectional data on job stressors, demographics, and mental health were collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Combined exposure to low job control, high job demands and job insecurity (high job pressure) was associated with markedly elevated odds (13-fold or higher) of poor mental health after adjustment for age, sex, occupation, and education.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.405-409. 25 ref.
van Hooff M.L.M., Geurts S.A.E., Beckers D.G.J., Kompier M.A.J.
Daily recovery from work: The role of activities, effort and pleasure
This study examines the effect of work and non-work activities and the perception of these activities on the daily recovery process using a 5-day diary study. Results indicate that pleasure in both domains increases the effects on recovery and, in the work domain, the combination of unpleasant and effortful work activities is negatively related to recovery. Findings indicate the importance of becoming involved in pleasant activities in both work and non-work domains.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2011, Vol.25, No.1, p.55-74. Illus. 40 ref.
Jackson S., Agius R., Bridger R., Richards P.
Occupational stress and the outcome of basic military training
Military training has a high dropout rate but the role of occupational stress is not known. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational stress and outcome of training. Occupational stress in 476 army recruits was measured in Week 4 of 23 weeks of basic military training, using previously identified risk factors for lack of success in training and outcome of training. Using stepwise logistic regression, occupational stress levels as measured at Week 4 were significant predictors of outcome in training. Psychological scale scores predicted 85% of those who were asked to leave.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.253-258. 29 ref.
Clays E., De Bacquer D., Crasset V., Kittel F., de Smet P., Kornitzer M., Karasek R., De Backer G.
The perception of work stressors is related to reduced parasympathetic activity
The aim of this study was to examine the perception of work stressors in relation to ambulatory measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Subjects consisted of a sample of 653 healthy male workers aged 40-55 from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study conducted in 1976-1978. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and bio-clinical examinations. An index of physical and psychosocial work stressors containing five items was constructed based on the job stress questionnaire. Data on HRV were collected by means of 24-h ambulatory ECG recordings on a working day. Both time and frequency domain measures of HRV were calculated. Associations between work stressors and HRV measures were assessed by means of correlations, multiple linear regression analysis and analysis of (co)variance. Findings support the hypothesis that the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system is related to work stress.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.185-191. 37 ref.
Sapp A.L., Kawachi I., Sorensen G., LaMontagne A.D., Subramanian S.V.
Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers
The objective of this study was to investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. As part of a broader study on cancer prevention in small enterprises, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms. Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual level among workers and contextual level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item, worker trust in managers, buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.740-750. 94 ref.
Does_workplace_social_capital_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
North C.S., Pfefferbaum B., Hong B.A., Gordon M.R., Kim Y.S., Lind L., Pollio D.E.
The business of healing: Focus group discussions of readjustment to the post-9/11 work environment among employees of affected agencies
Between one and two years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, 12 focus groups were conducted with 85 employees of companies directly affected by the 9/11 attacks on New York City, to discuss mental health issues surrounding return to the workplace after the disaster. Risk communication, tension between workplace productivity and employees' emotional needs and post-disaster work space were topics discussed in the focus groups. Employees identified many effective responses by their companies after 9/11 relating to these areas of concern as well as gaps in response.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.713-718. 38 ref.
The_business_of_healing_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Allesøe K., Hundrup Y.A., Thomsen J.F., Osler M.
Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: The Danish Nurse Cohort Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Subjects were the 12,116 women aged 45-64 years participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, who responded to a questionnaire in 1993 and who were followed by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to the beginning of 2008. Work pressure, job influence, occupational characteristics, demographic factors and known biological and behavioural risk factors for IHD were collected at baseline. During follow-up, 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. In the fully adjusted model, nurses who reported work pressure to be much too high had a 1.4-fold increased risk of incident IHD compared with nurses who reported work pressure to be suitable. A tendency towards a dose-response effect was found. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.318-322. 31 ref.
Psychosocial_work_environment.pdf [en inglés]
Hilton M.F., Whiteford H.A.
Associations between psychological distress, workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes
This study investigates associations between psychological distress and workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes. The Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was distributed to employees of 58 large employers in Australia. A total of 60,556 full-time employees were eligible for analysis. The HPQ probed whether the respondent had, in the past 30-days, a workplace accident, success or failure. Psychological distress was quantified using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale and categorised into low, moderate and high psychological distress. Three binomial logistic regressions were performed with the dependent variables being workplace accident, success or failure. Covariates in the models were K6 category, gender, age, marital status, education level, job category, physical health and employment sector. Moderate and high psychological distress significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for a workplace accident to 1.4 for both levels of distress. Moderate and high psychological distress significantly increased the OR (OR 2.3 and 2.6, respectively) for a workplace failure and significantly decreased the OR for a workplace success (OR 0.8 and 0.7, respectively). Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 2010, Vol.83, No.8, p.923-933. 50 ref.
Associations_between_psychological_distress.pdf [en inglés]
Gyekye S.A., Salminen S.
Organizational safety climate and work experience
The study examined the relationships between work experience and several organizational safety climate factors: safety perceptions; job satisfaction; compliance with safety management policies; accident frequency. Participants were 320 Ghanaian industrial workers divided into two cohorts: experienced and inexperienced workers. Workplace safety perceptions were assessed with Hayes' 50-item work safety scale. MANOVA was used to test for differences of statistical significance. Significant differences were found between experienced cohorts and their inexperienced counterparts. Experienced workers indicated the best perceptions on safety, expressed the highest level of job satisfaction, were the most compliant with safety procedures and recorded the lowest accident frequency.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.4, p.431-443. 64 ref.
Sugimura H., Thériault G.
Impact of supervisor support on work ability in an IT company
The objective of this study was to assess whether or not support from supervisors influences work ability. It involved 1157 male workers of a Japanese information technology company. Two surveys using the Brief Job Scale Questionnaire and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were conducted, one in October 2007 and the other in October 2008 on the same cohort. Two cross-sectional analyses and a 1-year longitudinal analysis were conducted using multiple regression analysis. In addition, the relationships between supervisor support and each dimension of WAI were analysed separately. Findings are discussed. Overall, supervisor support was found to be an important predictor of work ability. Supervisor support is associated with the questions of the WAI that assess not only work demands but also person's resources of the work ability model.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.451-457. Illus. 28 ref.
Impact_of_supervisor_support.pdf [en inglés]
Karasek R., Collins S., Clays E., Bortkiewicz A., Ferrario M.
Description of a large-scale study design to assess work-stress-disease associations for cardiovascular disease
This article argues that a new level of studies is needed to answer a series of important questions about the expanding global chronic disease burden for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for related conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. A proposed outline for such studies is presented, based on Stress-Disequilibrium Theory (SDT) hypotheses, building on analytic tools developed for the assessment of stress-related exhaustion effects and chronic disease risks from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) research studies. The study design is multi-stage, spanning across several levels of disease-related de-regulation, and addressing co-morbidity of the conditions themselves. It is meant to span across a broad social population at all levels and would probably be multi-site, involving several countries, to yield the larger sample increased power for finding associations with the psychological effects of work.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.293-312. Illus. 56 ref.
Description_of_a_large-scale_study.pdf [en inglés]
Effort-reward imbalance at work and cardiovascular diseases
Working conditions and employment arrangements make a significant contribution to the burden of cardiovascular disease, in particular in modern societies where mental and emotional demands and threats are becoming widespread. Occupational research has identified health-adverse features of modern work with the help of theoretical models. One such model, effort-reward imbalance, has been widely tested in epidemiological and experimental studies. The model claims that stressful experience at work is elicited by a lack of reciprocity between efforts spent at work and rewards received in return, where rewards include money, promotion prospects, job security and esteem. Results demonstrate elevated risks of coronary heart disease among employees exposed to effort-reward imbalance. Moreover, in ambulatory and experimental investigations, elevated heart rate and blood pressure and altered secretion of stress hormones were observed under these conditions. Although additional scientific evidence is needed, available findings call for practical measures towards improving quality of work, most importantly at the level of single companies and organisations. This conclusion is supported by first results from intervention studies that are guided by this theoretical approach. In view of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to unfavourable working conditions, such efforts are well justified and need to be extended in order to promote healthy work.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.279-285. 47 ref.
Effort-reward_imbalance.pdf [en inglés]
Collins S., Karasek R.
Reduced vagal cardiac control variance in exhausted and high strain job subjects
The objectives of this study were to propose methodological strategies for analyzing vagal cardiac control based on the Stress Disequilibrium Theory (SDT) using high frequency power of heart rate variability (HFP) and short term variance of HFP, as well as to provide evidence of reduced vagal cardiac control range and variability in high strain job and exhausted subjects. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, diary reports and a standardized occupational code linkage in 36 healthy mid-aged males with varying strain jobs. Subjects were Holter-monitored for 48 hours, including a work and rest day. Comparisons were made between 10 high and 22 low job strain jobs. Furthermore, four subjects categorized as exhausted were analyzed separately. Findings support the hypothesis that job strain is associated with reductions in cardiac vagal variance, and that reduced system variability may be a characteristic of exhaustion.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.267-278. Illus. 26 ref.
Reduced_vagal_cardiac_control.pdf [en inglés]
Kortum E., Leka S., Cox T.
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: Health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions
This study explores experts' perceptions of psychosocial risks and work-related stress in emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on knowledge of potential health impact of psychosocial risks and preliminary priorities for action, and discusses potential barriers and solutions to addressing psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries. It was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, two rounds of an online Delphi survey and four focus groups. Twenty nine experts with expertise in occupational health were interviewed. Seventy four experts responded to the first round of an online Delphi survey and 53 responded to the second round. Four groups of experts with a total of 37 active participants with specific or broader knowledge about developing country contexts participated in focus group discussions. High concern was expressed for the need to address psychosocial risks and work-related stress and their health impact. Developing country experts' knowledge about these issues was comparable to knowledge from industrialized countries; however, application of expert knowledge was reported to be weak in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions were regarded as important considerations. Priorities to be addressed were identified, and barriers to implementing possible solutions were proposed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.225-238. Illus. 56 ref.
Psychosocial_risks.pdf [en inglés]
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