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  • Violence and terrorism


CIS 94-1798 Lamplugh D.
Personal safety at work
Aspects of violent and aggressive incidents and attacks at work are discussed. As well as physical violence, employees face verbal and mental abuse; the greater the contact with the general public, the greater the risk. The work of various agencies and recent EC legislation have encouraged employers to take a more positive approach to the personal safety of their staff. Post Trauma Syndrome and stress-related problems can severely affect the way employees work while lack of reporting of such incidents is considered to be very dangerous. Guidelines are given on assessing possible risks at work.
Health and Safety Data File, May 1994, p.J:13:9:5-J:13:9:8. 1 ref.


CIS 95-549 Accidentes de trabajo mortales en 1991 - Recopilación de datos y análisis
Fatal workplace injuries in 1991 - A collection of data and analysis [en inglés]
En este informe se presentan los datos procedentes del Censo de 1991 sobre los Accidentes de Trabajo Mortales en los Estados Unidos (CFOI), así como los análisis de algunos aspectos de estos datos e información general en cuanto al programa del CFOI. En el sumario: análisis de los accidentes de trabajo mortales en 31 Estados; alcoholismo y toxicomanía; seguimiento de los accidentes de trabajo mortales y reacción de los miembros de la familia de las víctimas; accidentes de trabajo mortales causados por algún vehículo; identificación de los accidentes asociados al trabajo en el sector agrícola; las actas de defunción como fuente de información; correlación entre la antigüedad y el accidente de trabajo mortal; homicidios en el lugar de trabajo.
US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212, USA, abr. 1993. v, 72p. Ref.bibl.

CIS 94-1476
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health)
Violence and menaces in the workplace [Sweden]
Våld och hot i arbetsmiljön [en sueco]
This directive replaces AFS 1983:1 (CIS 83-2055). It concerns the protection of workers exposed to the risk of violence (bank and post-office employees, policemen, jewellers, night watchmen, prison guards, psychiatric hospital personnel). Its provisions include: safety measures (appropriate planning of facilities, installation of closed-circuit TV and alarm systems, institution of security routines, training of personnel exposed to violence); measures to comfort or reassure workers who have suffered aggression; reporting and recording of cases of aggression; collaboration between workers and employers; survey of Swedish publications on occupational violence and self-defence. In annex: check lists for risk-limiting measures; routine precautions; support and rehabilitation of victims; reporting requirements.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 22p.

CIS 94-931
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in residential care homes
This booklet provides guidance for owners and managers of residential care homes and for employees and safety representatives on meeting their duties under health and safety legislation. The main risks associated with machinery, equipment, substances and work practices found in such homes are described along with measures to safeguard both workers and residents. Contents: legal duties; health, safety and welfare of residents; management of health and safety; notification of incidents; occupational health and control of harmful substances; water temperatures; manual handling; general working environment; central heating systems; electrical safety; kitchen, laundry and outdoor safety; violence to staff.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 75p. 57 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 94-858
European Trade Union Confederation
Proceedings of the European Forum on Health and Safety in the Workplace, London, England, 17-19 February 1993
Compte rendu du Forum européen Santé et Sécurité sur le lieu de travail, Londres, Angleterre, 17-19 février 1993 [en francés]
This package contains summaries of the papers presented at the seven workshops and two conferences held during this forum. The papers focus on the experiences of enterprises in various countries in the following areas: noise and noise control; new forms of organizing work; well-being and stress at the workplace; clean air at work; management of health and safety; dangerous substances; violence at work; women and health/safety at work; worker participation. A User's Guide to European Community Directives on Health and Safety at Work is also included.
CES, Volker Kallenbach, Rue Montagne aux Herbes Potagères, 37, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1993. 87p. 10 ref.

CIS 94-592 Weddle M.G., Bissell R.A., Shesser R.
Working women at risk: Results from a survey of Hispanic injury patients
Women experience lower rates of occupational injury than do men in general, but subgroups are at increased risk. Based on the medical records of injury patients requesting treatment in a Washington, DC, emergency department during a 1991 survey of injured Hispanics, it was found that whereas women in general had a low risk of occupational injury, this was not true for Hispanic women. All Hispanics were at increased risk of occupational injury, but the relative risk attributable to ethnicity for Hispanic women was nearly twice that of the corresponding relative risk suffered by working Hispanic men. It was also found that whereas, overall, women had a lower risk of assault than did men, relative risks of assault based on sex were the same in the workplace.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1993, Vol.35, No.7, p.712-715. 15 ref.

CIS 94-750 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing homicide in the workplace
This NIOSH Alert identifies those workplaces and occupations having the highest risk of occupational homicide and outlines possible risk factors and preventive measures. Among workplaces, retail trades and services had the highest numbers of homicides (2,787 and 1,275 respectively) during the period 1980-89, while the occupation with the highest rate of homicide was taxicab driver. Recommendations for employers and workers are given along with suggestions for future research work.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1993. ii, 9p. 14 ref.

CIS 94-519 Bomb alert - Retail; Bomb alert - Offices
Two videos aimed at training employees of retail establishments and offices in how to react if a bomb threat is received. They also provide suggestions as to the reduction of injury and property damage in the case of an actual bomb explosion.
The Film Librarian, Association of British Insurers, 51 Gresham Street, London EC2V 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 2 videos (14min each). Price: GBP 20.00 per video (GBP 23.50 with VAT).

CIS 94-749
Health and Safety Executive
Prevention of violence to staff in banks and building societies
This guidance outlines an integrated approach for preventing robberies and minimizing the after-effects of violence at work from criminals. Contents: the need for an integrated policy; legal requirements; a security policy for managing the risks; support for staff after a robbery (reactions to robbery, signs to look for, types of support); policy liaison and court procedures; public relations and media policy; communication; education and training; monitoring and evaluation. Appendices: principles of risk assessment; compensation and victim support.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. viii, 28p. 5 ref. Price: GBP 6.50.

CIS 93-2097 Boxer P.A.
Assessment of potential violence in the paranoid worker
Violence in the workplace is sometimes a manifestation of an untreated psychiatric disorder. Paranoid personality disorder, paranoid schizophrenia, and delusional (paranoid) disorder are three psychiatric syndromes in which paranoid ideation is a prominent feature. While the vast majority of people with these conditions are not violent, paranoid workers can exhibit violent behaviour as a reaction to beliefs that co-workers or supervisors are threatening or persecuting them. Three cases are described to illustrate the clinical presentation of these disorders and their management in an occupational setting.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol. 35, No. 2, p.127-131. 9 ref.

CIS 93-1746 Jenkinson W.R.
Attacks on postmen in Northern Ireland. What features of the attacks are associated with prolonged absence from work?
The sickness absence records of 228 postmen who had been attacked on duty in Northern Ireland between 1985 and 1989 were examined. The pattern of absences due to psychological causes in the six months after the attack was recorded. The presence of relevant sickness absence and the amount was correlated to three specific features of the attacks, i.e. use of arms, use of violence and abduction. Armed attacks produced a significantly more frequent and larger amount of sickness absence. The proportion of victims taking any sickness absence after violent attacks was not significantly greater but those who did so were off work for much longer. Abduction of victims from the scene produced much more frequent absence from work but there was no significant difference in the duration of the absence. The 20 employees who were attacked for a second time during the study period showed a five-fold increase in the length of sickness absence taken.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.39-42. 10 ref.


CIS 95-1284 Cardy C.
Formación sobre la seguridad de las personas en el lugar de trabajo
Training for personal safety at work [en inglés]
Este manual contiene recomendaciones prácticas dirigidas a los empresarios para promover e incrementar la sensibilización de sus empleados ante los riesgos de violencia en el trabajo y enseñar a enfrentarse a ellos. En el sumario: definición de la violencia y la agresión; estadísticas de la violencia en el trabajo; papeles que desempeñan empresarios y empleados; identificación de los riesgos profesionales; desarrollo de una política y sus procesos; declaración de los incidentes violentos; ayuda y asistencia a las víctimas; causas y gestión de las tensiones (miedo, cólera, estrés y relajación); comunicación y confianza en uno mismo; recomendaciones para diversos tipos y centros de trabajo; gestión de la violencia; comunicación no verbal; identificación y prevención del peligro; normas para los formadores; ejemplos de programas de formación.
Gower Publishing Company Ltd., Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants. GU11 3HR, Reino Unido, 1992. xii, 209p. 74 ref. Precio: GBP 45,00.

CIS 95-599 Servicios de seguridad y salud en el trabajo
Bewachung und Arbeitssicherheit [en alemán]
Los agentes de seguridad tienen como misión proteger a las personas y los bienes frente a los actos delictivos y los incendios, así como custodiar el transporte de dinero. Entre los riesgos a los que pueden estar expuestos destacan las caídas, la exposición a los agentes contaminantes y las radiaciones, y las agresiones a mano armada. Se les exige tener nociones de derecho civil y penal y conocimientos profundos sobre el comportamiento humano. Es necesario instruirlos detalladamente sobre las funciones que deben cumplir, y sobre los equipos que van a utilizar. Debe suministrárseles trajes de protección y armas de fuego. Se subrayan las medidas de seguridad exigidas en Alemania para el transporte de dinero.
Sicherheitsreport, abr. 1992, n°2, p.4-16. Ilus.

CIS 94-9 Notification on dangerous work by young people [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om unges farlige arbejde [en danés]
This notification came into force on 1 July 1992. It applies to work carried out by young people between 15 and 18 years old. The employer is responsible for the proper training and supervision of young workers. Young persons are excluded from performing certain tasks: work with dangerous machinery (chainsaws, presses, tractors, etc.); exposure to dangerous chemicals; handling of loads >12kg (25kg under some conditions); work with heavily vibrating tools; work with substances stored at below -153°C (with similar low boiling temperatures); work without adult supervision where there is a danger of violence; work where there is a risk of oxygen deprivation; emptying and filling of gas tanks with flammable gases; work where there is a risk of explosion; work requiring the wearing of fresh air supplied breathing apparatus for more than 4 hours. Derogations are possible (e.g. for working on the family farm).
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1992. 7p.

CIS 94-264 Godefroy M.
Supermarket check-out personnel - How to improve their working conditions
Les caissières de magasin - Vers une amélioration des conditions de travail du personnel d'encaissement des magasins [en francés]
Update of a study (CIS 82-2064) concerning the design and layout of supermarket check-out workstations. Recent European trends and the introduction of scanning devices have been taken into account. Themes covered: selection criteria for cash registers; general and special rules for good workplace design; ergonomic measures; electric installations; mechanical safety; prevention of attacks by customers; noise; lighting, thermal environment. Work parameters analyzed include staff training, working hours, environmental factors and occupational health conditions.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd edition, Oct. 1992. 31p. Illus.

CIS 93-1240 Appleton B.
Health and Safety Executive
Appleton Inquiry Report: Report of an inquiry into health and safety aspects of stoppages caused by fire and bomb alerts on London Underground, British Rail and other mass transit systems
Contents of this report: risks from fires and delays; assessment of risks; London Underground Ltd.'s approach and the way forward; fire legislation on the Underground and British Rail; incidents involving bombs and packages; parallels on other systems; main conclusions and recommendations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iv, 32p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.25.

CIS 93-106 Setting the national agenda for injury control in the 1990s
Position papers from the third National Injury Control Conference held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 22-25 April 1991. The paper on occupational injury prevention discusses the economic aspects of occupational incidents and outlines the Year 2000 Health Objectives developed by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The need for further research and surveillance is stressed. Recommendations are proposed for governmental bodies, employers, employees and others for the use of prevention strategies to protect workers. Other papers cover motor vehicle injury prevention, prevention of violence and injuries due to violence, and home and leisure injury prevention.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.107-133. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-339 Thomas J.L.
Occupational violent crime - Research on an emerging issue
The results of the first stage of a study describing occupational violent crime (OVC) experience in Virginia, USA, is described. Between January 1983 and August 1990, 91 cases of OVC were identified, of which 7 were homicides (8%) and 84 injuries (92%). Retail food employees were found to be at greatest risk of an OVC experience, while gas stations had the highest homicide rate. The study corroborates previous knowledge concerning the types of worksites at high risk of OVC and suggests several new industries that should be analysed.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.55-62. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 92-1750
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Guidelines for amusement arcades, casinos and slot machine halls
Richtlinien für Spielhallen, Spielcasinos und Automatensäle von Spielbanken [en alemán]
These guidelines (applicable from 1 Apr. 1992) are intended to reduce the risk that employees of amusement or gambling establishments will be harmed by robbery. They complement 9 cited laws, ordinances, directives and standards. The provisions cover the layout of the premises, equipment (locks, secure enclosures, alarms, etc.) and security-conscious operation.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Apr. 1992. 16p. Illus. Price: DEM 2.50.


CIS 93-1515 Saunders L.D., Stewart L.M.
A safer Canada: Year 2000 Injury Control Objectives for Canada - Proceedings of a national symposium held on May 21-22, 1991, Ramada Renaissance Hotel, Edmonton, Alberta
Proceedings of a national symposium held on 21-22 May 1991 (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). Reports of the group sessions are included and cover different categories of injuries: home and community; occupational health and safety; sport and recreation; and transportation. A set of recommendations are presented to strengthen injury prevention and control at the national, provincial/territorial and local levels.
University of Alberta Hospitals, Injury Awareness and Prevention Centre, 16003 - 110 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T5X 4S1, Canada, 1991. 48, [17]p. Bibl. ref.

CIS 93-1247
Technical Standing Committee on Safety and Loss Control
Emergency preparedness guidelines
This manual is a reference guide to assist Ontario mining companies in preparing for emergency situations. Contents: overview; planning for emergencies; the Emergency Plan: declaring an emergency and evacuation (including the evacuation checklist), notification of key personnel, assigning specific duties, the Operations Control Centre, hazard control, search and rescue, removal or protection of vital equipment and records, all clear and re-entry; training drills; media communications. In appendices: checklists (general hazard identification and control, fire prevention for underground mobile equipment, chemical spills, bomb threats, kidnap and extortion threats, stranded vehicles, wilderness emergency survival, injuries, explosions and implosions); resource catalogue (addresses of companies with specialised emergency response information).
Mines Accident Prevention Association of Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, North Bay, Ont. P1B 8K6, Canada, 1991. 96p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 92-801 Craig M., Phillips E.
Work Hazards Group
Office workers' survival handbook - A guide to fighting health hazards in the office
Revised edition of the guide originally abstracted as CIS 82-1764. Aimed particularly at women, it covers: role of trade unions in safety and health matters; stress and violence; the office environment (noise, lighting, working postures, temperature, ventilation, dangerous substances, welfare facilities and hygiene); physical hazards (injury, fire); new technologies (VDUs); using the law to improve working conditions. In annex: trade-union won provisions for working with VDUs; draft EEC Guidelines for VDU work; useful addresses and reading.
The Women's Press, 34 Great Sutton Street, London EC1V 0DX, United Kingdom, rev. ed., 1991. xii, 173p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 92-1044 Neale A.V.
Work stress in emergency medical technicians
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) participated in a union-sponsored study to better understand the dynamics underlying their high turnover rate. Three questionnaires were used: the Occupational Stress Index, which assesses stress, strain, and coping; the Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals; and a job satisfaction survey. The sample had high stress, strain, and burnout scores. Coping skills were within the normal range. Burnout, stress, strain, and coping were significantly related to job satisfaction, worry about infectious diseases, and perceptions of poor treatment by emergency room personnel and fire fighters. The areas of greatest job dissatisfaction were: low pay; lack of comfortable quarters; inadequacy of equipment; administrators' unfamiliarity with the work-related demand and stressors faced by EMTs; the risk of developing health problems.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.991-997. 15 ref.

CIS 91-2100 Managing violence and traumatic incidents at work
Addition (Chapter 42) to an OSH manual analysed under CIS 90-1891. It deals with the psychological consequences of traumatic incidents at work, whether caused by criminal assault, accidents due to human error or natural causes. A five-step model is developed for managing violence and trauma: risk assessment; incident prevention; minimising incident severity; response planning; trauma debriefing. Checklists are presented for post-incident actions and communications. Further details are given on "trauma debriefing": its objectives and features; characteristics of post-trauma stress reactions; who should have trauma debriefing, and where and when should it take place; arrangements for trauma debriefing. Further resources for post-trauma action are listed for Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Supplement to: Workplace health and safety manual, CCH International, Cnr Talavera and Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, N.S.W. 2113, Australia, 1991. 19p. 8 ref.


CIS 95-1835 Dispositivos incendiarios: información y consejos prácticos
Incendiary devices: Information and guidance [en inglés]
Esta nota informativa ofrece información referida a los dispositivos incendiarios utilizados por los pirómanos en los ataques a instalaciones comerciales. Se incluyen las características de los dispositivos incendiarios, los objetivos a destruir, los métodos para introducir los dispositivos en las instalaciones, los sistemas avanzados de alarma, las actuaciones policiales, el registro de edificios, la identificación de un dispositivo, las acciones que deben llevarse a cabo al descubrir un dispositivo y la adopción de medidas preventivas.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, Reino Unido, 1990. 6p. Ilus. 13 ref.


CIS 89-1173 Violence to staff
Training and information booklet. Suggested measures: find out if there is a problem; record and classify all incidents; search for preventive measures; implement and follow up safety measures; helping the victims.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1989. 12p. 7 ref.


CIS 90-350 Violence at work
Contents of this data sheet: local authorities; health services; transport; public houses, hotels and catering; retail; understanding and controlling violent situations.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0DA, United Kingdom, 1988. p.J:13:1-J:13:9.

CIS 89-1750 Payner B., Warne C.
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing violence to staff
Report on the problem of violence to staff, including case reports in specific industries and occupations: social work; schools; transportation (urban and intercity rail); ambulances; community nursing; housing authorities; pubs.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 81p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 3.75.

CIS 89-770 Hazards at work - TUC guide to health and safety
Detailed guide to occupational safety and health, aimed at workers and their safety representatives. It covers: legislative aspects in the United Kingdom (including an annotated list of laws and regulations); safety representatives and safety committees; dealing with accidents; the working environment (lighting, temperature, ventilation, overcrowding, cleanliness); chemicals and toxic substances; dust; asbestos; noise; ionising radiations; biological hazards (leptospirosis, hepatitis B, AIDS, legionnaires' disease, organic dust diseases); skin hazards; hazards of physical work (work posture, manual handling, repetitive work, vibration); machinery guarding; cranes and lifting gear; hand tools; eye protection; protective clothing and equipment; welding; fire precautions; electricity; maintenance work; stress; office work; VDUs; violence; hours of work; young workers; first aid and welfare facilities; access to information; workplace health and safety services. Checklists and information on HSE and TUC publications and offices are given throughout the text.
Trades Union Congress, Congress House, Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3LS, United Kingdom, 1988. 214p. Bibl. ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 89-113 Hazards in the health service - An A to Z guide for GMB safety representatives
Carefully prepared document aimed at workers in hospitals and other health care settings. Many safety and health hazards are covered, including such specific health care hazards as disposal of clinical waste, exposure to drugs and infection, laboratory work, lasers, laundries and kitchens, lifting and back pain, shiftwork, sterilising, stress and violence to staff. Extensive check lists accompany each topic. Appendices contain: sample report and health hazard enquiry forms; a safety policy checklist; important addresses and publications.
General, Municipal, Boilermakers' and Allied Trades Union, Thorne House, Ruxley Ridge, Claygate Esher, Surrey, KT10 OTL, United Kingdom, 1988. 120p. Illus. Bibl. Index.

CIS 89-20
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Cashiers' offices [Federal Republic of Germany]
Kassen [en alemán]
These safety regulations, which apply to banks and exchange offices with cash transactions, contain sections devoted to: cashiers' offices, bulletproof partitions, money storage and transport, holdup alarm systems, optical supervision systems, safes, door and window safety devices, testing and maintenance safety and alarm systems. In an annex: rules of application.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Oct. 1988. 15 + 15p.


CIS 91-1824 Dog bite prevention program: Letter carriers/mail service courier's training workbook
This training manual teaches the letter carrier or mail service courier how to deal effectively with aggressive dogs.
Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1987. 22p. Illus.

CIS 91-1823 Dog bite prevention program: Instructor's manual
This manual provides programme instructors with guidance in training current letter carriers, mail service couriers, and new employees in the prevention of dog bites. Practical information on how to prevent dog bites forms the core of the programme. Theory is provided to explain the underlying causes which lead to dog attacks. The Canada Post dog bite prevention programme is also explained.
Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1987. 90p.

CIS 89-1399 Seligman P.J., Newman S.C., Timbrook C.L., Halperin W.E.
Sexual assault of women at work
Review of 21 workers' compensation claims for sexual assault filed in Ohio for the period 1983-1985 revealed that 5 (62%) of the rapes by unknown assailants after dark occurred in convenience food stores. The rape rate was 7.0 per 100,000 females employed in convenience food stores per year compared with a rate of 0.3 per 100,000 females employed in Ohio. In addition, 3 rapes occurred among motel maids and housekeepers, and 3 among residential property managers. Police reports for sexual assault in Memphis, Tennessee for 1985 corroborated the observation of a potential increased risk of rape in female employees of convenience food stores. Strategies for the provision of personal security against assault in the workplace have not previously been addressed in the public health literature. A review of workers' compensation claims has identified an area for which strategies to prevent workplace injuries should be developed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.4, p.445-450. 9 ref.

CIS 88-1579 Lidberg L., Tael T., Wiklund N.
Violent crime and occupational exposure to organic solvents
Letter to the editor presenting the clinical impression by forensic psychiatrists, backed up by epidemiological data, that exposure to organic solvents increases significantly the likelihood of violent behaviour.
Lancet, 7 Nov. 1987, Vol.II, No.8567, p.1080. 7 ref.

CIS 88-504 Gestal J.J.
Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault
Literature review. Except for infectious diseases, all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); noise; radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than in the general population) and psychic problems association with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). Not all references cited in the text are given in the bibliography, a full version of which can be obtained from the author on request.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1987, Vol.44, No.8, p.510-520. 25 ref.

CIS 88-212 Report of the Director-General to the International Labour Conference, 74th (Maritime) Session 1987
Rapport du Directeur général à la Conférence internationale du Travail, 74e session (maritime), 1987 [en francés]
This report made to the International Labour Conference includes information on such safety- and health-related topics as statistics of ships found unsafe or otherwise deficient during inspections performed in Western European ports; recent legislation in various countries relating to the occupational safety and health of seafarers; standards of accommodation, food, welfare facilities and medical care at sea; the problems of piracy and terrorism at sea; ILO activities, including cooperation with the United Nations and the International Maritime Organization. Appendices contain information on the size of merchant fleets in the world, and on which members of the ILO have ratified which ILO Convention relating to seafarers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1987. 97p. Price: CHF 17.50.


CIS 88-1050
Health Services Advisory Committee
Violence to staff in the health services
Report on a questionnaire survey undertaken in 5 British Health Authorities concerning violence towards staff in the health services. The survey confirmed that violence is a significant problem afflicting a wide range of occupations in hospitals and other areas of health care. There is particularly high risk to ambulance staff, nurses, accident and emergency department staff and those caring for psychologically disturbed people. Violence may, however, affect staff at almost any location, whatever their occupation or department. Guidelines aimed to help employers in health care identify the nature and extent of the risk for violence towards staff and to devise measures which would provide a safe workplace are included in the report.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1986. 8p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.25.

CIS 88-349 Leymann H., Lindell J.
Stress reactions following bank hold-ups - Psychological and psychosomatic response patterns at different times
Stressreaktioner till följd av bankrån - Psykologiska och psykosomatiska reaktionsmönster vid olika tidpunkter [en sueco]
The prevalence and duration of 39 stress symptoms following bank hold-ups were measured by means of interviews. The symptoms were subjected to factor analysis and subdivided into 7 indices. People displaying specific response patterns could be detected. Individual profiles for symptom prevalence were calculated 5 times during and after the hold-ups, for each of the indices. Statistical analysis showed that stress symptoms following a specific and emotionally disturbing situation (the hold-up) appear in specific combinations which enable interpretation of the physiological and/or psychological nature of these symptoms.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 26p. Illus. Bibl. 3 ref.

CIS 86-1446 Hallot R., Jortay A., De Jonghe C.
Psychological, medical and social consequences of hold-ups in post offices
Conséquences psycho-médico-sociales des hold-up contre la régie des postes [en francés]
This survey is an attempt at evaluating the human cost of armed robberies committed against workers in the Belgian Post Office. The results of medical examinations, of a questionnaire survey and of an analysis of sickness leave records were used to evaluate 381 hold-ups involving 1,108 victims. Save for a few exceptional cases, health complaints by the victims are of a psychological origin, with psychosomatic symptoms. Persistence of these symptoms, and a tendency for the development of phobia of being attacked, were noted among the victims. Therapeutic and prophylactic measures are suggested. The questionnaires used are given in the appendix.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1986, Vol.23, No.1, p.57-69.


CIS 86-2029 Osborne R., Fischbach T.
Causes of disability in employees of the mining industry: analysis of social security disability benefit awards and allowances to workers 1969-1973, 1975-1976
Age-adjusted proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) were calculated for white males for 67 causes of disability in 6 occupations in 4 extractive industries. Elevated PMRs were found for respiratory diseases in all groups outside the oil and gas extraction industry. Musculoskeletal diseases caused disproportionately high disability among employees of the oil and gas extraction industry. When the PMRs were recalculated after excluding diseases of the respiratory system, high values were found for accidents, poisoning, violence and musculoskeletal disease. The results agree with previous morbidity and mortality studies and illustrate the utility of routinely collected disability data in the surveillance of occupational disease and injury.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Apr. 1985. 87p. 62 ref.


CIS 84-1457 Firearms for plant protection
This data sheet provides criteria for the issuance and safe use of side arms and shotguns by plant protection departments. Contents: general precautions; training of armed units; central control; shotguns; side arms; ammunition; maintenance and storage.
National Safety News, June 1983, Vol.127, No.6, p.55-58. Illus.

CIS 84-1150 Watchman safety
This data sheet is a guide to the protection of watchmen, fire patrolmen, or guards from hazards including uncovered floor openings, tripping, slippery floors, chemicals and thermally hot equipment, and intruders. Contents: preparation for the job; equipment; duties.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1983. 2p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 83-2055
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
General recommendations concerning risks of violence in the workplace
Allmänna råd beträffande våldsrisker i arbetsmiljön [en sueco]
Recommendations for workers whose occupations expose them to the risk of violence (bank and post-office employees, policemen, jewelers, night watchmen, prison guards, psychiatric hospital personnel); safety measures (planning and layout of facilities in ways to eliminate the risk, TV-camera surveillance and alarm systems, security routines, training of personnel exposed to the risk of violence); measures to comfort, reassure or care for personnel who have suffered aggression; recording and reporting of cases of aggression; collaboration between employers and workers; reference to Swedish publications on means of warning and defense. Check lists for risk-limiting measures, routine precautions, support and rehabilitation of victims and reporting are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 25 Feb. 1983. 15p. 26 ref.


CIS 81-1674 Roussel C.
Medical and medicolegal problems of armed bank hold-ups
Problèmes médicaux et médico-légaux posés par les agressions à main armée dans les établissements bancaires [en francés]
M.D. thesis studying a new occupational hazard for bank employees - the armed hold-up. Hold-ups may result in physical injury to the bankworker and/or mental trauma that may be difficult to identify. The author's study covers: population at risk, study methods and criteria, and results. The findings will permit a better understanding of the victim's reactions and their causes, and assessment of the aggravating role of various factors (personnel, type of aggression, type of workplace) and an insight into the effects of medical services and changes of job or workplace. Study of the data shows that the emotional shock of the hold-up is followed by a post-emotional syndrome or psychiatric disorders. Role of the occupational physician in following up for the appearance of disorders secondary to the hold-up stress.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1981. 119p. 30 ref.

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