Violence and terrorism - 395 entradas encontradas
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Mejías García A., Carbonell Vajá E.J., Gimeno Navarro M.Á., Fidalgo Vega M.
Procedimiento de solución autónoma de los conflictos de violencia laboral (II)
The second of a series of two (see also NTP 891, ISN 112116) on the prevention of violence at the workplace, this technical information note describes the step-by-step process of the procedure, the necessary resources required for its implementation and the recommendations for its use.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2011. 8p. Illus. 11 ref.
NTP_892.pdf [en español]
Mejías García A., Carbonell Vajá E.J., Gimeno Navarro M.Á., Fidalgo Vega M.
Procedimiento de solución autónoma de los conflictos de violencia laboral (I)
This technical information note and the next note (see also NTP 892, ISN 112117), propose an integrated preventive procedure against situations of violence at work. This first part outlines the scope of the procedure, the context of its application and its features.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2011. 6p. 12 ref.
NTP_891.pdf [en español]
Wheeler K., Zhao W., Kelleher K., Stallones L., Xiang H.
Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization
Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. This study compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrants and adults born in the United States by socio-demographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, and alcohol and drug use. It was found that the prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that of adults born in the United States. Employment status, industry or occupations were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.435-442. Illus. 26 ref.
Dussault J., Jauvin N., Vézina M., Bourbonnais R.
Violence prevention between members of the same work organization - Evaluation of a participatory intervention
Prévention de la violence entre membres d'une même organisation de travail - Evaluation d'une intervention participative [en francés]
Workplace violence, particularly when it involves members of the same organization, has repercussions on worker's safety and health. Although the Province of Quebec recently set up a legislative framework to counter this phenomenon, little is known about the usefulness and effectiveness of the means of prevention. This project was based on a participatory process in the workplace, and was systematically evaluated using a well-known model. It involved determining, by employees and their supervisors, the organizational constraints leading to violence and the solutions to eliminate and prevent its occurrence. It was carried out among prison service officers, by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. ix, 84p. Approx. 130 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-661.pdf [en francés]
Belayachi J., Berrechid K., Amlaiky F., Zekraoui A., Abouqal R.
Violence towards physicians in emergency departments of Morocco: Prevalence, predictive factors, and psychological impact
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure, characteristics, and psychological impact of violence toward hospital-based emergency physicians in Morocco. It involved a survey among 60 physicians who were assigned to emergency service during the previous fortnight. The variables studied included those related to the victim as well as those related to aggressors. The Spielberg State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire was also administered to all participants. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:27, 7p. Illus. 32 ref.
Violence_towards_physicians.pdf [en inglés]
Couto M.T., Lawoko S., Svanström L.
Exposure to workplace violence and quality of life among drivers and conductors in Maputo City, Mozambique
This cross-sectional study examined exposure to workplace violence and its consequences on quality of life (QOL) among workers in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo city, Mozambique. A random sample of 504 drivers and conductors was interviewed using structured questionnaires. Many participants reported experiencing psychological or physical violence at work. Sequelae of violence included sick leave following abuse (20%), physical injuries (32%), financial loss (28%), and various emotional reactions (28-56%). Exposure to workplace violence was a significant predictor of QOL even after adjusting for confounders. Mechanisms to detect and deal with both immediate and long term consequences of work-related violence on QOL are recommended.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.299-304. 42 ref.
Merecz D., Drabek M., Mościcka A.
Aggression at the workplace - Psychological consequences of abusive encounter with coworkers and clients
The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of workplace aggression from coworkers and the public among nurses and public service workers in a Polish locality. Data on violent incidents, burnout, physical health, mental health and work satisfaction were obtained by means of questionnaires and subjected to multiple regression models. It was found that employees experiencing workplace aggression were less satisfied with work, showed symptoms of burnout and their general health was poorer. The effect of aggression by coworkers was stronger than that by the public. Aggression from the public usually resulted in compassion of peers, and it was perceived as the organizational problem that should be solved, while dealing with an aggressive co-worker was usually perceived as the employee's own problem, resulting in isolation and a sense of unfairness.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.243-260. 25 ref.
Ready for the streets. Future police officers
Fit machen für die Strasse: Die Polizisten von morgen [en alemán]
In forma per affrontare la strada: i poliziotti di domani [en italiano]
Prêts pour la rue. Les agents de police de demain [en francés]
This article presents the training provided by the intercantonal police school in Hitzkirch, Switzerland. Trainees learn how to protect the population while at the same time protecting themselves.
Benefit, Aug. 2009, No.3, p.4-8. Illus. 1 ref.
http://suva.blaetterkatalog.ch/bk/ch/b5722/b572221x010/blaetterkatalog/blaetterkatalog/pdf/save/bk_1.pdf [en francés]
http://suva.blaetterkatalog.ch/bk/ch/b5722/b572211x010/blaetterkatalog/blaetterkatalog/pdf/save/bk_1.pdf [en alemán]
http://suva.blaetterkatalog.ch/bk/ch/b5722/b572231x010/blaetterkatalog/blaetterkatalog/pdf/save/bk_1.pdf [en italiano]
Steenhout I., Lippens V.
SNCB policy with respect to violence: On the right track?
La politique de la SNCB en matière d'agressions: sur les bons rails? [en francés]
A survey on violence carried out among train conductors of the Belgian national railways highlighted a growing gap between official statistics and everyday realities. Most of occurrences considered as minor (threats and insults) are rarely reported. This article presents the key statistics together with a summary of the main findings of the survey.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2009, No.4, p.10-11. Illus.
Walstisperger D., Camus I.
Exposure to occupational hazards among health care personnel in 2003
Les expositions aux risques professionnels des personnels soignants en 2003 [en francés]
According to the findings of the SUMER survey of 2003, non-medical health care occupations (mainly nurses and assistant nurses), consisting mostly of women, are specifically characterized by the cumulative constraints of work schedules and organizational factors. They are exposed to the risks of verbal and physical violence, as well as to carcinogenic chemicals and radiation. Biological hazards resulting from contact with patients and accidental exposure to blood are also among the risks which are characteristic of these occupations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.453-458. 4 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20184/$File/TF184.pdf [en francés]
El método Kauris - Evaluación y gestión del riesgo de violencia en el trabajo
In Finland, 5% of workers have been exposed to a violent incident. This article presents the Kauris method developed in 2001 by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Safety and Health for the retail sector, where the risks of violent incidents are above average. The objective is to help individual businesses to evaluate and manage violence at the place of work. The method, which involves a participatory approach, was pilot tested in 12 stores of a large Finnish retail chain. Results of the study are discussed.
Protección y seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 2009, Vol.55, No.327, p.68,70. 7 ref.
Pejtersen J.H., Kristensen T.S.
The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005
The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997-2005. The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys of randomly-selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace; less work control; less possibilities for development; less meaning of work; more role conflicts; decreased role clarity; reduced sense of community; less social support from colleagues; increased conflicts at work; more threats of violence; more slander and gossip.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.4, p.284-293. 49 ref.
Reibman J., Liu M., Cheng Q., Liautaud S., Rogers L., Lau S., Berger K.I., Goldring R.M., Marmor M., Fernandez-Beros M.E., Tonorezos E.S., Caplan-Shaw C.E., Gonzalez J., Filner J., Walter D., Kyng K., Rom W.N.
Characteristics of a residential and working community with diverse exposure to World Trade Center dust, gas and fumes
The objective of this study was to describe physical symptoms among 1898 individuals consisting of local residents, local workers and cleanup workers who presented to the World Trade Center (WTC) Environmental Health Center between September 2005 and May 2008. Subjects were found to have new and persistent respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities five or more years after the WTC terrorist attack. Implications for disaster preparedness and health monitoring after environmental disasters are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.534-541. Illus. 35 ref.
Heick R., Young T., Peek-Asa C.
Occupational injuries among emergency medical service providers in the United States
A national survey was conducted to describe the problem of occupational injury among emergency medical services providers. The most common types of nonfatal injuries and the activities and environments where injury most frequently occurred, were examined. Occupational injury in the past 12 months was reported by 29% of 659 survey respondents, with multiple injuries reported by 64% of those reporting an injury. Paid providers had approximately twice the prevalence of overall injury than volunteer providers, controlling for age and gender. Paid providers were more likely than volunteer providers to experience back injury and physical assault. This study clearly identifies the need to examine paid and volunteer providers as separate occupational groups.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.963-968. 15 ref.
Moline J.M., Herbert R., Crowley L., Troy K., Hodgman E., Shukla G., Udasin I., Luft B., Wallenstein S., Landrigan P., Savitz D.A.
Multiple myeloma in World Trade Center responders: A case series
This article reports on cases of multiple myeloma (MM) observed in World Trade Center (WTC) responders registered in the WTC Medical Programme. Among 28,252 responders, eight cases of MM were observed between 11 September 2001 and 10 September 2007 (6.8 expected). Four of these cases were observed in responders younger than 45 years at the time of diagnosis (1.2 expected). A slight deficit of MM cases was observed in responders older than 45 years (4 observed, 5.6 expected). The unusual number of MM cases in WTC responders under 45 years underscores the importance of maintaining the surveillance programme for cancer and other emerging diseases in this population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.896-902. 31 ref.
Workplace violence intervention effectiveness: A systematic literature review
This systematic review of literature published since 1992 was carried out to determine the effectiveness of interventions in preventing workplace violence and to suggest specific interventions warranting further research. The health care sector was the topic of 54% of the papers, followed by the retail sector industry with 11% of the papers. A first group of papers discussed in this review evaluates interventions to prevent robbery and violence to workers in the retail sector. A second group of papers is about interventions to prevent violence to health care workers, mostly training in techniques for dealing with combative patients.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1049-1055. 58 ref.
The global economic crisis and migrant workers: Impact and response
This report prepared by the ILO International Migration Programme assesses the impact of the global crisis on migrant workers and reviews policy responses. It addresses the impact on the employment of migrant workers in their countries of destination, on the volume of their financial contributions to the livelihood of their families and to the economies of their countries of origin and on their living and working conditions, which may deteriorate due to an increase in hostility and xenophobia. The report also addresses the policies put in place by countries of destination and origin to face up to the crisis as it relates to migrant workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. xi, 64p. Illus. 107 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---actrav/documents/publication/wcms_112967.pdf [en inglés]
Leiss J.K., Sousa S., Boal W.L.
Circumstances surrounding occupational blood exposure events in the national study to prevent blood exposure in paramedics
The objective of this study was to describe blood exposure events among U.S. paramedics. A mail survey was conducted in 2002-2003 among a nationally representative sample of licensed paramedics. Eighty percent of needle/lancet sticks involved non-safety devices. A third of mucous membrane exposures occurred even though the paramedic was wearing eye or face protection; in half of the events, the exposures were caused by the patient vomiting, spitting, or coughing up blood; in a third of the events, the patient was being uncooperative or combative. In 83% of the non-intact skin exposures, the paramedic was wearing disposable gloves. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.139-144. 21 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/139/_pdf/-char/ja/ [en inglés]
Park J., Lee N.
First Korean working conditions survey: A comparison between South Korea and EU countries
Tjhe results of the first Korean Working Conditions Survey are compared with those of the fourth European Working Conditions Survey in 2005. Korean workers work longer hours than workers in the majority of EU countries. However, work intensity in the EU 27 was 1.5 times stronger than Korea. In Korea, the rate of violence, bullying and harassment in the workplace is much lower than in the EU 27, but in terms of work satisfaction, EU workers responded more positively than Korean workers. The amount of absenteeism in Korean workers was much lower than the EU counterparts, despite a higher rate of accidents. The exposure to physical factors such as repetitive movements and painful or tiring postures is similar in Korean and EU workers. In both Korea and the EU, the most frequently-reported work-related symptoms are musculoskeletal disorders followed by stress and fatigue.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.50-54. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_50.pdf [en inglés]
Anderson J.L., Spitz H.B., Daniels R.D.
Population monitoring for acute exposure to 210Po
The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using urine samples to monitor internal radiation exposure in the event of a radiological incident involving the intentional dispersal of 210Po. Computer modelling was used to evaluate urinary excretion of 210Po and to calculate effective doses subsequent to an acute unit intake of 210Po. It was concluded that the collection and analysis of urine samples is adequate to identify persons who may be exposed in the event of a radiological emergency involving 210Po.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.916-923. Illus. 32 ref.
Unterbrink T., Zimmermann L., Pfeifer R., Wirsching M., Brähler E., Bauer J.
Parameters influencing health variables in a sample of 949 German teachers
Using stepwise regression in a sample of 949 German school teachers, this study analyzed the correlation between personal and professional parameters on one hand, and general health, burnout and perceived stress on the other. A significant correlation was found between work-related factors and parameters of state of health. Compared to all other factors considered, verbal insults by pupils had the strongest negative impact. Positive feedback by parents and pupils or support by colleagues and school heads had a significant protective influence. Results show that interpersonal factors play a prominent role with respect to both stress and the protection of teachers' health.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.117-123. 40 ref.
Maguire P., Raphael B., Martinek N.
Health workforce: Challenges for occupational mental health
Nursing personnel, which constitutes the bulk of the health workforce, is exposed to many risk factors for their mental health and wellbeing. These include burnout, long hours, violence, feelings of helplessness, stress associated with increasing and new demands, an ageing workforce and high expectations from the public. A range of issues also confront medical practitioners, both in general practice and hospital-based care sectors. This article proposes key principles for protecting the mental health of health workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.519-530. 61 ref.
Sherman M.F., Gershon R.R., Samar S.M., Pearson J.M., Canton A.N., Damsky M.R.
Safety factors predictive of job satisfaction and job retention among home healthcare aides
Although many work characteristics associated with job satisfaction in home health care have been documented, a unique aspect of the work environment of home health care aides that might also affect job satisfaction is the fact that their workplace is a household. To obtain a better understanding of the potential impact of the hazards within the household environment on job satisfaction and job retention in home care, a risk assessment study was conducted. Data from a sample of 823 New York City home health care aides were obtained by means of questionnaires and analysed. Household job-related risks, environmental exposures, transportation issues, threats, verbal and physical abuse and violence were significantly correlated with home health care aides' job satisfaction and job retention. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1430-1441. Illus. 20 ref.
Casteel C., Peek-Asa C., Greenland S., Chu L.D., Kraus J.F.
A study of the effectiveness of a workplace violence intervention for small retail and service establishments
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a robbery and violence prevention programme in small businesses in Los Angeles. Gas stations, stores, bars, restaurants and motels were enrolled between 1997 and 2000. Intervention businesses totaling 305 were provided training, programme implementation materials and recommendations for a comprehensive security programme. The 96 control businesses received neither training nor programme materials. Rate ratios comparing intervention to control businesses were 0.90 for violent crime and 0.81 for robbery. Results suggest that the workplace violence prevention programmes may reduce violent crime among high-risk businesses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1365-1370. 20 ref.
Peate W.F., Mullins J.
Disaster preparedness training for tribal leaders
This short report describes a training programme set up to ensure that Native American communities were adequately informed and trained to implement coordinated response plans for a range of potential public health emergencies on tribal lands and in surrounding communities. The commentary outlines how specific cultural aspects (including for example a public prayer by an elder during the training), respect for tribal sovereignty, presentation of historical examples of indigenous preparedness, and incorporation of tribal community networks were essential to the success of this programme.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.2, 5p. 3 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-2.pdf [en inglés]
Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/107 [en inglés]
Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., David S.
Importance of psychosocial work factors on general health outcomes in the national French SUMER survey
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and state of health indicators within the national French working population. The study was based on a questionnaire survey of a sample of 24,486 working women and men. Psychosocial risk factors at work included psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, workplace bullying and violence from the public. The health indicators studied were self-reported health, long sickness absence (>8 days of absence) and work injury. Low decision latitude, low social support and high psychological demands were found to be risk factors for poor self-reported health and long sickness absence. High demands were also found to be associated with work injury. Workplace bullying and/or violence from the public also increased the risk of poor health, long sickness absence and work injury.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.15-24. 57 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/15 [en inglés]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
The work of monitors of Febem
O trabalho dos monitores na Febem [en portugués]
Study of working conditions and health problems among monitors working in a Brazilian detention centre for minors called FEBEM.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2008. 84p. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/PUBLICACAO/l/Monitores%20Febem.pdf [en portugués]
Hungria Xavier A.C., Veiga Barcelos C.R., Peixoto Lopes J., Gandarela Chamarelli P., de Souza Ribeiro S., da Silva Lacerda L., Palacios M.
Workplace moral harassment in Rio de Janeiro health sector: Some characteristics
Assédio moral no trabalho no setor saúde no Rio de Janeiro: algumas características [en portugués]
This study examines the magnitude and some of the characteristics of the phenomenon of workplace moral harassement in the health care sector in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from previous randomized survey carried out in 2001 were analysed. All cases (1569) and their variables related to moral harassment were selected for the analysis. The occupational group of nurses' aides presented the highest proportion of moral harassment victims (22.7%) and the most frequent perpetrators were co-workers, supervisors and managers (48.7%). The victims' most frequent psychological reaction was "becoming super-alert". Although a certain proportion (38.5%) reported to their supervisors they had been morally harassed, action was taken in only 20% of the cases. The need to implement institutional measures to control violence at work is emphasized.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.15-22. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Ass%C3%A9dio%20moral.pdf [en portugués]
Needham I., Kingma M., O'Brian-Pallas L., McKenna K., Tucker R., Oud N.
Workplace violence in the health sector
Proceedings of a conference on workplace violence in the health care sector held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2008. Papers are grouped into chapters addressing the following issues: keynotes; economic aspects and implications of workplace violence; gender aspects; legal and ethical aspects; epidemiology, patterns and trends; policies and operational strategies; scientific aspects; social and psychological aspects; staff training and education.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2008. 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Breton-Kueny L., Segovia-Kueny S.
When faced with the risk of a pandemic - Vital relevance of a plan for ensuring the continuity of operations
Face à une crise de type pandémie - L'intérêt vital d'un plan de continuité des activités [en francés]
This article explains plans for ensuring the continuity of operations (PCOs) in the event of a pandemic, together with their usefulness and implementation. Topics: influenza pandemic; Decree on the safety of vital activities in France; what needs to be included in a PCO in the event of avian influenza. The proposed approach could also be relevant in other situations, for example in the case of bioterrorism.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.57-61. Illus.
Friedman L.S., Forst L.
Ethnic disparities in traumatic occupational injury
Workers of different ethnicities differ in patterns of employment and occupational risks. This study used the Illinois Trauma Registry to evaluate ethnic disparities among the occupational injuries occurring in the State between 1997 and 2003. Factors analyzed included incidence, severity, cause and place of injury, disability and in-hospital mortality. The incidence rates among Hispanics were more than twice than whites, however, their risk of severe injury less than half. Among African-American workers, the incidence and severity of injuries were lower than whites. Machinery was the primary cause of injury among Hispanics. Finally, African-Americans were found to be disproportionately injured in road accidents, homicides and assaults.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.350-358. 32 ref.
Osinubi O.Y.O., Gandhi S.K., Ohman-Strickland P., Boglarsky C., Fiedler N., Kipen H., Robson M.
Organizational factors and office workers' health after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks: Long-term physical symptoms, psychological distress, and work productivity
To assess if organizational factors were predictors of workers' health and productivity after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 750 workers, comparing those that had direct exposures to the WTC attacks (south of Canal Street workers) with those less directly exposed (north of Canal Street workers). South of Canal Street workers reported headache and cough more frequently than north of Canal Street workers. Organizational culture was an independent predictor of cough and job stress, and job stress was an independent predictor of on-the-job productivity losses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.112-125. 45 ref.
Consequences of violence exposures by emergency nurses
Emergency nurses are among the most likely groups of health care professionals to be exposed to violence. Violence exposure is the witnessing or receiving of a violent act with or without the intention to cause physical or psychological harm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature in relation to emergency nurses' exposure to violence and discuss the implications for emergency nursing practice. A review of the literature was conducted using the keywords violence, emergency nursing, health care workers and productivity. Emergency nurses exhibited anxiety, vulnerability, guilt, anger, sadness and peer blaming following violence exposures. Violence exposures affect emergency nurses both physically and psychologically. Interventions should be developed to reduce the negative consequences of violence exposures.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2008, Vol.16, No.4, p.409-418. 12 ref.
West C., Bernard B., Mueller C., Kitt M., Driscoll R., Tak S.
Mental health outcomes in police personnel after hurricane Katrina
This cross-sectional study examined symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) personnel who provided law enforcement and relief services to affected communities following Hurricane Katrina. Mental health outcomes related to personal and work-related exposures of police personnel eight weeks after the hurricane were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. Of the 912 police personnel who completed the questionnaire, 26% reported symptoms consistent with depression and 19% reported symptoms consistent with PTSD. For PTSD, risk factors included recovery of bodies, crowd control, assault and injury to a family member. Depressive symptoms were associated with rare family contact, uninhabitable home, isolation from the NOPD, assault and injury to a family member.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.689-695. 39 ref.
de la Hoz R.E., Shohet M.R., Chasan R, Bienenfeld L.A., Afilaka A.A., Levin S.M., Herbert R.
Occupational toxicant inhalation injury: The World Trade Center (WTC) experience
The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of diseases in a group of 554 former workers and volunteers (with more than 90 different occupations) at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. A subsample of 168 workers was selected to examine lower airway disease risk in relation to smoking and WTC exposure variables. Five diagnostic categories clearly predominate: upper airway disease (78.5%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (57.6%), lower airway disease (48.9%), psychological (41.9%) and chronic musculoskeletal illnesses (17.8%). The most frequent pattern of presentation was a combination of the first three of these categories (29.8%). Associations were found between arrival at the WTC site within the first 48h of the terrorist attack and lower airway and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and between past or present cigarette smoking and lower airway disease. Cigarette smoking and early arrival at the WTC site appear to be risk factors for lower airway disease diagnosis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2008, Vol.81, No.4, p.479-485. Illus. 34 ref.
Psychosocial hazards - When good driving goes alongside good behaviour
Risques psychosociaux - Quand bien conduire rime avec bonne conduite [en francés]
This article presents the preventive measures against psychosocial hazards implemented by a public transport enterprise in the Paris region, faced with increasing incivilities and violence (physical and verbal abuse, damage to equipment). The measures include staff training in conflict management and communicating with young persons in schools and sport halls.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2008, No.686, p.46-47. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ArchivesTS/archivests.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS686page46_1/$File/TS686page46.pdf?OpenElement [en francés]
Health and Safety Executive
Managing work-related violence in licensed and retail premises
Aimed at owners and managers of retail and licensed premises, this booklet contains information and practical advice on how to assess and tackle the risk of violence to staff. The advice is based on interviews with persons who work in pubs, clubs and shops concerning their experience of tackling violence where they work, including measures that have helped combat the problem. Topics addressed: responsibilities of employers; hazard evaluation; reporting and recording of incidents; training of personnel; investigation into the causes of incidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2008. 15p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg423.pdf [en inglés]
Thierry S., Chouanière D., Aubry C.
Driving and health - A literature survey
Conduite et santé - Une revue de la littérature [en francés]
This literature review analyses available information on health hazards related to driving in the course of one's occupation. Main findings: there are reports of low back pain which may be invalidating for persons required to lift loads; work organization is often complicated, with irregular working hours; there is a significant cardiovascular risk, with non-negligible mortality from myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular strokes; certain types of individual behaviour also constitute risk factors (smoking, unbalanced diet). For some of these risks, preventive measures exist (equipping vehicles with antivibration seats, ergonomic improvements of drivers' cabs, abiding with regulations concerning working hours, adapting work schedules). Prevention with respect to individual behaviour having an impact on health should also be encouraged.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2008, No.113, p.45-63. Illus. 88 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20118/$File/TC118.pdf [en francés]
Buckley J.P., Sestito J.P., Hunting K.L.
Fatalities in the landscape and horticultural services industry, 1992-2001
Although landscape and horticultural services workers have high injury and illness rates, little is known about fatalities in this industry. Census and population survey data were analyzed to determine fatality rates and causes of landscaping deaths from 1992 to 2001. There were 1101 fatalities during the 10-year period in the United States, with an average fatality rate of 13.50 deaths per 100,000 full-time employees. In 2001, the landscaping fatality rate was 3.33 times the all-industry rate. The leading causes of death were transportation incidents (27%), contact with objects or equipment (27%), falls (24%), exposure to harmful substances and environments (18%), and assaults and violent acts (4%). The fatality rate for African American landscapers was 1.51 times the rate for white workers. Fatalities were also common among self-employed and young workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.701-713. Illus. 38 ref.
Kessler S.R., Spector P.E., Chang C.H., Parr A.D.
Organizational violence and aggression: Development of the three-factor Violence Climate Survey
Violence climate, a concept derived from the safety climate literature, may affect violence and aggression at work. Using a newly-developed instrument for measuring violence climate, this study consisted of a survey of a sample of 216 employees from a variety of sectors in the United States. It showed that violence climate is significantly related to exposure to physical violence and verbal aggression, physical strains and psychological strains, including job dissatisfaction and negative emotion at work. Exposure to both violence and aggression was associated with all strains. Multiple regression analyses suggested that it was primarily policies and pressure that was associated with verbal aggression, whereas mainly practices was related to physical violence.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.108-124. Illus. 55 ref.
Workplace violence against adolescent workers in the US
In this study of workplace violence among adolescent workers in the United States, survey data from 1171 young persons aged 14-17 were analysed using descriptive statistics to investigate the incidence of physical attacks, verbal threats and sexual harassment, and to identify their perpetrators. Nearly one-third of respondents experienced some form of workplace violence: 25% were verbally threatened, 10% physically attacked and 10% sexually harassed. Significant demographic differences were found. The most common perpetrators of physical attacks and verbal threats were customers while sexual harassment most often came from co-workers. Since young persons are likely to be more vulnerable, workplace violence prevention that target adolescent workers should be made a priority.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.539-544. 37 ref.
Raanaas R.K., Anderson D.
A questionnaire survey of Norwegian taxi drivers' musculoskeletal health, and work-related risk factors
A questionnaire survey was carried out among a sample of taxi drivers in Norway to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and to identify the related occupational risk factors One-year musculoskeletal pain prevalence (MSP) was assessed with the Nordic Questionnaire, and work-related factors with a questionnaire designed for the purpose. Responses were obtained from 929 drivers. Results show that taxi drivers have an elevated risk of musculoskeletal problems compared to a Norwegian reference population. When workload and lifestyle factors were taken into account, risk factors for MSP were identified as driving hours per shift and per week, sleeping in the car during rest breaks, experience of violence, body mass index, unhealthy eating habits, lack of physical exercise and being employed as opposed to being self-employed. Women and non-western immigrants were also at higher risk.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar.-Apr. 2008, Vol.38, No.3-4, p.280-290. 38 ref.
Averting violence - Work, violence and health
Conjurer la violence - Travail, violence et santé [en francés]
There is a worsening of violence in many settings, including within the enterprise. This document highlights the extent to which work organization is involved in the root causes of violence at the place of work and proposes pathways for preventive action, both inside and outside the enterprise.
Editions Payot & Rivages, 106, boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 2007. 316p. 71 ref. Price: EUR 23.00.
Mauer M.P., Cummings K.R., Carlson G.A.
Health effects in New York State personnel who responded to the World Trade Center disaster
The state of health of 1423 New York State personnel who responded to the World Trade Center disaster was evaluated. Data collected by means of questionnaires, clinical examinations and laboratory tests were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Lower and upper respiratory symptoms were reported by nearly half of the study participants. One third reported a psychological symptom. Some health effects were associated with having been caught in the cloud of dust on the day of the terrorist attack. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1197-1205. Illus. 28 ref.
Tao X.G., Massa J., Ashwell L., Davis K., Schwab M., Geyh A.
The World Trade Center clean up and recovery worker cohort study: Respiratory health amongst cleanup workers approximately 20 months after initial exposure at the disaster site
Respiratory health among cleanup workers at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site was evaluated approximately 20 months after the initial exposure to assess the risk of lower respiratory symptoms. In 2003, a questionnaire requesting information about the tasks carried out on the site, current respiratory and historical health and smoking was sent to 4,546 workers having worked at the site (response rate 25%), and 2,103 workers who were never at the WTC (response rate 12%). As compared with those never at the site, WTC workers were more than three times as likely to report any lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio 3.40).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1063-1072. Illus. 17 ref.
Young workers at risk: Overlaps between initiation rites, pranks, bullying, sexual harassment and occupational violence
Young workers are at heightened OHS risk in workplaces. This enhanced risk is due to biological, neurological, developmental and labour market position risk factors. This article focuses on another hazard that is commonly encountered by adolescent workers: exposure to initiation rites and pranks. It needs to be noted, however, that older workers can also be subject to practical jokes at workplaces. Initiation rites (ragging), pranks and bullying are all forms of workplace violence. Indeed these behavioural categories often overlap. For example, groups of workers may "play tricks" on a new employee that escalate in intensity and severity over time and may culminate in initiation rites that involve actual physical violence.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.333-341. 38 ref.
Callaghan P., Nijman H., Palmstierna T., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 25-27 October 2007. Several papers concerned the safety, health and training of the staff: prevention of post-traumatic stress reaction in staff following a patient assault; training programme in the management of violence in a Hong Kong hospital; training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on management of violence; ward safety perceptions by nurses in several countries; interactions between nurses and patients in terms of predisposition to violence; violence toward heath care staff in Turkey.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2007. 383p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Smith P.A., Jackson Lepage C., Harrer K.L., Brochu P.J.
Hand-held photoionization instruments for quantitative detection of sarin vapor and for rapid qualitative screening of contaminated objects
Emergency responders and health care personnel may be in contact with patients from an incident involving exposures to hazardous chemicals. Using detectors could avoid additional contamination to workers, other patients, and to the treatment facility and associated equipment. In this study, the operating characteristics of several photoionization detectors (PIDs) were examined using sarin in a laboratory setting. Instrument response factors were calculated for the quantification of airborne sarin, and speed of detector response and recovery were examined with contaminated cloth material. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that within health care settings, hand-held PID instruments could fill an important need as a detector for liquid contamination from extremely dangerous chemicals.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2007, Vol.4, No.10, p.729-738. Illus. 8 ref.
Nachreiner N.M., Gerberich S.G., Ryan A.D., McGovern P.M.
Minnesota nurses' study: Perceptions of violence and the work environment
A sample of 6,300 randomly-selected nurses (consisting of 96% women) in the state of Minnesota (USA) was surveyed on their experience with work-related violence in the previous year. Differences in perceptions of the work environment and work culture were assessed, based on a nested case-control study, comparing nurses who experienced assault to non-assaulted nurses. Annual rates of physical and non-physical assault, per 100 nurses, were 13.2 and 38.8 respectively. Nurses frequently experienced work-related violence; the perceptions of the work environment differed between nurses who had experienced physical assault and those who had not. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.672-678. Illus. 29 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_672.pdf [en inglés]
Focusing on a sustainable future: Anglo American - Report to Society 2007
Report on the social and environmental protection activities for the year 2007 of a multinational mining enterprise involved in platinum, diamonds, coal, ferrous and nonferrous metals, industrial minerals, paper and packaging. Topics addressed: sustainable development; economic value; human capital; social capital; natural capital; manmade capital; independent audit of the company's sustainable development indicators. The report includes descriptions of programmes aimed at providing anti-retroviral therapy to employees infected with HIV, supporting public health and preventing domestic violence.
Anglo American PLC, 20 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AN, United Kingdom, 2007. 72p. Illus.
http://www.investis.com/aa/docs/gr_2008_04_15.pdf [en inglés]
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