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  • Head protection

1982

CIS 82-2014 Proctor T.D.
A review of research relating to industrial helmet design
Research involving statistics, impact considerations and comfort stability/acceptability, is reviewed. The British and ISO test method, which uses the peak acceleration of a headform to assess impact absorption, is considered equivalent to those methods that involve humanoid headform and use average acceleration as the criterion in tests where the impact direction lies approximately normal to the impacting surface and where the impact is of short duration. Where rotation of the head may occur, a more thorough investigation of the biomechanical evidence is required before conclusions can be drawn about the benefits to be derived from extending the test procedures. Recommendations for research into comfort and the useful service life of injection-moulded plastic helmets, are made.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Mar. 1982, Vol.3, No.4, p.259-272. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 82-2008 Greenough G.K.
Experience with the "Airstream" helmet-respirator in mining
Despite great advances in mining dust control and a marked reduction in the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and silicosis, it is becoming increasingly accepted that dust control alone is unlikely to eliminate pneumoconiosis in the foreseeable future, whereas a combination of dust control and a moderately efficient respirator could virtually eliminate the disease. Conventional face-mask respirators are uncomfortable and are not an acceptable solution to the problem. This paper, presented at the International Symposium on Occupational Health and Safety in Mining and Tunnelling (Prague, 21-25 June 1982), describes the "Airstream" self-contained helmet respirator, designed to provide respiratory protection in a more comfortable and acceptable form. Service experience and proposed further development are discussed.
Health and Safety Executive, Red Hill, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1982. 7p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-815 Touboul E.A.
Up-date on safety helmets
Le point sur les casques de sécurité [en francés]
Results of a survey in the Paris region as to the main reasons why workers do not wear safety helmets: bad fit, too tight, upsets balance and causes headaches, discomfort due to excessive pressure on forehead. This list of discomfort factors helps to define the criteria for choosing helmets and for correcting their shortcomings. Other safety factors considered include: material ageing, resistance to lateral crushing, absorption of lateral impact. Practical advice for the occupational physician. Appended: the survey document.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1982, No.1, p.17-21. Illus. 22 ref.

1981

CIS 82-1412 Requirements for protective headwear for industrial workers
Revision (approved 16 Jan. 1981) of ANSI Z.89.1-1969 (industrial head protection) and ANSI Z.89.2-1971 (industrial protective helmets for electrical workers) combining both these standards. Sections on: types and classes of helmet; materials; physical and performance requirements; tests for helmets for the protection of industrial workers, with recommended safety requirements for authorities considering the establishment of regulations or codes; specifications for helmets to protect the heads of industrial workers from impact and penetration by falling objects and from high-voltage electric shock and burn; physical requirements (construction, shell, headband, sweatband, crown straps, protective padding; accessories; instructions and marking); performance requirements (electrical insulation, impact and penetration resistance, flammability, water absorption); test methods. Hat and helmet size guide. Appendixes: electrical insulation test procedure; recommendations and precautions concerning helmet use; maintenance, and testing.
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 1981. 20p. Illus. Price: US-$5.25.

CIS 82-1121
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Information sheet on safety helmets
Schutzhelm-Merkblatt [en alemán]
This data sheet gives information on: form of crown or headpiece with rim or peak, design and function of webbing (centrepiece, circumference, space for ventilation, chinstrap), sizes and accessories, materials (thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics), special-purpose helmets (respiratory and/or hearing protection), instructions for wear (guidance rules, adaptation, maximum period of wear before replacement). Chapter on helmet testing for: shock or impact absorption, penetration and flame reistance, required specifications for use in special conditions. Specifications for: marking, identification colours for workers engaged on different operations, helmets for motorcyclists and firemen. Other aspects: use, electrostatic charge, protective netting or covering cap.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1981. 29p. Illus. Price: DM.3.80.

1980

CIS 88-1361 Fire helmets - Requirements and testing
Brandhjälmar - Fordringar och provning [en sueco]
Contents of this standard: scope (applies primarily to protective helmets used in firefighting); type designations; special requirements (concerning the metal shell, chin-straps and headbands); inflammability; flammability testing (equipment and test specimens); instructions and marking.
Standardiseringskommissionen i Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden, 1st ed., 1 July 1980. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 81-2031
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Miners' plastic safety helmets - General technical requirements
Kaski šahterskie plastmassovye - Obščie tehničeskie uslovija [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 July 1981) applies to helmets designed to protect miners against mechanical hazards, electricity and water. Individual sections are devoted to types and dimensions; technical rules (design, accessories, nape protection, materials, impact and perforation protection, dielectric resistance, etc.); approval requirements; test methods (lamp support, impact, perforation, dielectric resistance and head-band strap tests); marking, packaging and storage; manufacturer's guarantee. Appendices cover: definitions, characteristics required for a head model for test purposes.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123 557 Moskva, USSR, 28 May 1980. 16p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 81-513 Mayer A., Barlier A.
Mountaineering helmets
Les casques de montagne. [en francés]
Technical data on safety helmets for mountain climbing; use of these helmets; tests carried out by the French National Research and Safety Institute on 16 helmets marketed in France; resistance to vertical and lateral impact, and to penetration; chin-strap resistance; resistance to lateral crushing, and to flame; general and specific requirements for performance; practical guide for choice of helmets (illustrated synoptic table).
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.197-206, 235-237. Illus.

CIS 81-511 Structural fire fighters' helmets 1979.
This standard updates previous editions. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: general specifications (marking and instructions for wear; configuration; accessories); performance requirements (top impact requirement - force transmission; top, front, side, and back impact requirement - acceleration; resistance to penetration, heat and flame; electrical insulation; retention system; ear covers); environmental conditioning for testing; performance testing; performance evaluation requirements; qualification testing.
National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 4 Feb. 1980. 38p. Price: US$5.00.

CIS 81-197
State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Helmets for building workers - Required technical characteristics
Kaski stroitel'nye - Tehničeskie trebovanija [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 July 1980) applies to helmets intended to protect construction workers' heads from impacts, humidity and electric current: dimensions; technical requirements; acceptance testing rules; test methods; marking, packaging, transport and storage; manufacturer's guarantee.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 10 Dec. 1979. 7p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 81-192 Bancroft B., Greenough G.K., Hodges J.P., Whitelaw D.G.
Measurement of the dust protection and airflow of a helmet respirator.
Dust protection is measured by placing the helmet on a dummy head mounted in a test chamber and exposing it to an aerosol of fine NaCl particles. Air is drawn through an orifice in the dummy's mouth to simulate breathing. Sampling is done inside and outside the helmet. Two methods of measuring airflow are described. In one, a variable-flow pump is used to overcome the resistance of a flow meter; the pump output is adjusted until the air entering the respirator is at atmospheric pressure, and the helmet is then considered to be operating under normal conditions. The second method uses a perforated flow-plate which is drawn against the helmet air intake by the airflow. By adjusting the weight and airflow resistance of the plate, it can be made to remain in place at the desired minimum airflow rate.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1980, Vol.23, No.3, p.295-304. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 80-2002 Roszkowski W.
Guidelines for modernisation of safety helmets
Kierunki unowocześnienia ochron głowy [en polonés]
Criteria for the performance, testing and use of effective head protection were studied. The main functions of safety helmets and selection principles according to the work conditions and hazards encountered are defined. New solutions for design of helmets and interior fittings are presented, with a commentary on testing methods. Speculations on future models are made.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1980, Vol.30, No.104, p.75-86.

1979

CIS 80-1114 Berger R.E., Calvano N.J.
Evaluation of product safety test methods: protective headgear.
The real life simulation of impacts with headgear protection was compared with a nonrealistic test method. The simulation used a humanoid headform, the test method a rigid metal headform. Impact velocity was the same for both configurations; impact surface varied in hardness. Using established tolerance criteria, procedures were developed for relating pass/fail thresholds of the real life simulation to those of the test method. The efficacy of the test method was assessed in terms of acceptable levels of discrimination of unsafe products. The nonrealistic test method was found to correlate sufficiently well with real life simulation to be used in testing protective headgear.
Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1979, Vol.11, No.1, p.14-19. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 79-1998 Koch R., Coenen W.
Absorption of horizontal impact by industrial safety helmets - Development of a test method
Horizontale Stossdämpfung bei Industrieschutzhelmen - Entwicklung eines Prüfverfahrens [en alemán]
A safety helmet should protect not only against vertical but also against horizontal impact. Description of principles and technical data of a test method for evaluating the horizontal impact absorption of safety helmets. Influence of the point of impact; specific parameters concerning: manufacture, adjusting for different head sizes, and number of impacts. A statistical analysis of the test results demonstrates the precision of the method, apart from the horizontal absorption rate. Tests for vertical impact absorption do not permit any conclusions to be drawn about horizontal impact absorption.
STF report 3-79, Staubforschungsinstitut des Hauptverbandes der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Postfach 5040, 5300 Bonn 5, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1979. 43p. Illus.

CIS 79-1716 Head protection.
Contents: brief description of helmets and the protection offered; details of types of helmets, with a tabulated classification, and their characteristics; head trauma (brain damage, skull fracture); precautions against head hazards, use of safety headwear, selection considerations; accessories (straps, liners, face shields, hearing protection); care and maintenance; training and motivation; first aid; glossary; 2 page summary for posting.
Data Sheet H-4, Canada Safety Council, 1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1979, 30p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 79-1290 Godenhielm B., Perkiö K., Starck J.
Effect of helmet underhats on the attenuation of earmuffs
Kypärän alushupun vaikutus kuulonsuojainten toimintaan [en finlandés]
3 types of earmuffs and cloth and fur underhats were studied by using 13-15 chain saw operators. The difference in attenuation with and without the underhat was measured as the change in the hearing threshold of the subject with Békésy audiometry. An artificial ear (IEC 318 standard) was used for measuring the 1/3 octave band noise at -10° to -20°C. The attenuation of the earmuffs was determined at 20° and -15°C by a miniature microphone attached to the ear tip. The cloth underhat decreased the attenuation by 5dB and the fur hat decreased it to almost zero at frequencies below 1.5kHz. At higher frequencies there was some attenuation with the fur hat and it increased about 15dB/octave. When the earmuffs were against the skin under the hat, the attenuation increased about 24dB compared to the attenuation with earmuffs and without the hat. In the cold environment the attenuation increased at low frequencies and decreased at high frequencies. English summary.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia 148, Institute of Occupational Health (Työterveyslaitos), Helsinki, Finland, 1979. 39p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00.

1978

CIS 80-1115 Kimotsuki K.
Use of a ventilating hat.
A hat designed to reduce the heat stress of outdoor workers exposed to solar radiation is described. It is made up of a double sheet forming a soft crown, with a lining and 2 openings for ventilation. A disk with a wet pad on it is attached to the top of the hat producing a chimney effect. Experimental and field tests showed the ventilation effect to be positive in terms of increased air flow rate between the hat and the head, and of the slower increase of inside temperature.
Journal of Human Ergology, Sep. 1978, Vol.7, No.1, p.90-92.

CIS 78-1702 Novau Sisquella J.M.
El casco de seguridad. Criterios de selección y normas de utilización
This profusely illustrated article deals with: protective role of the helmet (mechanical, electrical and thermal hazards); description (definition, classification, constituent parts, materials, dimensions, resistance of human skull, helmet strength (Spanish standards)); selection criteria according to conditions of use; example of selection of a helmet for construction workers; wearing, maintenance and storage.
Salud y trabajo, June 1978, No.13, p.38-54. Illus. 24 ref.

1977

CIS 79-1999
U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.
Law enforcement standards program - Riot helmets.
This standard contains definitions followed by sections devoted to: test sampling; user information; test sequence; peripheral vision; impact attenuation; penetration resistance; retention system; projections; openings; labelling; test methods.
ANSI/NILECJ 0104.00-1974, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Oct. 1974. Approved as American standard 19 May 1977. 10p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: US-$0.65.

CIS 79-510 Roszkowski W.
Comparative study of safety helmets produced in Poland and elsewhere
Badania porównawcze hełmów produkcji krajowej i zagranicznej [en polonés]
Nine Polish, Swedish, English and West German models were tested. The chief function of safety helmets in industry is referred to, and the results of studies are described relating to impact and penetration resistance, water absorption, flammability, resistance to lateral crushing, dielectric strength, resistance to acids and alkalis, microclimatic conditions in the helmet, and protection against radiant heat. Tabulation of results permits comparison between the different helmets. Diagrams of the instruments used in the tests are given, and recommendations are made for improvements to existing models and future design, taking the hazards and conditions of use into account.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1977, Vol.27, No.94, p.233-255. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 78-1698 Riediger G., Coenen W.
The dust helmet, personal protective equipment combining head and respiratory protection
Der Atemschutzhelm, eine persönliche Schutzausrüstung, die den Kopfschutz und den Atemschutz in sich vereinigt [en alemán]
Description of the principle of an air-supplied helmet, and especially a self-contained filter helmet. The advantages and drawbacks of this equipment, which provides protection of both the head and airways, are set out, and examples of developments given (helmet with face mask, filter, fan and battery). Suggestions for testing and technical safety evaluation of dust helmets: (a) head protection testing according to rules applying to industrial protective helmets, permissible weight; (b) tests for respiratory protection against aerosols and harmful gases; (c) visual field and characteristics of the face mask; (d) noise limit and comfort.
Staub, Oct. 1977, Vol.37, No.10, p.378-382. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 78-1095 Cook W.I., Love J.R.
A report on the performance of miners' safety caps.
Thirty samples each of 16 models of helmet were tested for compliance with standards. Helmets were checked for marking, construction and adjustment instructions; tested were flammability, insulation, penetration and impact resistance. All the models passed the flammability and penetration resistance tests, but only 13 were completely satisfactory. It appeared that quality control during manufacture was at fault with the failed models. The need for protection against peripheral impacts is discussed.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-218, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1977. 16p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-491 Quam G.N.
A new design of head, body, and groin shields.
A head shield of polycarbonate, a chest shield of polycarbonate backed by ballistic nylon plus Kevlar (polyamide) fiber, and a groin shield of Kevlar covered by ballistic nylon were designed and tested. This portable body shield gave protection against .22 caliber bullets and can be used in the laboratory while handling sensitive chemicals.
National Safety News, Aug. 1977, Vol.116, No.2, p.92-94. Illus.

CIS 78-489 Mayer A., Salsi S.
Industrial safety helmets
Capacetes de protecção para a indústria [en portugués]
Adaptation, in Portuguese, of an article which appeared in Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 2nd quarter 1977, No.87, p.159-185 (CIS 77-1410). The article summarises reports on various tests carried out on nearly 2,000 helmets (122 different models) supplied by leading French manufacturers and importers. Data on the severity and characteristics of occupational accidents involving head injury, and a description of the constituent parts and principal functional requirements of safety helmets, are followed by a report on test procedures and results (shock absorption; resistance to penetration, to flame, to aging, to lateral crushing, to splashing with molten metal; electric insulation). These results are given in a large table summarising the criteria for selecting the most appropriate safety helmet for each case.
Segurança, 3rd quarter 1977, Vol.13, No.51, p.14-24. Illus.

CIS 77-2010 Top off your plant safety program with proper head protection.
The development of head protection from early history to the present is described. Present legislation and standards in the USA are given for the 4 classes of safety helmets, the weight and shape of the helmet, suspensions, liners and straps, bump caps, and hair protection. Maintenance of helmets and hazards (spray solvents, temperature extremes, strong chemicals, mechanical abrasion) are discussed.
National Safety News, July 1977, Vol.116, No.1, p.87-91. Illus.

CIS 77-1410 Mayer A., Salsi S.
Industrial safety helmets - Test report - Criteria for selection by users
Casques de protection pour l'industrie - Bilan des essais - Critères de choix pour l'utilisateur. [en francés]
This data sheet, based on a study report of the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS Rapport d'etude No.158/RE, Feb. 1977) obtainable on request, summarises reports on various tests carried out on nearly 2,000 helmets (122 different models) supplied by leading French manufacturers and importers. Data on the severity and characteristics of occupational accidents involving head injury, and a description of the constituent parts and principal functional requirements of safety helmets, are followed by a report on test procedures and results (shock absorption; resistance to penetration; resistance to flame; resistance to aging; resistance to lateral crushing; resistance to splashing with molten metal; electric insulation). These results are given in a large folding table summarising the criteria for selecting the most appropriate safety helmet for each case.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1977, No.87, Note No.1056-87-77, p.159-185. Illus.

CIS 77-1104 Industrial safety helmets.
Casques de protection pour l'industrie. [en francés]
This international standard specifies physical and performance requirements, methods of test and marking requirements for industrial safety helmets. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: physical requirements (materials; general construction; shell; vertical and horizontal clearance; wearing height; mass); performance requirements (mandatory: shock absorption; resistance to penetration; flame resistance; optional: low temperature tests; electrical insulation; lateral rigidity); test requirements (samples; test conditions; headforms; verification of clearances and wearing height; shock absorption; penetration; flammability; electrical insulation; lateral rigidity); and marking.
International Standard ISO 3873-1977 (E), International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1 Mar. 1977. 8p. Illus. Price: SF.18.00.

1976

CIS 77-1108 Helmets and headache
Casques et céphalées. [en francés]
Wearing of safety helmets can be the cause of headache. To a reader's query in this connection relating to the construction industry, the editor explains that headaches may be due to mechanical pressure from the headband, or to too high a temperature within the helmet. Helmets must be well ventilated and allow sufficient adjustment of the headband to give a firm hold while retaining the dead space above the top of the head.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1976, Vol.4, No.5, p.377.

CIS 77-1105 Cook W.I.
A report on the performance of firefighters' helmets.
Samples of 8 models of helmet were evaluated for conformity to ANSI standard Z89.1-1969. Tests included weight, penetration, impact, water absorption, insulation resistance and flammability. Recmmendations are made concerning quality control, impact testing after heat conditioning and definitions of the standards.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-114, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 34p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 77-1103 Smith J.B., Suggs C.W.
Dynamic properties of the human head.
The design of better helmets and other safety devices would be facilitated by more knowledge on the dynamic response of the head to impact, acceleration, and vibratory forces. In this study, the heads of volunteers were exposed to vibrations of 20-5,000Hz to determine the mechanical impedance characteristics. The literature on experimental results is reviewed, and the test procedure and results are described. Maximum and minimum impedance magnitudes were found near 100 and 3,000Hz, respectively. Different acceleration input levels of 0.98 and 3.4m/s2 resulted in little variation in response. The apparent behaviour of the head as a mass of about 4.5kg for frequencies less than 60Hz showed agreement with other studies. Between 100 and 2,500Hz the head responds as a spring. The dynamic response of the head was accurately simulated by a 2-degree-of-freedom mass-excited mechanical system, which provides an accurate representation of the dynamic behaviour of the human head for situations which do not result in significant deformation or fracture of the skull. Thus, the model might be of great use in the design of safety devices such as helmets or head restraints.
Journal of Sound and Vibration, Sep. 1976, Vol.48, No.1, p.35-43. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 77-819
ZH 1/242, Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Aug. 1976.
Information sheet on safety helmets
Schutzhelm-Merkblatt [en alemán]
This information sheet contains data on: design of helmet shell (brim, peak) and head harness (cradle, headband, ventilation, chin strap); materials used (plastics, aluminium); wearing of helmet; testing of helmets (shock absorption, resistance to penetration, flame resistance, electrical resistance).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976. 30p. Illus.

CIS 76-1101 May P.R.A., Fuster J.M., Newman P., Hirschman A.
Woodpeckers and head injury.
Studies in woodpeckers are described, from which it emerges that impact protective systems radically different from those in common use could be developed: results suggest the use of a lighter, thicker, form-fitting firm but spongy helmet with a relatively thin and hard outer shell, if possible combined with a protective neck collar to dampen sudden, unexpected, rotation of the head.
Lancet, 28 Feb. 1976, Vol.1, No.7957, p.454-455. Illus. 9 ref.

1975

CIS 76-1704 Specification for general purpose industrial safety helmets.
This standard, which replaces BS 2095 "Light duty industrial safety helmets" and BS 2826 "Heavy duty industrial safety helmets" as from 1 June 1976, specifies physical and performance requirements, methods of test and marking requirements for industrial helmets. Definitions are followed by specifications concerning physical (materials, general construction, shell, vertical and horizontal clearance, weight, etc.) and performance requirements (mandatory: shock absorption, penetration and flame resistance; optional: low temperature tests, electrical insulation, lateral rigidity); test requirements and procedures; marking. A method of construction of wooden headforms, and recommendations for the materials and construction of helmets are appended.
BS 5240:1975, British Standards Institution, Publications Department, 101 Pentonville Road, London N1 9ND, United Kingdom, Nov. 1975. 10p. Illus. Price: £3.10.

CIS 75-1420 Development of criteria for industrial and firefighters' head protective devices.
Following an analysis of occupational head injury accidents, the findings of a study designed to elaborate criteria for performance, testing and user's standards for an efficient means of head protection are reported. After considerations on head injury types, anthropometry of the head and human factors, requirements are established for impact attenuation and penetration resistance. Another part reviews current performance and test standards. Detailed criteria for recommended standards comprise requirements for materials, helmet assembly, impact attenuation, penetration resistance and other characteristics. Test methods and results are discussed, and recommendations are given to the user.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-125, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Jan. 1975. 80p. Illus. 84 ref.

1974

CIS 76-213 Industrial safety helmets
Casques de protection pour l'industrie. [en francés]
This standard is intended to specify the principal features of safety helmets used in industry (including building and civil engineering) and methods of compliance testing. It also lays down specifications which are generally optional, but are mandatory for certain uses. Contents: definitions; general specifications (materials, skull cap, harness, finishing); dimensions and mass; mechanical, physical and electrical characteristics (resistance to atmospheric agents; shock absorption; resistance to penetration, flame, lateral crushing, and very low temperatures; electrical insulation); testing; marking.
Norme française enregistrée NF S 72-201, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, Dec. 1974. 10p.

CIS 75-1703 Safety hats
Revised version of Data Sheet 425, "Hard Hats". The contents include: purpose of safety hats or caps; definitions of component parts; hat styles (full-brim and visor types, suspensions, straps, linings) and shell materials ((plastic, metal, phosphorescent or other finishes) for use in various conditions; care, inspection, maintenance; promotion of use by exposed workers (organisation of prgrammes, role of supervisors, methods of issuing, promotional aids); and handling of complaints.
Data Sheet 561, Revision A (extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1974. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1418 Helmet for protection against dust developed in the U.K.
This dust helmet, developed in the United Kingdom by the Safety in Mines Research Establishment (SMRE), consists basically of a conventional miner's helmet, incorporating a battery-powered fan and removable filter. Air is drawn from behind the wearer, dust particles removed, and the clean air is then passed down over the wearer's face behind a movable visor. Protection is also ensured against flying particles, and respiratory protection is achieved without the discomfort associated with face masks. For mining use, the fan and filter can be powered by the small surplus capacity of the cap lamp battery. 2 versions have been devised, for mining and for industrial use.
Mining Journal, 14 Feb. 1974, Vol.284, No.7278, p.119. Illus.

CIS 75-793 Kamin J.I., Scalone A.A.
NIOSH safety research in protective helmets.
In an introductory part, some significant findings are summarised, and the present status of head protective devices and the present requirements in the USA are listed. The American standard test methods for impact tests and penetration tests are considered. The concept of a Severity Index as a criterion for head injury is discussed, followed by studies of the anthropometry of the head and of human factors (weight and size of helmets, helmet fit, restriction of sensory process).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1974, Vol.35, No.8, p.489-502. Illus. 32 ref.

1973

CIS 74-1709 Arboleya M.B.
Cascos de protección
Description of tests of safety helmets (impact strength, shock absorption, penetration resistance, breaking strength) and results obtained on 3 types of helmets: aluminium, rigid polyvinyl chloride and polycarbonate. The polycarbonate headgear has the disadvantage of being considerably heavier, but otherwise it was greatly superior to the 2 other models from every point of view; the article recommends its widespread use in the iron and steel industry.
Revista Seguridad, Oct.-Dec. 1973, No.51, p.8-10. Illus.

CIS 74-1415
Dayton T. Brown Testing Laboratories Division, Church Street, Bohemia, New York 11716, USA.
Development of standards for industrial and firefighters head protective devices.
A study of 2,564 head injuries which occurred in 1970 in 64 industries of the State of New York is followed by anthropometric, physiological and other considerations concerning the requirements of protective helmets. Existing standards are evaluated as regards performance and test requirements, and recommendations are made. Currently available helmets appear to offer limited protection only and are not well suited to the broad range of conditions found in industry. Recommended standards pertaining to performance, testing and use are given in vol.2.
Test report No.DTBO6R73-1273, Contract No.HSM 99-72-86, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20582, USA, 1973. 2 Vol. 208+66p. Illus. 84 ref.

CIS 74-1090 Klitscher S.
Safety helmets
Der Schutzhelm [en alemán]
General background information, problems concerning hard hats and helmets and how to make them more comfortable (head harness, fit, dimensions). Description of tests to determine resistance to blows and penetration. Hazards arising from deterioration, increasing brittleness, wear and tear and fatigue of various plastics due to the effects of heat, cold and ultraviolet radiation. Problems arising when the wearing of safety helmets is made compulsory; regulations to this effect.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.338-342. Illus.

CIS 74-1087 Roszkowski W.
Assessment of the properties of materials to be used in manufacturing personal protective equipment against sparks, flame and high temperatures
Ocena właściwości materiałów przeznaczonych do produkcji sprzętu ochronnego, zabezpieczającego przed działaniem iskier, płomienia i wysokich temperatur [en polonés]
Study of the properties of plastics used for the production of hard hats, protective screens and shields. Tests carried out include a determination of resistance to flames, water and thermal radiation, as well as for shock and puncturing. From the results, reproduced in many tables and amply discussed, the author proposes using, for the production of hard hats for workers exposed to high temperatures in industry and in coal mines, new self-extinguishing polyester resins and polycarbonates which possess not only good mechanical properties, but also a strong resistance to combustion and very good dielectric properties. He recommends utilising polyester resins reinforced by glass fibres for the production of screens and shields to be used by arc-welders.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.78, p.277-288. 16 ref.

CIS 74-804
Mutual Accident Insurance Association for the Quarry Industry, Jan. 1973 edition.
Safety helmets data sheet
Schutzhelm - Merkblatt [en alemán]
This data sheet refers to German Standard DIN 4840 - Industrial safety helmets. (CIS 18-1971, Tgb (610.1)). Information is given on the protection afforded, outer and inner design of helmets, suitability of materials, correct way to wear helmet and duration of period during which it is worn, testing (shock absorption, impenetrability), markings, electrical resistance, special requirements for work with explosive-actuated tools, and colour code for helmets.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Sep.1973, Vol.83, No.9, p.245-251. Illus.

1971

CIS 72-2679 American National Standard specifications for protective headgear for vehicular users
Specifications are laid down as regards the design, materials, marking and testing of protective headgear for drivers and passengers of surface vehicles; eye and face protection is not covered. Tests to be conducted are set out in detail (impact attenuation, penetration resistance, and strength of the retention system and its attachment).
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, USA, 1971. 11p.

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