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  • Risk evaluation


CIS 81-1214 Ernst W., Teichert P.
Test methods for the safe control of chemical reactions
Prüfmethoden zur sicheren Führung chemischer Reaktionen [en alemán]
Adequate evaluation of the thermal-explosion hazard of a chemical reaction is not feasible since general rules and guidelines cannot be established. Reviewed are test methods devised by the Federal Institute of Materials Testing and the chemical industry in the Federal Republic of Germany to collect data to evaluate the explosion hazard and draw up measures to monitor chemical processes in industry. The test methods cover: combustibility, ignition temperature, explosivity characteristics, exothermic reactions, spontaneous combustion, energy consumption and release, spontaneous heating, amount of heat released by a reaction and reaction duration. Illustrated description of the test apparatus. A French translation (partial) may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.524-531. Illus.

CIS 81-1314
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Employment and Social Affairs, Health and Safety Directorate
Industrial health and safety.
Report of this workshop (Luxembourg, 18-19 Sep. 1979) organised by the CEC with the participation of the ILO, and full text of working papers submitted: setting up of an International Occupational Safety and Health Hazard Alert System; the NIOSH current intelligence system: an OSH hazard alerting system; OSH alerts in the USA; functioning of a pharmaco-vigilance system: the Belgian example; possible role of anti-poison centres in hazard alert systems; possible influence of hazard alert systems in the development of controls for chemicals - selected case histories; early warning information system for the monitoring of potential industrial hazards; hazard alert systems - developments in Italy.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, B.P. 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1980. 154p. 20 ref. Price: Ł7.50, US$18.00.

CIS 81-808 Stern R.M.
Criteria for assessment of potential hazards to welders' health
The inherent difficulties of attempts at quantitative risk assessments due to the complexity of the welding environment are discussed: confounding factors in risk assessment (variation in human susceptibility, identification of unexposed cohorts, identification of exposed cohorts and positive controls, synergism and antisynergism (tobacco smoke, nitrogen oxides, ozone, oxidant gases), asbestos); extrapolation of in vivo and in vitro toxicity studies to humans; dependence of risk prediction on type of model used. In view of the unique nature of the mixture of substances encountered, there is a need for risk assessment techniques and protocols for use in the welding trades. At the present time, it is almost impossible to determine the individual or collective risk in welding.
Danish Welding Institute, Park Allé 345, 2600 Glostrup, Křbenhavn, Denmark, 1980. 28p. 62 ref.

CIS 81-674 Veit I.
Effects of ultrasound on hearing - Roundup of the state of the art
Wirkung von Ultraschall auf das Gehör - Bestandsaufnahme [en alemán]
Roundup consisting of a literature survey, a review of workplaces where there are high levels of exposure to ultrasound, and considerations on the necessity to draft regulations for permissible exposure levels to ultrasound. Introduction: brief roundup of present knowledge; theoretical principles to be considered. Analysis by data processing does not appear to give conclusive results on the question of possible hearing damage due to ultrasound, so it is too soon to draft a directive on this subject. The report ends with a list of required preliminary research projects.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 61p. Illus. 110 ref. Price: DM.14.50.

CIS 81-714 Luckritz R.T., Schneider A.L.
Decision making in hazardous materials transportation.
Among the many methods of risk analysis/risk assessment to make effective judgments of the safety of the movement of particular cargoes, 2 tools to determine the hazard presented by a large quantity of hazardous materials are examined: the "equivalent safety concept" (ESC) (Danahy and Gathy) and the "population vulnerability model" (PMV) developed by Environ Control. Inc. ESC is a noncomputer technique that develops indexes for ship cargo hazard, vessel design, and port safety. PVM is a computer simulation of a cargo spill integrated with census data. Damage to life and property are calculated using the census data and the cargo properties to determine the number of deaths and injuries to personnel and financial loss from cargo release. The results and relative hazards calculated using these techniques are compared and analysed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1980, Vol.4, No.2, p.129-143.

CIS 81-411 Tubiana M.
Hazards of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation
Les risques causés par une exposition ŕ de faibles doses de rayonnements ionisants. [en francés]
The effects of low doses of ionising radiation on man can be studied only epidemiologically, and past results have been contradictory and inconvenient, since the doses are too low to be detectable. The hazard must be evaluated indirectly by extrapolation from the known effects of high doses. This requires a knowledge of the relations between dose and effect: hypotheses are formulated for different types of radiation in the form of linear or curvilinear relations.
Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine, 1980, Vol.164, No.3, p.270-275. 25 ref.

CIS 81-572 Pilz V.
Determination of hazard and safety analysis in chemical engineering
Risikoermittlung und Sicherheitsanalysen in der chemischen Technik [en alemán]
Definition of technical hazards and their evaluation; description of 2 hazard analysis methods (theoretical analysis method and empirical method) and their respective advantages in chemical installations. Neither method gives more than a mere estimation of the hazard, and only the empirical method is trustworthy. The theoretical analysis method is justified only in the case of new technology. Use of safety analysis is now well established in the chemical industry, and has resulted in a low incidence of occupational accidents (1% of total risk).
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Sep. 1980, Vol.52, No.9, p.703-711. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 81-308 Babneev A.D., Zapol'skij Ju.M., Beljankin V.I.
Fire and explosion hazards in handling and processing of powdery bulk materials
O požarovzryvoopasnosti proizvodstv, svajazannyh s pererabotkoj pyljaščih materialov [en ruso]
Description of a method developed to evaluate explosion and fire hazards in the manufacture and conversion of artificial leather and plastic film. The method is based on: determination of the quantity of dust deposited on various surfaces; establishment of the necessary coefficients for calculating the total quantity of flammable dust present in the work premises; and measurement of airborne dust levels. The method can be used in other industries.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Feb. 1980, No.20, p.37-40. 3 ref.

CIS 81-19 Kovalev P.V., Kovalev A.P.
Problems of the use of electric energy in mines
Nekotorye voprosy primenenija ėlektričeskoj energii v šahtah [en ruso]
Variants of an analysis to evaluate te probability of accidental triggering of an explosion in gassy mines when electrical equipment is used are presented.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.47-48. Illus.

CIS 81-240 Fitt J.S.
Sizing up process plant hazards.
This article describes modifications of hazard and operability studies to identify potential hazards at the design stage, to find methods less demanding of skilled manpower. Description of the Imperial Chemical Industries "Hazop" system, in which the documentation is examined by a team of experienced people, of whom at least one should be skilled in hazard analysis and at least another should have detailed knowledge of the process. A small section of the plant is considered at a time, and for each section every possible deviation from the normal operating condition is considered and its consequence evaluated. Check lists and question forms are reproduced, and an example of a hazard study for a reactor temperature control system is given (method, major hazards, failure of equipment, failure of utilities, maloperation, recommendations).
Health and Safety at Work, July 1980, Vol.2, No.11, p.54-57. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 80-1297 Solomon K.A., Abraham S.C.
The index of harm: A useful measure for comparing occupational risk across industries.
Six occupational hazards - non-radiological (death, accidental injury, disease) and radiological (somatic, genetic, pregnancy) - are examined. The computation of the index harm, and the simplifying data assumptions made, are explained. Radiological workers exposed to the industry average of 0.35rem/year are among the safest of all industry groups. The riskiest industries appear to be mining; agriculture, fishing and farming; construction; transportation; and manufacturing, in that order.
Health Physics, Mar. 1980, Vol.38, No.3, p.375-391. 19 ref.


CIS 83-2069 De Cicco F., Fantazzini M.L.
Introduction to system safety engineering
Introduçăo ŕ engenharia de segurança de sistemas [en portugués]
This textbook treatment of accident prevention includes: the history of prevention as a science; definitions; a description of the system safety programme; mathematical fundamentals; the workplace as a system and as a set of subsystems; risk analysis; techniques of analysis (including failure analysis); loss control.
Fundacentro, Al. Barăo de Limeira, 539 - CEP 01202, Săo Paulo (SP), Brazil, Caixa Postal 30291, 1979. 113p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 81-1446 Occupational injuries in the general building and heavy construction industries.
A study of existing Federal and State regulations and an evaluation of the magnitude of safety problems based on accident data and case records for the period 1972 to 1976 were used to identify significant hazards and as a basis for recommendations to reduce accidents. Recommendations are made for revised regulations and the promulgation of standards in: education and training; protective headgear; medical screening; scaffolding; safety nets.
Contract No.210-77-0032. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA, May 1979. 91p. 16 ref.

CIS 81-65 Plundrich J.
Model for mathematical prediction of occupational noise-induced hearing loss
Modell zur Vorausberechnung des Gehörschadensrisikos infolge Lärmeinwirkung am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
A model of the average hearing loss based on a test frequency of 4Hz and a normal audiogram, taking account of the overall A-weighted sound pressure level, the duration of exposure, and the age of the subject, is presented. The standard deviation of the hearing loss can be estimated on the basis of empirical data from a non-representative random sample. Given a normal distribution of hearing loss (without correction for age), it is possible to evaluate the hearing damage risk according to IS0 or other criteria and to establish the frequency of preventive examinations accordingly.
Informationen für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitshygiene, Oct. 1979, Vol.15, No.3, p.95-99. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 80-1503 Häkkinen K., Lahtinen K.
Research methods of occupational safety in-plant transport and plate handling in the metal industry
Sisäisten kuljetusten työturvallisuuden tutkimusmenetelmät ja levyjen käsittely metalliteollisuudessa [en finlandés]
Survey of methods for studying the safety of transport, handling and storage of metal plates. Aspects considered: the worker, equipment, materials and working space. Movements were studied by process flow models, material flow models, accident reports, causality models and accident cause theories, taking into consideration all factors and conditions which might lead to accident situations. Several examples of accident surveys and of hazard analyses (e.g. failure mode and effect analysis and fault-tree analysis of a magnetic lifter) are given. Photographic methods were used to study crane collision hazards and the hazard of a free-hanging crane load. The survey covered: a steelworks (steel-plate cutting, packing, strapping, transport and loading); lifting plate stacks with plate hooks on to ships; shipbuilding (lifting equipment, gas cutting, manual lifting, hand cuts due to sharp sheet edges).
Tutkimuksia 157/1979, Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1979. 100p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: Fmk.25.00.

CIS 80-1502 Klen T., Verho E.
Clamps in plate handling
Levyjen käsittely tarraimilla [en finlandés]
Literature survey of basic types of lifting tongs and clamps for steel plate handling and test reports on 9 clamps with capacities from 0.15 to 2.5Mp with some examples of accidents which have occurred with this equipment. Considered are: pressing force produced by various devices; friction between load and clamp surfaces; gripping force/tensile load ratio of screw pressure clamps (sheet grabs). Factors affecting clamp safety in a vertical lift were determined by fault-tree analysis, and causes of slipping are considered (incorrect use, faulty design or assembly, poor maintenance, inadequate inspection, environmental changes, variation of friction conditions due to lateral forces). Lubrication had no effect on gripping safety, but one clamp with rubber-coated jaws was found unsafe.
Tutkimuksia 158/1979, Työterveyslaitos, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1979. 71p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00

CIS 80-896 Toye D., Thibeau J., De Caumia-Baillenx J.F.
Approach to occupational accidents and analysis methods
Mode d'approche de l'accident du travail et méthodes d'analyse. [en francés]
All occupational accidents can be attributed to an inadequacy of the man-machine system, i.e. a dangerous condition causing physical or mental stress. This can be countered by separating the elements of the system. Two hazard detection methods can be used: retrospective analysis of accidents (fault tree) and workplace analysis (systematic search for hazards). For economic reasons there should be an order of priorities among the risks to be prevented. A detailed scheme for detection of hazards by workplace studies is given: the machine and its environment; the work itself; ergonomic factors.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Sep. 1979, Vol.16, No.3, p.247-260. Illus.

CIS 80-520 Blignaut C.J.H.
The perception of hazard - The contribution of signal detection to hazard perception.
The ability of workers to discriminate visually between dangerous and safe rock conditions in deep-level gold mines was examined. A training programme was developed in which stimuli were presented with the aid of stereoscopic slides to provide 3-dimensional views of loose rock and of surfaces on which there were no pieces of loose rock, and the responses analysed in terms of the theory of signal detection (McNicol). Underground experience and training significantly improves the ability of mine workers to discriminate between dangerous and safe rock.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1979, Vol.22, No.11, p.1177-1183. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 80-391 Asztély J.
Evaluation of impulse noise - Preliminary study
Utvärdering av impulsbuller - En förstudie [en sueco]
Literature survey of the state of the art concerning the evaluation of hearing damage hazard due to exposure to impulse noise (using equivalent continuous noise). Results of measurements made during arc welding operations with different methods for evaluating impulse noise; the results show that face shields worn by welders give efficient protection from impulse noise (energy mainly concentrated in the 1,000-8,000Hz frequencies).
Undersökningsrapport 1979:22, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 17184 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 21p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Swe-cr.10.00.

CIS 79-1948 Znojemská S., Janečková V., Pekárek J.
Experimental evaluation of sensitising properties of new chemicals
Experimentální hodnocení senzibilizačních vlastností nových chemických látek [en checo]
Comparative studies of various methods in 1,200 guinea pigs are reported: maximisation test of Magnusson and Kligman, Maguire's test; Alexeyeva's test, single injection into paw, and repeated sacrification conducted with 5 known and 5 new substances. The allergic nature of the skin reactions was verified by macrophage migration inhibition tests. The best results were obtained with Magnusson's and Alexeyeva's methods. For new substances, tests in 20-25 animals are recommended, using 2 types of tests at least one of which would be a patch test.
Pracovní lékařství, July 1979, Vol.31, No.6-7, p.218-222. 17 ref.

CIS 79-1797 Rinefort F.C.
The economics of safety.
A literature survey of general studies on accident cost and prevention. Topics discussed are valuation of human life (US-$176.000-US-$260.000 according to one study); effects of workmen's compensation insurance; wage differentials depending on hazards involved in a job; government intervention (effectiveness of new laws and penalties); qualitative study (effectiveness of safety programmes, motivation studies); cost-benefit approaches. More research on a number of questions in these areas is needed.
Professional Safety, July 1979, VOl.24, No.7, p.44-47. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 79-1530 Collacott R.A.
Hazard criticality analysis.
Introduction, in the form of a literature survey, to a method of analysis enabling designers to predict the critical areas which may cause major reliability problems: preparation of the analysis to establish ground rules, system description, potential failure mode analysis, criticality categorisation, loss frequency probability and critical item list. A typical criticality analysis, a safety analysis and a fault-tree analysis are described, followed by considerations on systematic fault finding, failure assessment and data collection.
Engineering, June 1979, p.791-796. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 79-1591 Stern R.M.
Detecting a possible increase in cancer risk for welders.
This literature survey describes epidemiologic and possible prospective studies in man and animals. The long induction period until detection and the dose-response relation of welding fumes and diseases are pointed out. Study design criteria and interpretation of results are discussed and illustrated by examples of exposure to chromium(VI) and nickel. Needs, design and relevance of predictive studies are evaluated. A recommended test protocol would include choice of welding procedure that has high carcinogenic potency, specific morphology of the fumes and possible synergistic effects, and then carcinogenicity/toxicity studies on suitable animals.
Svejsecentralen (Danish Welding Institute), Park Allé 345, DK-2600 Glostrup, Křbenhavn,Denmark, 1979. 35p. 70 ref.

CIS 79-1237 Deviation analysis - Why? When? How?
Storingsanalyse - Waarom? Wanneer? Hoe? [en holandés]
An introduction setting out the purpose of this analysis and its place in a safety study is followed by definitions and chapters on: programming safety studies; planning and organisation of deviation analysis; information required concerning the production process and plant; analysis method (detection of deviations and their causes, use of guide words such as NOT, NO, MORE, LESS, etc.). Appended: 3 examples (in English) showing the application of this method to a continuous production plant, to a batch production plant and to a sterilisation autoclave. Each example gives a description of the process, illustrated by the corresponding flowsheet or plan, with a list of possible deviations shown in tabular form with the corresponding guide words, possible causes, consequences and action required.
R No.3, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Balen van Andelplein 2, 2273 KH Voorburg, Netherlands, 1979. 43p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 79-1156 Van Leeuwen C.J.
Hazard analysis, not only for the chemical industry
Risico-analyse, niet alléén voor de chemische industrie [en holandés]
Description of a method of hazard analysis which is ascribed universal application to many safety problems. It is based on the theory of logic circuits, using the AND, OR and inverter gates. A distinction is drawn between hazards intrinsic to the system, hazards due to peripheral systems and hazards extrinsic to the system. Examples of application are given.
De veiligheid, Mar. 1979, Vol. 55, No.3, p.119-124. Illus.

CIS 79-833 Morrissette M.D.
Hazard evaluation of chemicals for bulk marine shipment.
The chemicals transported in tank ships range in properties from essentially harmless to highly hazardous (human health hazards, flammability and reactivity hazards and flammable properties are considered). Although the USA and Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) require certain minimum data before classifying a new chemical to be transported in bulk, no formal system exists to correlate these data with specific shipboard requirements such as the location of the tank within the vessel, gauging and venting systems, or cargo overfill protection. Developing guidelines for the evaluation of chemicals is a two part problem. First, the inherent hazards of a chemical (the hazards of a product when it is released, without regard to the way it is stored as cargo) must be investigated. In the second part of the evaluation, these hazards are then correlated with specific shipboard requirements as mentioned above. This paper outlines the essential elements for developing a comprehensive system of hazard evaluation for bulk liquid chemicals.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1979, Vol.3, No.1, p.33-48. 10 ref.


CIS 79-1747 Zimolong B., Kirchner J.H., Obermeier U., Uckermann R.
Assessment of hazards in shunting
Gefährdungseinschätzung beim Rangieren [en alemán]
The study, which forms part of the final report on the survey concerning railway shunting accident prevention (CIS 79-1746), is devoted to the subjective assessment of hazards to which shunting personnel are exposed. This subjective assessment may be compared with the objective hazards involved, and a comparison of these 2 factors enables differences to be brought to light and information to be obtained on activities involving dangers which are under-estimated. Description of personnel training methods to eliminate hazards due to human behaviour.
Forschungsbericht Nr. 194, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 59p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: DM.13.50.

CIS 79-1578 Liénard P.
Decibels and noise indices - Methods of sound level evaluation, nuisance and harmful effects of noise based on physical measurements
Décibels et indices de bruit - Diverses méthodes d'évaluation des niveaux sonores, gęne et nuisance dues au bruit ŕ partir de mesures physiques. [en francés]
(For the first edition of the monograph, see CIS 75-972). Contents: physical measurements (sound pressure and intensity levels; sound pressure levels in relation to frequency band; sound power; other parameters); so-called subjective criteria (equal loudness curves; A, B, and C weightings; phons and sones; Stevens' and Zwicker's methods); evaluation of annoyance or harmful effects of continuous noise (PNdB and its approximations, dBD, dBN; comparison with standard spectra; dangerous noise levels for continuous exposure; speech interference effect; Stevens' phones Mark VII, PLdB); comparison of evaluation methods for continuous noise; influence of duration and other factors; comparison of annoyance indices.
Editions Masson et Cie, 20 Boulevard Saint Germain, Paris, France, 2nd edition, 1978. 53p. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 79-453 Ryer F.H.
Air pollution exposures to five target health hazards.
A programme established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1972 to study the hazards of asbestos, carbon monoxide, cotton dust, lead and silica, to control them and prevent hazards in their use is reported. 6,000 inspections were performed, involving 125,000 workers. Outlines are given of the present and proposed OSHA standards for these hazards. The National Emphasis Programme, which has been set up to improve earlier OSHA programmes, is briefly described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1978, Vol.39, No.11, p.928-931. Illus.

CIS 79-448 Greim H., Göggelmann W., Wolff T., Fahrig R., Norpoth K., Bartsch H., Oesch F., Richter-Reichhelm H.B., Emura M., Ellenberger J., Mohn G.R., Seemayer N., Marquardt H.
In vitro tests and carcinogenicity
In-vitro-Tests und Cancerogenität [en alemán]
Papers presented to the special meeting of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) held on 29-30 Sep. 1977 in Hanover, bringing together eminent specialists. Subjects dealt with: experience with in vitro test systems for detection of mutagenic substances; usefulness of mutagenicity tests (host-mediated assay, mammalian spot test) as an early cancer test; quality control in microbiological mutagenicity tests; carcinogenic activity and biological effects in short-term tests (in English); influence of enzyme patterns on mutagenic effects of carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons (in English); toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene in guinea-pig lung cell and treachea cultures; Escherichia coli as an mutagenicity indicator; hamster renal cell transformation; chemical oncogenesis; mammalian cell culture studies (in English).
Staub, June 1978, Vol.38, No.6, p.227-266. Illus. 261 ref.

CIS 78-2069 Dumaine J.
Ergonomics in the undertaking - Participatory ergonomics - Specialist ergonomics
L'ergonomie dans l'entreprise - Ergonomie participative - Ergonomie de spécialiste. [en francés]
Schematic breakdown of the work situation designed to alert technical personnel to the sense and importance of ergonomics. Analysis, with simple diagrams, of the factors involved (individual, equipment, task, time, environment, interrelations between operators, nuisance or hazard factors close by, organisational element, spatial situation, chronobiological dephasing); ergonomic anomalies related to these factors, with possible remedies. Description of 2 methods permitting detection of anomalies in the work situation and facilitating their solution: participatory ergonomics, which makes use of safety and health committees and the work teams as such (role of dynamic audiovisual techniques) and specialist ergonomics.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1978, Vol.18, No.70, p.5-14. Illus.

CIS 78-1465 Collins J.F., Redmond C.K.
The use of retirees to evaluate occupational hazards (I)- Comparison of cause specific mortality by work area (II).
Part I discussed the reasons for using a retiree population for occupational mortality studies rather than a total working cohort and compared the results of mortality studies among the total cohort of workers and retirees in 3 work areas of the steel industry. Major findings were: retiree studies detect occupational hazards such as respiratory cancer and non-malignant respiratory diseases; they do not indicate significant excess deaths from certain diseases occurring at a younger age; there was a larger difference between estimates based on retirees and on the total cohort than between all men aged over 65 years (65+) and the total cohort. Part II makes this comparison for blast furnace workers, janitors, and coke plant workers. Results: as a whole, retirees had lower, and 65+ workers higher, mortality rates than the general population; mortality patterns and relative risks for all disease categories considered were similar in 65+ and retired workers; study of retirees in the coke plant detected the lung cancer hazard.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1976, Vol.18, No.9, p.595-602; Apr. 1978, Vol.20, No.4, p.260-266. 41 ref.


CIS 80-552 Incidents in the chemical industry
Der Störfall im chemischen Betrieb [en alemán]
German translation of: A guide to hazard and operability studies, 1977. Chemical Industry Safety and Health Council of the Chemical Industries Association, Alembic House, 93 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TU, United Kingdom. A method for incident prevention based on forecasting, cause detection, assessment of effects, and precautions, is presented. Systematic and critical analysis of the technical features and design of new equipment allows the possible hazards due to errors or faulty operation and the resulting effects to be assessed. The control principles are set out (basic concept, definitions, model example, use of keywords) with the different phases of execution: definition of the problem, composition of control team, evaluation of results, report. Advice is given on control in the phases of starting up the plant. Appendices: glossary, practical applications, training and introduction to the method.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 6900 Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, no date. 54p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: DM.2.50.

CIS 78-1351 Garnier R., Efthymiou M.L., Raix A., Proteau J., Fredy M., Lebon F.
Occupational hazards of toxic substances in research laboratories - Survey of a population of 2,010
Les risques professionnels toxiques en laboratoire de recherche - Bilan sur 2.010 sujets. [en francés]
This survey of poisoning hazards in university research laboratories (Université de Paris VII) shows the extent of the chemical hazards from quite ordinary and frequently-used substances, the wide variety of hazards due to the juxtaposition of different laboratories, the existence of hazards due to the way universities are run (for instance, many of the laws and regulations concerning occupational safety and health do not apply in university laboratories), insufficient awareness of the hazards among research workers, and the necessity for appropriate legislation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1977, Vol.38, No.12, p.1020-1026.

CIS 78-898 Canada J.R., Ayoub M.A.
The economics of safety - A review of the literature and perspective.
A broad cross-section of approaches for economic decision analyses is summarised. Techniques for analysing the economics of safety problems are explained. Systems analysis, expected outcome and decision analysis approaches are discussed along with computer programmes for computation of decision analysis problems. The fault tree and cost-benefit analysis and mathematical modelling approaches are also outlined. An analysis of a machine noise reduction programme from 115 to 90dBA with 24 possible alternatives is illustrated; the cost was $5,500 and further reduction of 4dBA could be obtained for an added $300. The calculation of number and time between safety inspections is also shown. In this case, the solution was one inspection per month at a cost of $26,000 per year.
Professional Safety, Dec. 1977, Vol.22, No.12, p.31-38. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 78-597 Faverge J.M.
Occupational safety in the light of risk factors
Analyse de la sécurité du travail en termes de facteurs de risque. [en francés]
Accident epidemiology aims at determining the factors associated with an increased risk. Here accidents are considered in which the situation involves: one or more individuals, tasks, machines or items of production equipment, and the environment. Eight factors are proposed in which one of these elements is dominant. For each, there are a definition, examples and, if applicable, sub-factors, references to studies indicating the hazard associated with the factor, one or more mechanisms of action, proposals for quantitative assessment for epidemiological statistics, preventive measures. The factors are: individual disposition or accident-proneness; inexperience; stress; recovery, where an exceptional effort is made to redress a situation or make good a delay; catachresis, in which equipment is used in a way for which it was not intended; deterioration of equipment; interference between partially independent processes; lack of information on the state of the system.
Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, 3rd quarter 1977, Vol.25, No.3, p.229-241. 19 ref.

CIS 78-294 10th International TNO Conference - Risk analysis: industry, government and society.
In his opening address the Chairman of the Conference drew a parallel between the assessment of new technologies and analysis of the hazards they involve (risk analysis); this analysis should never be the sole responsibility of scientists and technologists, being a subject particularly suited to an integrated approach by natural and social sciences. Papers were presented on the following subjects: present status of risk assessment; reliability and availability of safety devices; risk analysis and risk improvement in industry; application of risk analysis to environmental protection; loss prevention in the process industries; managerial aspects of risk analysis - the contribution of the expert to the prevention of disasters; risk assessment of a liquefied natural gas terminal; etc.
Netherlands Central Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 297, Den Haag, Netherlands, 1977. 133p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 78-134 Mattern I.E.
The Ames test, a rapid early screening method for mutagenic and carcinogenic substances
De Ames-test, een snelle pre-screeningsmethode voor mutagene en carcinogene stoffen [en holandés]
Description of a test for the early detection of the triggering of mutation processes in bacteria due to chemical compounds. Before being tested the substances undergo metabolic activation of mammalian microsomal enzymes (liver homogenate). The results obtained in using this simple and rapid test on the effects of some 300 substances showed a correlation between mutagenicity and mammalian carcinogenicity.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 23 Feb. 1977, Vol.55, No.4, p.136-139. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-283 Holme I., Helgeland A., Hjermann I., Leren P., Lund-Larsen P.G.
Coronary risk factors in various occupational groups: The Oslo study.
Coronary risk factors (CRF) were recorded for some 15,000 men agd 40-49 years in Oslo. There was fairly good agreement between mortality statistics for Norway and CRF in many occupations: for example, teachers have low CRF and mortality rates, while motor vehicle drivers have high mortality rates from lung cancer and coronary heart disease consistent with their smoking habits, serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Results for 43 occupational groups are tabulated.
British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 1977, Vol.31, No.2, p.96-100. 7 ref.


CIS 78-1447 Lawley H.G.
Size up plant hazards this way.
This article proposes a method for searching systematically for every conceivable deviation from the norm involving potential hazards in hydrocarbon processing plants. The technique is based on a checklist of guide words for generation of deviations (possible causes; process deviation; possible consequences - hazard, operating problem or trivial incident). The article considers: principles of the method; cause and effect; planning the study, procedure, analysis, evaluation of problems, action to be taken, study team work and leadership; mandatory checks and continuous studies. Example: operability and hazard study of a proposed ethylene oxide feed system for batch reactors (tables, with checklist of guide words, causes, consequences, action, and diagram).
Hydrocarbon Processing, Imperial Chemical Industries, Petrochemicals Division, Safety and Loss Prevention Group, Wilton, Middlesborough, Cleveland TS6 8JE, United Kingdom, 1976. 9p. Illus. 2 ref. Gratis. Offprint from London, United Kingdom, Apr. 1976, Vol.55, No.4, p.247.

CIS 78-352
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin der DDR, Berlin.
Dust disc
Staubscheibe [en alemán]
This disc, which consists of a circular card with, on each side, a smaller concentric disc with windows, serves as a rough guide to the magnitude of the dust hazard in a plant. The type of dust (arranged around the periphery of the larger disc) is set against a mark and the windows then show information on the properties, dust sources, exposure limits (TLV and short-term exposure), and quartz content of the dust in question. Values are given for 32 common dusts, including limestone, marble, quartzite, sandstone, clay, enamel, cement, glass fibre, corundum, porcelain.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1976. Price: M.3.50.

CIS 78-227 Guidelines for risk evaluation and loss prevention in chemical plants.
Methods are outlined for programmes to increase safety by application of accident, fire and explosion prevention principles. The purpose and factors involved in risk evaluation are given; loss estimation procedures and a worksheet are shown. The reasons for and kind and organisation of loss prevention reviews are described. Loss prevention check lists are included.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington D.C. 20009, USA, 1976. 21p. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 77-1904 Shiney D.H., Marshall W.J., Del Valle P.F., Franks J.K., Lyon T.L., Krial N.P.
Laser Microwave Division, U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010.
Laser hazard classification guide.
This guide provides a listing of all commercial lasers available in the USA, together with their technical specifications (active medium, wavelength, output, etc.) and hazard classification in 4 classes. Some 2,500 models from over 170 manufacturers and distributors are included. The hazard classification is based on a scheme which has been adopted for the proposed Federal standard concerning occupational exposure to laser radiation. The procedure followed in compiling the guide is described.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-183, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 206p. 4 ref.

CIS 77-1789 Goldsmith J.R., Hirschberg D.A.
Mortality and industrial employment - I. Mortality during 1965-72 among those employed in 1965 and covered by social security - Preliminary report. II. Industries with high mortality among young workers based on a social security sample.
Part I (included under CIS 76-1482) shows how the statistics for mortality studies are already available from data collected for other purposes, and presents information on a sample of social security recipients. Among the industrial populations tabulated, young workers showed significantly elevated standard mortality ratios in a few cases. In Part II, these industries are examined to find the groups in which the mortality of young workers is high. This was the case in agricultural production, metal mining, real estate, military and reserves, miscellaneous business services, and eating and drinking establishments.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1976, Vol.18, No.3, p.161-164; Apr. 1977, Vol.19, No.4, p.249-254. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 77-1009 Cohen S.C., Kinsman S., Maccabee H.D.
Evaluation of occupational hazards from industrial radiation: A survey of selected states.
Potential hazards were studied from X-rays, radium and accelerators used in non-destructive testing, level gauges, instrument calibration, flow gauges, luminising, semiconductor manufacture, etc. The data came from records of 10 states and a commercial personnel dosimetry service, and the analysis covered reported incidents, inspections and citations for violations of regulations and radiation exposures over several years. Operator errors were the most frequent cause of accidents. The mean whole body exposure from X-ray sources was less than one-half of, while that of radium source exposure of workers was about the same as, exposure of workers in nuclear reactors. There were no extraordinary occupational hazards from these sources. Recommendations are made covering accurate and uniform reporting, training manuals, inspection without advance notice and research on unreported incidents.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-142, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1976. 82p. 20 ref.

CIS 76-1907 Winell M.
Basis for the evaluation of carcinogenic effects - I. Some aromatic amines
Underlag för utvärdering av carcinogena effekter - 1. Nĺgra aromatiska aminer [en sueco]
A literature survey on 4-aminobiphenyl, auramine, benzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluene, dianisidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, p-phenylenediamine, methylenebis(o-chloroaniline), 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine, and o-tolidine. Chemical and physical properties, uses, acute toxicity, carcinogenic effects on animals and humans and metabolism are discussed.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen - Undersökningsrapport AMMT 001/76, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1976. 64p. Illus. 143 ref.

CIS 76-1258 Enterline P.E.
Estimating health risks in studies of the health effects of asbestos.
A review of 11 studies of asbestos-induced cancer from the literature yielded estimates for the relative risk ratio ranging from 1.2 to 9.2. The author identifies a number of features likely to account for this variation (latency period, population studied, use of data from uncorrected death certificates, unknown level and duration of exposure). The results of 6 studies were corrected as far as possible, after which much of the variation was found to disappear.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1976, Vol.113, No.2, p.175-180. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 76-1482 Epidemiological study of occupational mortality.
All the articles in this issue are concerned with methodological problems encountered in epidemiological studies, with emphasis on interpretation of the standardised mortality ratio (SMR), proportionate mortality ratio (PMR), etc., as a measure of relative risk. Based on papers presented at the annual meeting of the American Occupational Medical Association, 17 Apr. 1975, they are briefly introduced by Lloyd J.W., guest editor. Aspects dealt with are: the asbestos literature (Enterline P.E.), a critique of the SMR (Gaffey W.R.), mortality in industry (Goldsmith J.R., Hirschberg D.A.), the "healthy worker effect" (McMichael A.J.), problems of study design and interpretation (Chiazze L.), determinants of mortality (Ott M.G., Holder B.B., Langner R.R.), relationship to specific jobs among rubber workers (McMichael A.J., Spirtas R., Gamble J.F., Tousey P.M.)*, talc miners and millers (Rubino G.F., Scansetti G., Piolatto G., Romano C.A.)*, and chloromethyl ethers, cigarettes, cough and cancer (Weiss W.)*. *Abstracted elsewhere in this number.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1976 (special issue), Vol.18, No.3, p.149-199. 132 ref.


CIS 76-712 Schulte H.F.
Plutonium: Assessment of the occupational environment.
The author summarises the information available, stresses the difficulties involved in assessing the hazard of plutonium inhalation by workers and sets out a number of tentative conclusions. Evaluation of this hazard requires careful interpretation of all pertinent data resulting from 2 series of basic measurements: (1) measurements of plutonium air concentration, supplemented by particle size determination and estimates of duration of exposure; and (2) measurements on the workers such as urine assay and chest counting.
Health Physics, Oct. 1975, Vol.29, No.4, p.613-618. 33 ref.

CIS 75-2095 Hazard analysis - Theory and practice
Gefährdungsanalyse: Theorie - Praxis [en alemán]
A large part of this brochure is devoted to the basic principles in analysing potential hazards of a work system: criteria for direct (by inspection) or indirect (by accident analysis) determination of hazards; hazard analysis within the system; labour statistics; appraisal of success of safety measures and comparison of actual and desired situation; determination of measures to be taken and checking their implementation. Total hazard analysis is considered to be an information medium for a given job and may be used for initiation of newly recruited staff and periodic staff retraining. A practical example of hazard analysis of a welding unit is given in Part 2. The analysis is based on a number of questionnaires: the various stages of the analysis, analyst team, description of work system, assessment of success or failure of safety measures, accident analysis, elements of the system, objectives aimed at and actual achievements, supervision of implementation of safety measures.
Schriftenreihe Arbeitssicherheit, Industriegewerkschaft Metall, Nr.16, Wilhelm-Leuschner-Strasse 89, 6 Frankfurt am Main, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Feb. 1975. 48p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 75-1797 Leutscher A., Schipper P.G., Schwarz J.J., Snellink G., Balemans A.W.M.
Hazard analysis
Risiko-analyse [en holandés]
Series of 5 articles on the following subjects: hazard analysis (definition and procedure); social acceptance of technical hazards (comparative study of various hazards, hazards as a consequence of technological progress, recent efforts of standardisation); hazard analysis of a mercaptan production plant (admissible hazard, nuisances, annoyance caused by bad smells, hazard evaluation under stationary and non-stationary process conditions); hazards during transport, transfer and storage of liquefied natural gas; conclusions of the "check-list committee" set up to draft directives for the Netherlands manufacturing industries.
TNO-Project, Jan. 1975, Vol.3, No.1, p.4-31. Illus. 43 ref.

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