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  • Risk evaluation

1983

CIS 84-705 Strategy of monitoring for chemical contaminants in the environment
Strategi vid undersökning av kemiska miljöfaktorer [en sueco]
This report covers: choice of strategy (trends, legislation and TLVs; future developments; main tasks of the administration); principles of workplace monitoring (survey, hazard evaluation, environmental monitoring); investigation strategy (monitoring, data collection, in-depth studies, preventive measures); future philosophy of exposure measurements; choice of measuring techniques and of representative substances to be measured; measuring methods; sampling frequency; interpretation of results. The appendix contains: glossary; suggestions for research projects (optimisation of sampling for chemical contaminants in air; significance of sampling locations for accuracy of measurement; simplified monitoring of the workplace; emission measurements; measurement techniques for emission and by-product monitoring; standardised workplaces; emission measurement at fixed points or at a distance; OSH measurement data-bases); literature survey; significant Swedish initiatives.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Dec. 1983. 65p. 19 ref.

CIS 84-416 Picot A.
Hazards linked to the manipulation of carcinogens - A. Principal carcinogenic (or potentially carcinogenic) substances used in laboratories
Risques liés à la manipulation des produits cancérogènes. A. Principaux produits cancérogènes (ou potentiellement cancérogènes) utilisés dans les laboratoires [en francés]
A survey of carcinogens (defined as substances having mutagenic as well as cancer-promoting effects) - schematic diagrams, identification methods of chemical carcinogens (epidemiological studies, animal experiments, quick detection methods), classification of carcinogens. Review of the principal families of carcinogenic compounds: aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated derivatives, heterocyclic compounds with 3 atoms, aromatic amines, hydrazins and their derivatives, N-nitroso derivatives, alkyl sulfates, alkyl sulfonates, inorganic compounds. The possible relation between chemical structure and carcinogenicity is studied. This relation must be considered when evaluating the health risks involved in the manipulation of chemical substances, and when implementing preventive measures.
Actualité chimique, Mar. 1983, p.25-40. Illus. 137 ref.

CIS 83-1843 Armbruster L., Breuer H., Reisner M.
Measurement and evaluation of coalmine dust in terms of its pathological effects
Wirkungsbezogene Messung und Bewertung des Staubes im Steinkohlenbergbau [en alemán]
In the 1950s, dust exposure levels for mines were determined on the basis of the statistical properties of dusts and their relation to length of exposure and pulmonary changes. Further studies along these lines have concerned the effect of dust particle size on the inhalation of dust and its deposition in the respiratory tract. The properties of gravimetric dust samplers correspond only partly to the process of alveolar deposition. Epidemiological studies have not yet provided measurements to prove that quartz in mine dust has a determining role in the development of pneumoconiosis. Biological studies of the effect of quartz show that the specific deleterious effects of mine dusts should be evaluated in terms of the "free" surface of a given dust and not in terms of gravimetric/granulometric parameters.
Glückauf, 1983, Vol.119, No.17, p.799-801. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1141 Stern R.M.
The management of risk: Application to the welding industry
Assessment and management of health risk in the welding industry involves an understanding of the societal and human costs of accidents, which tend to occur early in working experience, and the health effects of exposure to fumes and gases which can contribute to a reduction in quality of life. In the light of present knowledge, ranking of potential risk is difficult but situations, individuals and combinations of circumstances which can lead to excess occupational health risk can be identified.
The Danish Welding Institute, Park Allé 345, 2600 Glostrup, Købnhavn, Denmark, 1983. 28p. 47 ref.

1982

CIS 95-1844
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Principios rectores de la gestión en materia de riesgos y prevención de accidentes en la industria química
Guidelines on risk management and accident prevention in the chemical industry [en inglés]
Principes directeurs sur la gestion des risques et la prévention des accidents dans l'industrie chimique [en francés]
En este documento se proponen los principios rectores fundamentales para orientar sobre los elementos y factores importantes que pueden servir de ayuda en los momentos de valoración y toma de decisiones, con objeto de contribuir a la prevención de accidentes durante los procesos productivos de productos químicos industriales. Puntos destacados del sumario: principios generales y definiciones; identificación de las situaciones potencialmente peligrosas; estimación del peligro y de sus consecuencias; cálculo de probabilidades; cuantificación; criterios ;normas de ingeniería y guías prácticas; planes de emergencia.
Centre d'activité du programme industrie et environnement (CAP/IE), 39-43 Quai André-Citroën, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, Francia, 1985. 35p. Ilus. 13 ref.

CIS 86-811 Magrini R.O.
(SENAI (Confederação nacional da indústria))
Analysis of occupational risks - Automobile repair
Análise de riscos do trabalho - Mecânica de automóveis [en portugués]
This illustrated manual uses a very convenient tabular format to provide risk analysis of automobile repair work. The work of the automobile mechanic is broken down into 51 different tasks, each accompanied by a detailed description of the operation, the accompanying risks and the preventive measures to be applied.
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1982. 120p. Illus.

CIS 85-865 Harms-Ringdahl L.
(Occupational Accident Research Unit)
Risk analysis in design - Case study in a paper mill
Riskanalys vid projektering - Försöksverksamhet vid ett pappersbruk [en sueco]
Risk analysis was done in connection with the rebuilding of part of a paper mill. Analysis was applied to winding and other machines, and to the layout and transportation of paper rolls. The methods used were: job safety analysis, energy analysis and deviation analysis. As a result, a number of proposals were implemented, improving safety and production.
Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, Fiskårtorpsv.15, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, 1982. 102p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 85-116 A guide for hazard recognition in a health care facility
Contents of this booklet intended for hospital workers: general safety for all areas; departmental safety (food service, housekeeping, laboratory, laundry, stores, nursing, physiotherapy, offices, pharmacy, physical plant, radiology, surgical department). The major hazards are identified for each task and area of the hospital.
Hospital Occupational Health and Safety Services, Ontario Hospital Association, 150 Ferrand Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1H6, Canada, 1982. 68p.

CIS 84-1795 Steneck N.H.
Risk/benefit analysis: the microwave case
The biological effects and health hazards of exposure to microwave radiation are analysed in relation to the benefits of the technology in order to provide a basis for setting safety standards. Topics covered: definitions (variables, present and future benefits of applications, occupational safety and health practices in the USSR and Eastern Europe, opinions on costs, benefits and risks, perceived versus real risks); options and considerations for policymaking (approaches to risk assessment, consequences of application in the military field, the policymaking environment, terminology and values, standards and their implementation); scientific considerations (laboratory and courtroom).
San Francisco Press, Inc., Box 6800, San Francisco, CA 94101-6800, USA, 1982. 231p. Illus. 165 ref. Price: US$15.00.

CIS 84-1793 Wilson R., Crouch E.
Risk/benefit analysis
The problems inherent in defining, perceiving and estimating risk are discussed to provide guidance in risk analysis. Theoretical discussions are combined with actual analysis, in risk-benefit terms, of cases involving saccharin, nuclear power plants, automobile safety, radiation exposure, nuclear copper mining, mass chest radiography, skull fracture diagnosis, coronary artery surgery, and swine influenza immunisation. Risk assessment is a technical function requiring statistical analysis of data and should be separate from decision making on policy issues.
Harper & Row Europe, Noorderweg 68, 1221 AB Hilversum, Netherlands, 1982. 218p. Illus. 105 ref. Bibl. Index. Price: Glds.96.55.

CIS 84-585 Dawson S., Poynter P., Stevens D.
Strategies for controlling hazards at work
A framework is proposed in which the potential for loss or harm at work can be recognised and strategies developed for hazard control and prevention. Intervention for hazard control consists of anticipation and reaction. Anticipation strategies include elimination of the source of the hazard, containment of the risk of its realisation, and mitigation of the likely consequences. Decisions about strategies depend on the organisational context and varying interests. The development, implementation and monitoring of any strategies that are decided upon are then discussed including the fact that such actions and events may not produce the intended results. Appropriate adaptations must be made on the basis of the evaluation of data provided by monitoring procedures.
Journal of Safety Research, Fall 1982, Vol.13, No.3, p.95-112. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 84-281 De Keyser V., Beauchesne-Florival M.N., Notte D.
Analysing working conditions
Analyser les conditions de travail [en francés]
Training manual divided into 4 sections for the purposes of presenting a seminar on the analysis of working conditions and their improvement: (1) Understanding the problem: theoretical research, ergonomics, socio-economic factors; first quick diagnosis and collection of problem indications; analysis (available methods, choice, interventions, training); economic indices of improvement in working conditions (principles of the methods used by ANACT (National Agency of the Improvement of Working Conditions, France), incident evaluation, method evaluation). (2) Word-list defining technical terms used in the text. (3) Practical applications: analysis of different situations in the workplace (noise, accidents, etc.). (4) Sample programmes for the seminar.
Les Editions ESF - Entreprise moderne d'édition, 17 rue Viète, 75017 Paris, France, 1982. 110p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 83-2066 Fischer H., Lange P., Uhlig D.
Methods for analysis and evaluation of occupational safety
Verfahren zur Analyse und Bewertung der Unfallsicherheit [en alemán]
These directives describe the field of application and methods of application of the following techniques: determination and qualitative analysis of accident risks by means of check lists; risk analysis by means of logical models; measures of safety level; qualitative evaluation of safety; quantitative evaluation of safety by means of accident-analysis data; quantitative evaluation of safety by means of statistical data on accident causes. Simple analytical procedures are contrasted with analyses in depth which require large amounts of time and effort.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Strasse 1, 8020 Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 1982. 129p. 25 ref. Price: M.10.50.

CIS 83-1496 Lave L.B.
Quantitative risk assessment in regulation
Six case studies from a Brookings Institution conference (Washington, USA, May 1981) are presented: revising the ozone standard, regulating benzene, regulating coke emissions, regulating ionising radiation, assessing hazards of chlorobenzilate, and regulating food additives and contaminants. The US government agencies involved in these cases are identified and their role discussed. Methods of risk assessment are described and evaluated.
Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1982. 275p. 308 ref.

CIS 83-1167 Fox J., Gee D., Jones D., Leon D.
Cancer and work
This booklet is designed to provide information on the methods used to assess cancer risk in occupational environments for members of health and safety committees. Topics covered include: epidemiologic studies; fact-finding surveys; mortality and morbidity studies indicating problem situations; conclusions and evaluation; animal and laboratory evidence; monitoring for carcinogenic agents.
City University Statistical Laboratory, Albion Yard, 17 Balfe Street, London N1, United Kingdom, 1982. 70p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: £0.75.

CIS 83-1015 Titanium
This environmental health criteria document for titanium covers: properties and analytical methods (air, water, food, biological materials); uses and sources of environmental pollution; environmental levels (air, soil, water, plants, food) and environmental and occupational exposures; chemobiokinetics and metabolism in animals and humans; toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects on animals; clinical and epidemiological studies on humans; evaluation of human health risks. (French translation available from same source).
World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1982. 68p. 224 ref.

CIS 83-818 The assessment of major hazards
The 24 papers reproduced were presented at this symposium (Manchester, United Kingdom, 14-16 Apr. 1982) in 5 sessions entitled: Release and dispersion of hazardous materials; effects of confined and unconfined explosions; effects of large pool fires and fireballs; integrity and reliability of plant and equipment; hazard and risk analysis.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warks CV21 2HQ, United Kingdom, 1982. 428p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £22.00.

CIS 83-318 Gordon M.D., O'Brien G.J., Hensler C.J., Marcali K.
Mathematical modeling in thermal hazards evaluation
Description of mathematical modelling in the evaluation of thermal stability hazards (quantification of heat release rates and temperature and pressure changes for a given chemical process). Model inputs, model generation and model applications are considered. A case study on the batch amination of o-nitrochlorobenzene with aqueous ammonia under pressure is presented and discussed to illustrate the role of mathematical modelling in thermal hazard evaluation. This model was applied to predict process behaviour under a variety of circumstances as part of a detailed evaluation to ensure safety. The discussion that followed presentation of the paper is reproduced.
Plant / Operations Progress, Jan.1982, Vol.1, No.1, p.27-33. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 82-1789 Jones D.F.
The cat stretches ... we should too
This book presents, in a narrative form, the interaction of human physical, behavioural and biological elements with accident occurrence and prevention. Scientific principles of hazard recognition and practical applications are presented in the context of achieving a balance between risk avoidance and useful accomplishments.
Dynacopics Inc., P.O. Box 60, Bayshore Village, R.R. No.3, Brenchin, Ontario, Canada L0K 1B0, Jan. 1982, 225p. Illus. Price: Can-$17.25.

CIS 82-1796 Health hazard evaluation summaries
Summaries of 37 NIOSH investigations to determine if substances found in the workplace are present in sufficient concentrations to produce toxic effects and if conditions of exposure to noise or radiation are sufficient to produce harmful health effects, are presented.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Jan. 1982. 48p.

CIS 82-1160 Ungers L.J., Moskowitz P.D., Owens T.W., Harmon A.D., Briggs T.M.
Methodology for an occupational risk assessment: an evaluation of four processes for the fabrication of photovoltaic cells
Using data from the California semi-conductor industry, a 5-step occupational risk assessment procedure was applied to 4 processes for the fabrication of photovoltaic cells, which represent an emerging technology, and for which occupational hazard data do not yet exist. These 5 steps are: identification of process operations within a process; identification of occupations involved with each process operation; calculation of the labour requirement for each occupation to complete a given process operation; calculation of disability and mortality rates and application of them to labour requirements; summation of all occupational disability and mortality values by individual operation and by fabrication process. Estimates of disability and mortality rates for this emerging industry, based on the theoretical procedure, were higher than those calculated for the semi-conductor industry due to higher risks associated with the silicon I and gallium arsenide processes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.73-79. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-1158 Alcock P.A.
Safety Inspections: the detection of hazards at work
The topic of how to detect hazards at work, which may give rise to injury of personnel or damage to premises, plant and product, is discussed and practical methods of accident investigation are considered. The method described will reduce human suffering, wastage, financial losses and working down-time. They are of importance to all employers, safety officers, managers, supervisors and safety representatives in all branches of industry, commerce and the public sector. Contents: introduction; inspection technique; hazard charts; accident investigations; safety policies.
H.K. Lewis and Co. Ltd., 136 Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BS, United Kingdom, 1982. 156p. Price: £8.00.

CIS 82-1072 Prevention of occupational cancer - International symposium
The 3 opening addresses and 84 technical papers presented at this symposium, 21-24 Apr. 1981, Helsinki, Finland, are reproduced under the section headings: current concepts in occupational carcinogenesis; epidemiology of occupational cancer; methodology for occupational cancer risk evaluation; prevention and control of occupational cancer risk; national policies and international cooperation in the prevention of occupational cancer.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1982. 658p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.47.50.

CIS 82-905
Committee for the Prevention of Emergencies due to Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Model for assessing the risk of storing dangerous liquids and gases
Model voor risico-evaluatie van opslag van gevaarlijke stoffen - vloeistoffen en gassen [en holandés]
This report reviews the situation as at 1978. Sections are devoted to: definitions; identification of unwanted incidents (possible causes and consequences of such incidents); calculating the effects of identified unwanted incidents (limitations and structure of the mathematical model); estimating the damage caused by identified unwanted incidents (threshold values for toxic substances, effects of a gas explosion or a fire; resistance of objects in the exposure zone); estimating the likelihood of identified unwanted incidents (fault tree, reliability data); risk as a component in decision making (acceptable risk, level of risk); basic principles to be considered in selecting a method of storage.
Werkrapport CPR No.2. Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1982. 35p. Illus. 31 ref.

1981

CIS 83-1629 Acheson E.D.
Towards a strategy for the detection of industrial carcinogens
The methods available for detection and evaluation of undisclosed occupational carcinogens are reviewed. The lecture covers: the value of epidemiologic studies and preventive measures, to both workers and the general population, when industrial carcinogens are identified; discovery of carcinogens by examination of patterns of cancer in time, geographical patterns, occupational histories of patients, and cancer risk in exposed populations; use of cancer and death registers which record occupational histories.
British Journal of Cancer, 1981, Vol.44, No.3, p.321-331. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 83-1709 Kalinin V.V., Kovalev P.F.
Estimating the safety of power supplies for mines
Ocenka bezopasnosti sistem ėlektrosnabženija šaht [en ruso]
A probabilistic risk-assessment model was used to compare 3 ways of providing a mine with electric power: via conventional lines from a local substation, via underground lines or via isolating transformers. Calculation of the probabilities of electric injuries to workers, fires and ignition of methane-air mixtures showed the system with isolating transformers to be the safest.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.31, 34-35. Illus.

CIS 83-1236 Veličkovskaja T.B., Zykova V.A., Orlova T.N.
Predicting the fibrogenicity of silica-containing dusts from the surface properties of the particles
Prognozirovanie stepeni fibrogennosti kremnezemsoderžaščih pylej v zavisimosti ot svojstv poverhnosti častic [en ruso]
The severity of pneumoconiosis induced in rats by 5 silica-containing dusts was correlated with their adsorptive capacity and zeta-potential. DQ-12 quartz (a common reference material) and Ljubercy silica, with zeta-potentials greater than 20, gave much higher lung dry weights and hydroxyproline and lipid contents than did Ky¿tym, Vodolak, or Onega silicas, which have zeta-potentials of 8 to 13; the latter silicas were still fibrogenic in comparison with controls. The more fibrogenic silicas likewise had higher adsorptive capacities for calcium ions and dichlorodimethylsilane. These physico-chemical properties thus provide a quantitative scale for predicting the risk associated with the mining and handling of silica-containing dusts or powders.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1981, No.6, p.34-36. 2 ref.

CIS 83-1437 Moskowitz P.D., Briggs T., Ungers L., Hamilton L.D.
A prospective method for estimating occupational health risks in new energy technologies
The approach used (and illustrated by application to the photovoltaics industry) is to separate out the workforce of an emerging industry by different worker classifications, and to determine the health risks to these workers from statistics of related industries. The approach identifies accident-related effects, but cannot be used to quantitate occupationally induced disease.
Department of Energy and Environment, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA, 1981. 17p. Illus.

CIS 83-1168 Griffiths R.G.
Dealing with risk
The planning, management and acceptability of technological risk are discussed. Covered are: the foundations and nature of risk assessment: the nature of decisions in risk management; the assessment of benefits and risks in relation to human needs; problems in the use of risk criteria; dealing with hazard and risk in planning; risk and legal liability; risk, value conflict and political legitimacy.
Manchester University Press, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom, 1981. 144p. Illus. 97 ref. Price: £4.95.

CIS 83-368 Jansen G., Gros E., Rehm S., Griefahn B.
Studies on the importance of noise relative to other occupational stress factors
Untersuchungen zur Wertigkeit des Lärms im Vergleich zu anderen Belastungsfaktoren am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Following a number of pages on examinations and studies on 40 persons with or without hearing loss, a report is given of field trials on 314 workers from different branches of industry (miners, loggers using chain saws, chemical workers, metal machiners, technicians testing compressors, mechanical engineering draughtsmen, arc-air gougers). In most types of work, noise is not the sole stress factor. Hearing acuity is a major determinant in vegetative reactions to noise. The number of years of exposure is a parameter of less importance to health than other factors. The finger pulse amplitude curve is a good indicator or reaction to noise: a normal curve indicates a healthy reaction, an abnormal curve demonstrates health impairment.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 175p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: DM.23.50.

CIS 82-1697 Diel F., Neidhart B., Oprée W.
Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals
The direct action of sensitising chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine, using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. Dispensed mast cells from immunised and non-immunised Wistar rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnigh's sensitising experiment using the same sensitising agents. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitising chemicals.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.369-373. 9 ref.

CIS 82-1757 Goldfarb A.S., Goldgraben G.R., Herrick E.C., Quellette R.P., Cheremisinoff P.N.
Organic chemicals manufacturing hazards
This book provides industry background information, descriptions of manufacturing processes, an identification of substances present in the process streams and a discussion of the flammability and toxicity hazards associated with those substances and the processes. It is intended for use by chemical manufacturers, engineers and consultants, industrial chemists, industrial hygienists, environmentalists and pollution control engineers. Sections cover: acetic acid by methanol carbonylation; acetaldehyde by liquid-phase ethylene oxidation; esterification process for acrylic acid esters production; condensation process for DL-methionine production; tetraalkyl lead by lead alkylation; oxychlorination and pyrolysis processes for vinyl chloride production; polymerisation processes for polyvinyl chloride; chlorophenols by chloration of phenol; vinyl acetate by hydroacetylation.
The Butterworth Group, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent, TN15 8PH, United Kingdom, 1981. 430p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £30.00.

CIS 82-1140 Stern R.M.
Risk assessment for the welding industry
Part I, introduction to risk assessment, deals with the problems of quantitative assessment of the health risk, and reviews the literature on the occupational cancer risk in general and the specific risk of lung cancer for welders (chromium and nickel exposure in stainless and high alloy steel welding). Part II, process-dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders, studies the distribution of welding fume exposure, the incidence of pneumoconiosis and siderosis, and the possible cancer risk for welders. An attempt is made to develop a model for quantitative risk assessment (on the basis of dose-incidence data). Analysis of the literature on the usefulness of screening tests for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis shows that the risk for genetic damage and other delayed health effects to welders is similar to that found in other industries with Ni and Cr(VI) exposure.
Svejsecentralen, Park Allé 345, 2600 Glostrup, København, Denmark, 1981. 2 Vol. 32 + 53p. Illus. 293 ref. Price: Dan-cr.50.00.

CIS 82-1179 Ruffier J.
Physical working conditions: the workers' point of view
Les aspects matériels des conditions de travail: le point de vue des salariés [en francés]
Survey of 300 workers in a plant, under the supervision of a tripartite committee in which all grades of workers and all the trade unions were represented. Workers seem much less concerned about physical working conditions than do their representatives or experts from outside the plant. Three factors contribute to the workers' recognition of a hazard: clear perception of harmfulness; lack of comprehension of the hazardous factor's mode of action; the fact of being submitted to the harmful action of a factor not directly related to the worker's own job.
Travail humain, 1981, Vol.44, No.2, p.325-331.

CIS 82-1183 Stephaneck P., Donadi D.C.
Attempt to assess the subjective severity of industrial accidents - Application in two environments at different industrial development levels
Essai d'appréciation de la gravité subjective des accidents du travail - Application dans deux milieux différents selon le niveau de développement industriel [en francés]
Using an psychometric function relating objective values to those obtained by Thurstone's successive-intervals method, it was possible to assess the negative utilities attached to physical injury resulting from occupational accidents. The results suggest that subjective values associated with health and physical integrity may differ depending on the degree of industrialisation and economic development, and that the use of methods such as these makes it possible to assess the parameters of the function that characterises this development.
Travail humain, 1981, Vol.44, No.2, p.241-250. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 82-1167 Lange H.J.
Problems of the absence of a suitable reference group for epidemiological surveys in occupational medicine
Problem des Fehlens eines geeigneten Vergleichskollektivs bei epidemiologischen Studien in der Arbeitsmedizin [en alemán]
Where it is not possible to compare a group at risk with a control group not at risk, 2 replacement solutions are possible; calculation of theoretical values on the basis of general population mortality rates; comparison of high-exposure and low-exposure individuals with the group at risk. These 2 methodological approaches are presented together with their potential and limitations, supported by examples (tumour mortality, dust-induced bronchitis). Description of the "healthy-worker effect" observed in comparisons between a general population and an industrial population.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, May 1981, Vol.16, No.5, p.112-116. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 82-1076 Krewski D., Brown C.
Carcinogenic risk assessment: A guide to the literature
A review of 288 items of statistical literature on the assessment of the carcinogenic potential of environmental chemicals, using animal models. These bibliographic references are divided into sections under the following headings: general principles of carcinogen bioassay; statistical analysis of screening bioassays; quantitative risk assessment; regulatory consideration (evaluation criteria).
Biometrics, June 1981, Vol.37, No.2, p.353-366. 288 ref.

CIS 82-332 Silny J.
The effects of strong low-frequency magnetic fields on the body
Beeinflussung des Organismus durch starke niederfrequente magnetische Felder [en alemán]
Report on studies of the effects of 5-50Hz magnetic fields on animals and man. Literature survey followed by description of the physical characteristics of these fields and of experiments on rats, cats and man. Statistical analysis and evaluation of ECG and EEG readings, blood-pressure and body-temperature measurements gave no evidence of magnetic field effects. From the point of view of vision, the studies confirmed the occurrence of flicker and phosphene phenomena.
Medizinisch-technischer Bericht 1981. Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle der Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 79p. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 82-314 Kovalev P.F., Himič V.V., Kovalev A.P., Serdjuk L.I.
Methods of assessing explosion safety in coalmines
Metody ocenki vzryvobezopasnosti na učastkah ugol'nyh šaht [en ruso]
Analysis of the conditions required for the ignition of a methane-air mixture due to a fault in the underground electrical installation in a mine equipped with a short-circuit current protection system and firedamp detectors. Presentation of the risk-assessment method which is based on determining the mathematical relation between the components of the ignition source/atmosphere/explosion prevention system.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Jan. 1981, No.1, p.27-29. Illus.

CIS 82-510 Stern R.M.
Risk assessment in the welding industry: Part 1 - Introduction to risk assessment
The concept of risk assessment and the difficulties inherent in quantitative assessment of the health risks suffered by welders are discussed in the context of existing studies and literature. Some epidemiologic studies have shown an excess risk of lung cancer for welders. The carcinogenic potential of nickel and hexavalent chromium in fumes from stainless steel welding processes, and the implications of positive results of short-term in-vitro screening tests on this class of fumes, are discussed.
Svejsecentralen (Danish Welding Institute), 2600 Glostrup, Denmark, 1981. 32p. 164 ref.

CIS 82-508 Stern R.M.
Risk assessment for the welding industry: Part II - Process dependent risk of delayed health effects for welders
The origin, prevalence and magnitude of process-specific, high-risk working conditions for welders are discussed. The potential for an elevated risk of respiratory tract disease with long latency periods, especially cancer, is considered. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of risk resulting from exposure to nickel and hexavalent chromium. This discussion is based on a review of MMA, TIG, MIG, gas welding, submerged arc welding, spot welding, and cutting, burning and air gouging processes used for steels and aluminium in Western Europe, USA, USSR, and Japan.
Svejsecentralen, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark, 1981. 39p. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 82-310 Laforest J.C., Leleu J.
Dangerous chemical reactions - An attempt at risk prediction
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - Essai de prévision des risques [en francés]
Presentation of a method for forecasting, solely on the basis of chemical formulae, the hazard level of compound reactivity and chemical reactions, without the need for experiments. The method is derived from the CHETAH (Chemical Thermodynamic and Energy Hazard Evaluation) computer programme developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Aspects considered are: principle of the method used; determination of baseline data; definition and calculation of risk crieteria; interpretation of results; fields of use; validity of method; example calculations and comparison with experimental data.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, Note No.1343-105-81, p.481-491. Illus.

CIS 81-2077 Lagadec P.
Major technical hazards
Le risque technologique majeur [en francés]
Contents of this manual: background to the problem (description of disasters such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three Mile Island); hazard control and management (management methods and tools; shortcomings, limits); viewpoint of the industrialist or plant manager, the public authorities and the ordinary citizen regarding the hazards involved; political aspects (interactions between hazard, politics and policy making, and technological progress).
Pergamon Press France S.A., 24 rue des Ecoles, 75240 Paris Cedex 05, France, 1981. 630p. Illus. 538 ref.

CIS 81-1946 Nicholson W.J.
Management of assessed risk for carcinogens
The 29 papers presented at this workshop, 17-19 Mar. 1980, New York, USA, are reproduced. Topics covered included the determination, assessment and regulation of risk due to occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogens. Topics of particular OSH interest included: regulation and the existing law in relation to occupational exposure; risk-benefit and cost-benefit analysis and the problems associated with these approaches; a practical cancer policy; determination of acceptable and unreasonable risk; compensation for occupational illness; approaches to these problems in Norway, Sweden, Canada and the USA.
New York Academy of Sciences, 2 East 63 Street, New York, N.Y. 10021, USA, Apr. 1981, Vol.363. 301p. Illus. 334 ref.

CIS 81-1426 Plate M.
Detection and prevention of rockburst hazards
Erkennen und Bekämpfen von Gebirgsschlaggefahren [en alemán]
Introductory survey of the state of the art and conditions preceding the occurrence of rockbursts. There are still a great many unresolved questions, but some methods for detection and prevention of these occurrences have been successful in practice. Among the principal methods of detection, this article describes methods of sounding rock by drilling and seismic acoustics. Three techniques for relieving tension have proved efficacious: relief drilling, relief blasting and water infusion; but confirmation of the efficacy of relieving methods is still required. Future prospects of improving these methods.
Glückauf, 5 Feb. 1981, Vol.117, No.3, p.153-158. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 81-846 Veys C.A.
Developing opportunities for research in occupational medicine.
Examples illustrating the need for ongoing research if successful conclusions are to be reached about the effects of work on health, are drawn from recent research programmes conducted in the rubber industry. Detailed fact finding, with recognition of the principles of the dilution of risk, latency in disease onset (especially for cancer), accurate follow-up of leads, and location of risk areas, are all pertinent research pathways which can contribute to the prevention of work-related diseases.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1981, Vol.31, No.1, p.19-26. Illus. 6 ref.

1980

CIS 82-856 Fischer H.
"Qualimetric" evaluation of the safety of work plant and procedures
Qualimetrische Bewertung der Unfallsicherheit von Arbeitsmitteln, Arbeitsverfahren und Arbeitsstätten [en alemán]
Subjective verbal evaluations of the safety of the work situation are not always satisfactory and should be replaced by quantitative and objective methods. Description of a "qualimetric" method, i.e. based on quantifiable and non-quantifiable parameters, using the criterion of accident probability combined with severity coefficients for assessing the consequences of the accident. Specimen evaluation for multispindle bar-chucking automatic lathes and mathematical calculation.
Arbeitsschutz, Arbeitshygiene, 1980, Vol.16, No.4, p.130-135. Illus.

CIS 82-525 Petrović R.
Hazard level determination method
Metoda određivanja stupnja opasnosti [en serbocroata]
Abridged text of M.D. thesis. One of the possible ways of hazard level determination in building construction is measuring and ascertaining the hazard frequency, the duration of the hazard and its numerically expressed magnitude. This method is based on 3 years research and measurement results. Three types of multistorey construction techniques are compared in the light of the figures obtained. The method enables optimal safety measures to be planned and an appropriate safety policy to be adopted.
Sigurnost, 1980, Vol.11, No.1, p.15-20. Illus.

CIS 81-1761 Joschek H.I., Helmstädter G., Dehler J., Langensiepen H.W.
Quantitative risk analysis in the chemical industry
Quantitative Risikoanalysen in der chemischen Industrie [en alemán]
Deals only with quantitative determination of rates of event occurrence using logic diagrams (fault trees) and not with the quantitative determination of damage. Following explanation of the structure of the logic diagram and the principle of quantitative analysis, the importance of 3 critical aspects is studied: maintenance; quality of data input; predictive potential of weak-point analysis. The application of these principles is demonstrated using 3 practical exemples: storage tank for hydrochloric acid; phosgene reactor; ethylene transfer installation for an intermediary storage tank. The most serious criticism concerns the reliability of the input data which are often lacking a sound statistical basis. Recommendations for fault-tree analysis in the chemical industry.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, 1980, Vol.52, No.2, p.123-132. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 81-1655 Stille W.T.
Hazard detection by illness pattern similitaries
Summary data for about 120,000 episodes of employee absence of > 3 days, due to illness or accident, in a North-Eastern U.S. chemical corporation were analysed using a clustering procedure programmed for epidemiological use. The diagnoses for the absences, which occured between 1959 and 1967, were coded according to 8th revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Comparisons were made of similarity or dissimilarity of illness patterns among salaried and hourly paid men and women workers in 11 age-groups and different job groups. Patterns were obtained for the 9 illness diagnoses which accounted for 60% of reported illness. The analysis suggested the criterion: an environmental exposure of people associated with an illness pattern typical of a more advanced age is a health hazard.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.35, No.6, p.325-332. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 81-1214 Ernst W., Teichert P.
Test methods for the safe control of chemical reactions
Prüfmethoden zur sicheren Führung chemischer Reaktionen [en alemán]
Adequate evaluation of the thermal-explosion hazard of a chemical reaction is not feasible since general rules and guidelines cannot be established. Reviewed are test methods devised by the Federal Institute of Materials Testing and the chemical industry in the Federal Republic of Germany to collect data to evaluate the explosion hazard and draw up measures to monitor chemical processes in industry. The test methods cover: combustibility, ignition temperature, explosivity characteristics, exothermic reactions, spontaneous combustion, energy consumption and release, spontaneous heating, amount of heat released by a reaction and reaction duration. Illustrated description of the test apparatus. A French translation (partial) may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.524-531. Illus.

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