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  • Risk evaluation

1986

CIS 88-1138 Kletz T.A.
Hazop and hazan - Notes on the identification and assessment of hazards. Second edition
Second edition of the Hazard Workshop Module first analysed as CIS 85-2034. It is primarily aimed at university students and those attending in-house training courses in industry. Contents: hazard identification and assessment; hazard and operability studies (hazop); hazard analysis (hazan); a manager's guide to hazard analysis; objections to hazop and hazan; sources of data and confidence limits; history of hazop and hazan.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1986. 94p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-1352 Blanch González P., Pique Ardanuy T.
Slotter - Análisis de riesgos por el método Nis/Slotter - Análisis de riesgos por el método Nis
Detailed description of an application of the risk analysis method "Nis" to the "Slotter", a machine used for the printing and cutting of cardboard sheets used in the manufacture of boxes. The risks were classified in accordance with the different work procedures (adjustment, operation of the machine, cleaning). For each procedure, a table was prepared, where the different processes of the machine, the operations performed to achieve the processes and the risks associated with these operations were indicated. A corresponding analysis sheet was then prepared where the risks were identified and described as well as the causes and consequences of possible accidents due to these risk factors, and finally the preventive measures needed to eliminate the risks.
Salud y trabajo, July- Aug. 1986, No.56, p.37-48. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 88-689 Corlett N., Wilson J., Manenica I.
The ergonomics of working postures: models, methods and cases
Proceedings of the First International Occupational Ergonomics Symposium (Zadar, Yugoslavia, 15-17 Apr. 1985) on the ergonomics of working postures. Contents: postural risk factors and disease; methods for measuring body posture; models of posture; measures of the effects of posture; assessment methods for evaluating body postures; co-operation between ergonomists and workers in the study of posture in order to modify work conditions; seats and sitting; experimental and biomechanical analysis of seating; biomechanical, electromyographical and radiological study of seated postures. Two case studies are presented in detail.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 OPR, Hants., United Kingdom, 1986. 429p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 42.00.

CIS 88-570 Richardson M.L.
Toxic hazard assessment of chemicals
This monograph provides basic guidance on the means of retrieving, validating, and interpreting data in order to make a toxicological hazard assessment of a chemical. It considers methods of data retrieval (computer and manual); verification of data; application, generation and validation of human exposure data; identification of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans; interpretation of epidemiological data; general principles of risk assessment; approaches to the assessment of health hazards due to exposure to a toxic chemical; comparative risk assessment; legislation on chemicals. It is not a guide to hazards associated with any specific chemical.
Royal Society of Chemistry, Distribution Centre, Blackhorse Road, Letchworth, Herts SG6 1HN, United Kingdom, 1986. 360p. Illus. Bibl. Glossary. Index. Price: GBP 47.50 (UK), USD 85.00 (USA).

CIS 88-494 Wiklund K.
Cancer risks among agricultural workers in Sweden
This study analyses the cancer risks and the time-related trends in risks among these workers. Although agricultural workers had a lower cancer risk than other workers, there were increased relative risks for cancers of the liver, prostate and other male genital and urinary organs, for lip cancer, malignant melanoma and skin carcinomas of the head/neck region, myeloma and stomach cancer. The 6 papers on which the study was based are reproduced.
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Hospital, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden, 1986. 150p. Illus. 191 ref.

CIS 87-1414 IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Some naturally occurring and synthetic food components, furocoumarins and ultraviolet radiation
These monographs cover the occurrence or production, use, physical and chemical properties, biological data relevant to carcinogenic risk, data summary and references for the substances. Included are: naturally occurring toxins (bracken fern, citrinin, patulin, rugulosin); food additives (benzyl acetate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, potassium bromate); amino acid pyrolysis products in food (imidazoles, indoles, quinolines, quinoxalines); furocoumarins (angelicins, psoralens); ultraviolet radiation.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1986. Vol.40, 444p. Illus. Bibl. Appendix. Index. Price: SF.65.00.

CIS 87-1382 Venable H.L.
The development and application of algorithms for generating estimates of toxicity for the NOHS data base
Four algorithms were developed to provide estimates of LD50 (oral, rat), mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The models were tested against available data, then applied to substances in the National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS). The estimates are useful for assessing toxicity where little or no data are available. They contain a certain degree of unavoidable error and are intended only for rank-ordering a list of compounds according to relative toxicity or as a part of an overall process of selecting, testing, and evaluating chemical compounds for toxicity.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Jul. 1986. 96p. 35 ref. Appendices.

CIS 87-1401 Asbestos control: sprayed-on applications
This booklet outlines procedures and techniques for evaluating and preventing hazards in asbestos-containing buildings. Covered are: health effects, applicable standards, recognising and evaluating the hazard, controlling the hazard, environmental monitoring for airborne asbestos, respiratory protection, transport and disposal of asbestos-containg refuse.
Occupational Health and Safety Division, Alberta Community and Occupational Health, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Sep. 1986. 33p. Illus.

CIS 87-1038 Fire and smoke: understanding the hazards
Report supported by a consortium of US Federal agencies. Contents: fire deaths in the US; a primer on fire and fire hazard (the burning process, a typical compartment fire, fire hazard assessment, time needed for escape, time available for escape); status of fire hazard models and test methods; hazards associated with fires (heat, oxygen depletion, smoke, effects of smoke inhalation); laboratory methods for evaluation of toxic potency of smoke (combustion product toxicity tests, chemical analysis versus biological assay, test methods that use death as an end point, nonlethal test methods); two case studies illustrating guidelines for hazard assessment (burning of an upholstered chair, concealed combustible material).
Committee on Fire Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20418, USA, 1986. 156p. Illus. 233 ref. Price: US$16.00 (USA, Canada, Mexico); US$19.25 (elsewhere).

CIS 87-482 Judkins B.M.
We offer ourselves as evidence - Towards workers' control of occupational health
This book is a historical and sociological account of the recognition of byssinosis and coalworkers pneumoconiosis as occupational diseases.
Eurospan, 3 Henrietta Street, London WC2E 8LU, United Kingdom, 1986. 249p. Bibl. Index.

CIS 87-587 Bajnova A.
Method for the determination of eye-irritating effects of chemical compounds
Metod za opredeljane na očnoto draznešto deistvije na himičnite săedinenija [en búlgaro]
In the absence of a national standard method for assessing eye irritation hazards, a technique was developed for quantitative determination of the irritant properties of industrial, agricultural and other chemical products on the eyes of rabbits. A 4-ball scale was used for objective assessment with reference eye irritants for degree of damage. The classification of chemical eye irritants includes, in addition to the scale ranking, time and degree of recovery of the eye tissues after a single application of the tested agents in the conjunctival sac. Acids, alkalis, salts, and surface-active substances were studied by this method, as well as antibacterial agents and cosmetics.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1986, Vol.29, No.4, p.70-76. 12 ref.

CIS 87-648 Kaczmarska A., Zdrzalik W.
Methodology of measurement and evaluation of impulse noise in a forging shop
Metodyka pomiaru i ocena hałasu impulsowego w kuźni [en polonés]
Definition of impulse noise according to Polish Standard PN-81/N-01306 and methodology of measurements carried out under the direction of the Chief Sanitary Inspector dated 4 Oct. 1985. Measurement findings were tabulated. Hazard was assessed by comparing (for each work-station) the number of impulses for each work-shift with the permissible number of impulses.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 1986, No.5, p.7-9. 4 ref.

CIS 87-210 Rocher M., Vacheret J.M., Vandevyver B.
Preliminary study of accident risks in very large and medium-sized supermarkets
Enquête préliminaire sur les risques d'accidents dans les hypermarchés et supermarchés [en francés]
In view of the lack of information on hazards in large stores, the survey was carried out on a small but varied sample of stores using the following methods: general on-site observation; documentary analysis (accident reports, characteristics of the population concerned); interviews with store managers, safety officers, members of CHSCTs (Committees on Safety, Health and Working Conditions); study of the trade by bibliographical analysis and contact with staff and safety specialists. The report analyses the collected data: store organisation, attitudes by different categories of staff to safety and to working condition, risk factors, proposed action.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1986, No.125, Note No.1604-125-86, p.477-493. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 86-1835 Olsen J.H., Jensen O.M., Kampstrup O.
Influence of smoking habits and place of residence on the risk of lung cancer among workers in one rock-wool producing plant in Denmark
Cancer incidence was studied among 5,317 employees in a rock-wool production plant in Denmark. During the period 1943-1982 a marginally significant excess of 240 cancer cases was observed versus 211 cases expected. Among the subgroup of male workers an increasing risk with time since first employment was observed for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx, cancer of the respiratory system, and cancer of the bladder, of which only the excess of the former reached significance. The increased risk of lung cancer among male workers with 20 or more years since first employment could not be explained by deviations in local lung cancer incidence, place of residence among male rock-wool workers, or smoking habits prevailing among unskilled workers in the eastern part of Denmark. The number of cases, however, was too small to exclude the effect of chance in this single investigation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.48-52. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1772 Barry S.F.
ARFAR: a person years at risk program
Report on ARFAR, a computer program written in FORTRAN, that can be used to calculate person years at risk when a quantitative measure of exposure to some physical (such as ionising radiation) or chemical agent is available. The program source code and documentation are available from: National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 ORQ, United Kingdom.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.43, No.8, p.572-573. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-1519 Browne K.
A threshold for asbestos related lung cancer
A review of the recent literature suggests that a threshold for increased risk of developing lung cancer exists for asbestos exposure, somewhere in the range of 25-100 fibres/cc years. Below this threshold there seems to be no excess risk of lung cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.43, No.8, p.556-558. 28 ref.

CIS 86-1714
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Kelevan
Kelevan is a chlordecone derivative used as an insecticide. Aspects covered in this WHO document: identity; physicochemical properties; analytical methods; environmental levels and human exposure; toxicology; recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 32p. 35 ref. Price: SF.6.00.

CIS 86-1713
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Tetradifon
Aspects covered in this WHO Environmental Health Criteria Document: identity, physicochemical properties, analytical methods; environmental levels and human exposure; toxicology; recommendations for preventing exposure. No adverse health effects from exposure to Tetradifon (acaricide) have been reported in man.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 47p. 89 ref. Price: SF.7.00.

CIS 86-1350 Sargent E.V., Kirk G.D., Hite M.
Hazard evaluation of monochloroacetone
This compound was introduced in 1914 as a war gas, and is presently used as a chemical intermediate in various industrial processes. Risk assessment indicates that monochloroacetone is extremely irritating to the eyes and skin; exposure leads to delayed vesication and swelling of the skin; inhalation of MCA produces irritation to the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. MCA has been shown to be an initiator of tumours in mouse skin; MCA may therefore be considered as a presumptive tumorigen, even though it was negative in Ames mutagenicity tests. It is recommended that direct contact with liquid and vapours be prevented through strict engineering controls and that air concentrations be kept below 1ppm as a ceiling concentration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1986, Vol.47, No.7, p.375-378. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1047 Ammonia
Aspects covered in this criteria document: properties and analytical methods; sources of exposure; transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; effects on organisms in the environment; kinetics and metabolism; effects on experimental animals and in vitro test systems; effects on man; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment; recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 210p. Bibl. Price: SF.18.00.

CIS 86-1164 Chicken J.C.
Risk assessment for hazardous installations
This report examines the techniques that can be used to assess the significance of risk in quantitative terms and compares how these techniques are used in practice in the nuclear industry with the way they are used in those parts of the process industry that can be classified as having a major hazard potential. The report concentrates on the practices in Germany (Fed.Rep.), the United Kingdom and France. Some additional comments are made on the practices adopted in the Netherlands and Denmark.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford, OX3 0BW, United Kingdom, 1986. 279p. Illus. Bibl. Appendices. Price: US$45.00.

CIS 86-912 Napier D.H., Roopchand D.R.
An approach to hazard analysis of LNG spills
A logical approach to hazard analysis is described and details of the features of analysis are outlined. Recommendations are given for the choice of a suitable gas dispersion model. Combustion and explosion are considered and limits of acceptability are discussed, including an evaluation of the adequacy of thermal radiation models from pool fires. Three methods for predicting radiant flux densities that would be received at the property line are examined and compared to data from the Canadian Standard Z276, which is similar to the NFPA 59A standard (USA).
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Feb. 1986, Vol.7, No.4, p.251-272. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 86-1163 Chung M.K., Wu S.C.H., Herrin G.D.
The use of a mixed Weibull model in occupational injury analysis
Description of a mixed Weibull model which is proposed as an alternative model of occupational injury analysis. This model assumes that a worker will suffer injuries during employment with a probability γ(0<γ<1). The conditional failure time model is defined to be a Weibull distribution. Given the model, the relationship between minor and major injury incidents is examined using the injury data of 1,004 workers in a US manufacture. The efficacy of the model is apparent in that it provides a fraction of long term survivors as well as an injury rate for those ever suffering an injury.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Feb. 1986, Vol.7, No.4, p.239-251. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1037 Benzene in the workplace
This booklet provides information about benzene for persons involved in setting up occupational safety and health programmes, managers of and members of joint safety and health committees. It outlines uses and health effects, and provides guidelines for determining exposure and the need for control.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, March 1986. 37p. Illus. Appendix.

CIS 86-1020 Lehmann E., Auffarth J., Häger J., Rentel K.H., Altenburg H.
Concentration profiles of selected PAH in coal-tar-derived products
Massenverhältnisse ausgewählter PAH in Produkten auf Steinkohlenteer-Basis [en alemán]
Users and regulatory authorities who do not know the exact composition of coal-tar products cannot assess their potential hazards. In this analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 30 coal-tar products, their relative proportions were found to be quite constant. It is recommended to use benzo(a)pyrene as the reference substance for the selection of potentially carcinogenic industrial substances and for the assessment of working conditions.
Staub, 1986, Vol.46, No.3, p.128-131. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-998 Sullivan E.A., Sullivan J.L.
Styrene exposure in the reinforced plastics industry in Ontario
Of a total of 628 employees working in 10 Ontario plants, up to 130 were exposed to styrene. Exposure during boat fabrication was much greater than for other processes. The geometric means of samples obtained from plants in the marine sector ranged from 76 to 123 ppm, and up to 151 ppm in the other sectors. The use of respiratory protective equipment was minimal. The sources of styrene exposure and the effectiveness of control measures throughout the industry are discussed.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Winter 1986, Vol.7, No.1, p.38-55. 19 ref.

CIS 86-762 Thomas T.L., Waxweiler R.J.
Brain tumors and occupational risk factors
Some studies have shown that certain white-collar professional groups (artists, scientists, veterinarians, embalmers) and blue collar workers (rubber, oil refinerie and chemical plant workers, machinists) appear to have an elevated risk of brain tumors. Most of the workers are potentially exposed to multiple chemicals; nevertheless they have some exposures in common: organic solvents, lubricating oils, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolic compounds.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1986, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-15. 104 ref.

CIS 86-676 McClellan R.O.
Health effects of diesel exhaust: A case study in risk assessment
In this lecture, given at the 1985 ACGIH meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, the various aspects of risk assessment methodology are reviewed and evaluated in the case of diesel engine exhaust fumes. Aspects covered: hazard identification; role of epidemiological, in vitro and animal studies; exposure-dose response assessments; exposure assessment; risk characterisation. The total number of lung cancers expected per year in the USA, from exposure to diesel exhaust are estimated at about 200. In comparison, the expected annual total number of lung cancers from smoking is 100,000.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1986, Vol.47, No.1, p.1-13. Illus. 58 ref.

1985

CIS 89-1340 Nomenclature for hazard and risk assessment in the process industries
138 terms are discussed under the headings "hazard and risk", "consequences" (explosions, fires, toxic substances), "release and dispersion" (mechanisms of releases, behaviour of releases, dispersion), "assessment techniques" (general terminology, hazard identification methods, analytical techniques, quantification of event frequency, quantification of event consequences) and "criteria".
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, Geo. E. Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1985. (reprinted 1988). 48p. 19 ref. Price: GBP 5.25.

CIS 89-106 Workbook for designated substance assessments
Manuel de travail pour les évaluations des substances désignées [en francés]
Revised edition of the Workbook cited in CIS 85-1331. It provides small enterprise managers with a methodology for evaluating workplace hazards from toxic substances designated as regulated substances under the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, rev. 1985. 50p.

CIS 88-1858 Maslov N.N., Elsukov V.A.
Occupational safety and health in underground railways
Ohrana truda na metropolitenah [en ruso]
Contents of this book for supervisors and technical personnel: basic principles (labour activity, conditions and characteristics of work, standards in occupational hygiene, classification and methods of determination of dangerous and hazardous industrial agents); methods and means of protection against dangerous physical and hazardous industrial factors; chemical, psychophysiological and biological hazards; electrical safety; compliance with occupational hygiene requirements in the design, modernisation and exploitation of underground railways; management of occupational hygiene in underground railways; injuries and measures for their prevention.
Izdatel'stvo Transport, Basmannyj tup. 6a, 103064 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 144p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: SUR 0.50.

CIS 88-1701 Mettler F.A., Moseley R.D.
Medical effects of ionizing radiation
This book is intended for professionals in the health fields and lawyers with medicolegal backgrounds. It covers: basic radiation physics, chemistry and biology; sources of radiation exposure; effects on genetic material; cancer induction and dose-response models; carcinogenesis of specific sites; direct effects of radiation; radiation in combination with other agents; radiation exposure in-utero; plutonium; probability of causation in an individual; perception and aceptance of risk. Included are a glossary, radiation source term tables, and conversion tables.
Grune and Stratton Ltd., 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1, United Kingdom, 1985. 288p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 48.00.

CIS 88-1139 Kletz T.A.
Cheaper, safer plants - or wealth and safety at work: Notes on inherently safer and simpler plants
This work, part of the Hazard Workshop Module series, is aimed at university students and those attending in-house training courses in the chemical industry. Contents: the concept of inherent safety; examples of inherent safety in various industries; how to do inherently safe design; measurement of inherent safety; simpler plants; the possibility of going too far in removing risk; notes on accident investigation (including an "Atlas of Safety Thinking" that demonstrates safety ideas through some simple diagrammes).
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1985. 120p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-942 Dermal exposure related to pesticide use: Discussion of risk assessment
Papers in this symposium (St. Louis, Mo., USA, 8-13 Apr. 1984) covered: dermal absorption; methodology of field studies (application and exposure); studies with specific chemicals (methyl parathion, carbaryl, captan, mancozeb, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride, dichlorvos, chlordane, paraquat); trends in exposure evaluation and protection (models, estimation, protective clothing); integration of experimental data.
American Chemical Society, Book and Journals Division, 1155 16th Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, 1985. 529p. Illus. 607 ref. Index. Price: USD 95.95.

CIS 88-258 Holliday M.G., Dranitsaris P., Strahlendorf P.W., Contala A., Engelhardt J.J.
Wood dust exposure in Ontario industry: the occupational health aspects
This report is based on contacts, a questionnaire survey, industrial hygiene surveys and a literature review. The physical processes leading to wood dust in the workplace atmosphere and the chemical composition of the dust are discussed. A synopsis of potential health hazards faced by workers in the wood products industry is presented. The control measures (engineering and work-practice) by which worker exposure may be reduced are discussed. Estimates of the numbers of workers who are exposed to wood dust and of the concentrations to which they are exposed are given. The attitudes of management and labour representatives, and of the scientific and occupational-health communities are presented. Regulatory control options available to the government are discussed and compared with regulatory approaches adopted by other jurisdictions. The report concludes with suggestions for further research into wood-dust toxicity and for programmes aimed at reducing exposure.
Ontario Ministry of Labour Library, 400 University Avenue, 10th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, 1985. Vol.1: 171p. Illus. 137 ref.; Vol.2: 133p. Illus.

CIS 87-485 Nelkin D., Hilgartner S., Brown M.S., Raymond C.A., Jasanoff S., Sagoof M.
The language of risk
This collection of essays results from a project on determining workers' perceptions of occupational risks. The chapters cover: analysing risk; political language of risk and defining occupational health; worker access to hazard information; conflicting journalistic ideologies; ethical conflicts in occupational medicine; misrule of law at the US OSH Administration; sense and sentiment in OSH programmes (emotional and economic approaches).
Sage Publications Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA, 1985. 200p. Bibl.

CIS 87-157 An introduction to the hazard communication standard
A slide-tape programme on chemical safety with 82 slides covering the following: hazard determination; material safety data sheets; labels; written hazard communication programme, employee information and training; trade secrets.
US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Room N3641, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 1985. 18p.+ 82 slides + sound tape.

CIS 86-1537 Roberts N.J., Michaelson S.M.
Epidemiological studies of human exposures to radiofrequency radiation
The health effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) remain undefined and controversial. Epidemiological studies of human exposure to RFR are confounded by difficulties in determining the type and true extent of exposures, in selecting an appropriate control group, in determining the existence and influence of many concomitant environmental factors, and in establishing the presence and measuring the frequency or severity of subjective complaints as well as objective findings in the studied populations. This paper reviews reported RFR effects on general health, growth and development, physiological systems such as the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and organs such as the eye. Criteria for reliable epidemiological studies are presented to allow critical analysis of such reports.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.56, No.3, p.169-178. 57 ref.

CIS 86-1745
Chemical Manufacturers Association
Risk analysis in the chemical industry
Papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (Washington, DC, USA, 23-24 Sep. 1985). Titles: risk assessment for chemicals, an overview; risk assessment: introduction and overview; hazard assessment: considerations in the design and interpretation of studies; exposure assessment in risk analysis; occupational exposure assessment; some capabilities, limitations, and pitfalls in the quantitative risk assessment of formaldehyde; EPA assessment of formaldehyde under the Toxic Substances Control Act; improving quantitative risk estimates with mechanistic data: the case of formaldehyde; environmental risk assessment (evaluating environmental exposure to chemicals; the toxicological data base and decision making); risk assessment issues presented by 1,3-butadiene; risk analysis for physical hazards: a toxic chemical case study; prioritising health risk assessments; some issues in the quantitative modeling portion of cancer risk assessment; risk analysis and its role in managing risk.
2501 M Street, NW, Washington DC 20037, USA, 1985. 269p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$39.00.

CIS 86-1741 Guidelines for hazard evaluation procedures
These guidelines were brought together by a task force of the AIChE's Center for Chemical Plant Safety. They reflect procedures that have been developed, adopted and used by many chemical and petrochemical companies throughout the world. The manual describes and categorises 11 hazard evaluation procedures, and discusses the selection and use of each.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1985. 204p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$75.00 (US$35.00 for AIChE members); US$10.00 postage outside USA.

CIS 86-1048 Ethylene oxide
Taking into account available data concerning the alkylating nature of ethylene oxide, the reproducible positive carcinogenic findings in experimental animals, the overwhelmingly positive in vivo mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests, and the epidemiological findings suggesting an increase in the incidence of human cancer, ethylene oxide should be considered as probable human carcinogen, and its levels in the environment should be kept as low as feasible.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1985. 79p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.9.00.

CIS 86-1146 Hoffmann J.M., Maser D.C.
Chemical process hazard review
Based on a symposium at St. Louis, Missouri (USA), 8-13 April 1984, this book provides a comprehensive discussion of potential hazards of new and existing chemical processes. It is intended for process developers and safety personnel. Contents: chemical process hazard review; process hazard review in a chemical research environment; hazard evaluation in process development; risk assessment techniques for experimentalists; hazard and operability study, a flexible technique for process system safety and reliability analysis; hazard avoidance in the processing of pharmaceuticals; thermochemical hazard evaluation; thermal runaway reactions - hazard evaluation; the thermochemical and hazard data of chemicals - estimation using the ASTM CHETAH prgramme; kinetic and reactor modeling - hazard evaluation and scale-up of a complex reaction; the nitration of 5-chloro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole - risk assessment before pilot plant scale-up.
American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth St., NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1985. 121p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 86-1002 Propylene Oxide
Exposure of man to propylene oxide mainly occurs through inhalation at the workplace. Taking into account the body of available data - the alkylating nature of propylene oxide, the formation of DNA adducts, the positive response in in vitro mutagenesis assays, the carcinogenic effects in animals at the sites of entry into the body, and the absence of adequate data on cancer in human beings - propylene oxide should be regarded as if it presented a carcinogenic risk for man, and levels in the environment should be kept as low as feasible.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1985. 53p. 99 ref. Price: SF.8.00.

CIS 86-874 Urquhart J., Heilmann K.
Risk watch: the odds of life
This highly readable book provides a scientifically based, yet easily understandable, guide to the evaluation of hazards in life. Chapter 8 (Risk-related codewords) has a detailed discussion of the risks posed by some substances frequently found in the working environment (dioxin, asbestos and formaldehyde) as well as discussions of regulatory problems and of the dangers (real and imaginary) of nuclear power.
Facts on File Publications, Telford Road, Bicester, Oxon OX6 0XD, United Kingdom, 1985. 214p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: £11.95.

CIS 86-672 Some issues important in developing basic radiation protection recommendations
Proceedings of a meeting held 4-5 April, 1984, in Washington, DC (USA). The scientific papers include: an overview of human risk assessment; time-response models in radiation risk estimation; effect of age, sex, ethnic and individual differences on risk estimation and the probability of causation; effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation; incidence and mortality as bases for determing risks; genetic impact of low-level ionising radiation; non-stochastic effects of ionising radiation; internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters; dosimetric aspects; implications of risk information for the NCRP programme. A lecture on limitation and assessment in radiation protection is followed by briefing papers and reports of NCRP committees on effects and exposure criteria for radiofrequency fields, mammography, radiation exposure and injury, international units and exposure control in nuclear emergencies.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Washington, DC 20014, USA, 1 Mar. 1985. 325p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 86-867 Mattila M.K.
Job load and hazard analysis: a method for the analysis of workplace conditions for occupational health care
Report on the development of a simple, standardised method for the investigation of work load and occupational hazards. The method involves several stages of information gathering, a rating scale for a preliminary job hazard analysis and a detailed analytical procedure. Special comments are made on conclusions, proposals, follow-up, reliability of job-related data and validity. The appendices include a checklist for information already available, a form for preliminary job hazard analysis and a form for a description and assessment of job load and hazard analysis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1985, Vol.42, No.10, p.656-666. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 86-375 Knave B.G., Wibom R.I., Voss M., Hedström L.D., Bergqvist U.O., Carlsson L.L., Levin M.I., Nylén P.R., Böös S.R., Calissendorf B.M., Nyman K.G., Lidén C., Wahlberg J.E.
Work with video display terminals among office employees [in 5 parts]
Aspects covered in this major epidemiologic study of 400 Swedish VDT operators: subjective symptoms and discomfort; physical exposure factors; ophthalmologic factors; refraction, accommodation, convergence and binocular vision; dermatologic factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1985, Vol.11, No.6, p.457-493. Illus. 82 ref.

CIS 86-477 Nilsson E., Mikaelsson B., Andersson S.
Atopy, occupation and domestic work as risk factors for hand eczema in hospital workers
Questionnaire and interview study of 2452 newly employed hospital workers, with follow-up over 20 months. Atopic dermatitis increased the odds of developing hand eczema by 3 times, and was correlated with greater severity of the eczema. "Wet" hospital work increased the odds by a factor of 2 compared with office ("dry") work. Two domestic factors (care of children under 4 years of age and absence of a dish-washing machine) also increased the risk of eczema; in combination with wet jobs at work, the factors increased the odds by a factor of 4. Although eczema was more common in women than in men, this is probably due to differences in the tasks performed by the 2 sexes.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1985, Vol.13, No.4, p.216-223. 19 ref.

CIS 86-416 Withers R.M.J., Lees F.P.
The assessment of major hazards: the lethal toxicity of chlorine - Part 1, Review of information on toxicity; Part 2, Model of toxicity to man
In the first part, the literature is reviewed and evaluated and the results are used in the 2nd part to derive a revised estimate for the lethal toxicity of chlorine to man. Mortality is expressed in terms of a lethal toxic load which is a function of concentration and time. The concentrations lethal at the 50% level for a 10min exposure with a standard level of activity are estimated at 433, 173 and 364ppm for the regular, vulnerable and average population, respectively and those for a 30min exposure as 250, 100 and 210ppm respectively. A methodology for the application of the toxicity relationships in hazard assessments is given.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Dec. 1985, Vol.12, No.3, p.225-302. Illus. 230 ref.

CIS 86-571 Persson J., Kilbom Å., Jonsson B.
Risk factors for work related disorders of the neck and shoulder - a 2-year study of individual risk factors
Belastningsrelaterade besvär i nacke och skuldror - en studie över individuella riskfaktorer [en sueco]
96 women in the electronics industry were followed over a 2-year period. Their work was traditionally "light", characterised by repetitive arm movements, short work cycles and static work postures. The independent variables studied were: muscle strength, previous medical history, productivity, hobbies and work technique. By stepwise multiple regression analysis these independent variables were related to frequency, severity and localisation of occupational cervico-brachial disorders (OCD), subdivided into 4 stages. Working technique, previous sick-leave and high productivity imply an increased risk of OCD. Static muscle strength and change of working tasks could be identified as predictors for improvement.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 117p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: Swe.cr.45.00.

CIS 86-133 Henschler D.
Passive smoking in the workplace
Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Scientific background of the decision to include a new paragraph on "passive smoking" in the chapter on carcinogenic substances of the 1985 MAC list of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Commission for the Study of Harmful Industrial Substances analysed the conditions of exposure to tobacco smoke by the non-smoker, it reviewed the results of epidemiological research and it evaluated the results of research in man and in animals involving mutagenic and carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke. In conclusion, it is stated that tobacco smoke contains a mixture of substances harmful to the non-smoker in the workplace, that tobacco smoke is probably the harmful substance to which workers are most widely exposed and that tobacco smoke inhaled passively should be considered on the same basis as other harmful and carcinogenic substances or mixtures.
Senatskommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kennedyallee 40, 5300 Bonn 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 34p. 95 ref.

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