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Unit: Harmful dusts, gases and vapours - Module: Making a survey
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. Two segments: 1 - Making a survey (recognition of hazards; inspection tools; planning a survey of air contamination; making a survey; interpretation of results; variation of results from a survey; control of airborne contaminants); 2 - Sample survey of exposure to wood dust in a joiners' shop.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, Hamps., United Kingdom, 1987. 81p. Illus.
Dangerous chemical reactions
Réactions chimiques dangereuses [en francés]
This publication contains extracts of information from 2760 data sheets on dangerous chemical reactions published by INRS between 1972 and 1980. More than 4000 chemical compounds and mixtures are included. Reactions are considered dangerous if they are exothermic and result in a sudden deflagration, fire, explosion or projection of materials when subject to the addition of another substance, or to heat, shaking or shock. Reactions that release a toxic gas, evidently dangerous if inhaled, are not mentioned unless they produce an effect listed above. The book is aimed at chemists and others working with chemical products in laboratories, manufacturing plants, storage areas etc.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1987. 1st ed. Bibl.
Miyashita K., Kasamatsu T., Iwata H.
Occupational and socio-environmental effects on the vibration syndrome
The occupational history of 403 chain-saw workers in the private forestry sector was recorded at yearly examinations for 10 years. Subjects were divided into 2 groups. Group I consisted of 182 chain-saw workers who remained healthy or were in a very early stage of vibration disease. Group II consisted of 221 retired chain-saw workers who were in an advanced stage of vibration disease and who needed medical treatment. The factors which adversely influenced the stage of vibration disease were: beginning to operate chain saws earlier in one's career; beginning to operate chain saws at a more advanced age; more operating hours per day and more total working hours in the forest per day; going to the forest by motorbike or staying at a hut in the deep mountains in winter; drinking more than 540mL of "sake" or more than 3 bottles of beer per day.
Wakayama Medical Reports, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.3/4, p.69-75. 10 ref.
Bill 79 (Chapter 29 Statutes of Ontario): An Act to amend the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Ontario]
Amendments to the Occupational Health and Safety Act (see CIS 87-730). Its main feature is the addition of a section on the compulsory maintenance of hazardous materials inventory where such materials and agents are present in the work place.
Queen's Printer, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1987. 7p.
Validation of fluid modeling techniques for assessing hazards of dense gas cloud dispersion
Data from 26 dense gas field experiments are compared with physical model simulations. In general the model clouds are very similar in appearance, they spread and travel at correct rates, measured concentrations compare very well, and peak concentrations are often predicted to within a factor of two or better. Model simulations where specific gravity, volume flux ratio and Froude number equality are maintained produce the most successful predictions of field concentrations. When only volume flux ratio and flux Froude number equality are stipulated, peak concentration isopleths are preserved, but the time of arrival and departure of the dense clouds is distorted. Field/fluid model comparisons reveal that lower flammability distances for liquefied natural gas or propane spills are predicted within a standard deviation of 25% with a 90% level of confidence.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1987, Vol.15, No.3, p.377-417. Illus. 31 ref.
Mur J.M., Meyer-Bisch C., Pham Q.T., Massin N., Moulin J.J., Cavelier C., Sadoul P.
Risk of lung cancer among iron ore miners: A proportional mortality study of 1,075 deceased miners in Lorraine, France
A study of 1,075 iron ore miners in Lorraine, France, who died between 1960 and 1976 showed a significant excess of lung cancer mortality. Moreover, proportionate lung cancer mortality increased with the duration of work underground (proportionate mortality ratio = 4.24 for subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years) and was higher among pneumoconiotic (siderotic) miners than among nonpneumoconiotic miners. These results were confirmed by a case-control study nested in the mortality study. Smoking habits could not be estimated retrospectively with sufficient accuracy to be taken into account. Occupational factors may also play a role; radiation exposure can be ruled out, but dust exposure may be considered as an aetiologic factor owing to the relation between siderosis and lung cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.762-768. 39 ref.
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: identity, properties, analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and man; evaluation of human health risks and environmental effects; recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 89p. Bibl. Price: CHF 10.00.
The problems of technological change are covered. Discussed are: definitions of "new technology" with illustrations; perceptions of hazard and risk recognition; problems and opportunities; successes and failures with new technology; management of change; conclusions.
Occupational Safety and Health, June 1987, Vol.17, No.6, p.16-19. Illus. 11 ref.
This evaluation of the data includes: summary, conclusions and recommendations; physical characteristics, dosimetric concepts and measurement; natural background and man-made magnetic fields; mechanisms of interaction; biological effects of static and time-varying magnetic fields; human studies; health effects assessment; standards and their rationales; protective methods and ancillary hazards.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 197p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 16.00.
Risk assessment and project development - Considerations for the chemical industry
Popularised description of some techniques used for the assessment of risks in the chemical industry: Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP); inherent hazard analysis; hazard indices; quantified risk analysis.
Safety Practitioner, Oct. 1987, Vol.5, No.10, p.10-16. Illus. 10 ref.
Arfini G., Mutti A., Vescovi P., Ferroni C., Ferrari M., Giaroli C., Passeri M., Franchini I.
Impaired dopaminergic modulation of pituitary secretion in workers occupationally exposed to styrene: Further evidence from PRL response to TRH stimulation
The prolactin (PRL) response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) was measured in 16 female workers exposed to styrene and in 16 sex- and age-matched controls with the aim of evaluating whether tubero-infundibular dopaminergic activity is impaired by styrene exposure. Only 1 exposed worker compared with 15 controls showed a normal response to TRH. In styrene workers, the median values of PRL in serum samples taken 10, 20, 30 and 45min after TRH administration were higher than the upper reference limit showing a threshold increase compared with the control values. The peak PRL level correlated with the urinary excretion of styrene metabolites. In 2 women who had changed work, the PRL response to TRH was normal after they had been removed from exposure for 2 months. These findings suggest that styrene exposure impairs the dopaminergic modulation of pituitary secretion. Such an effect might explain subjective symptoms and behavioural disturbances that are often recorded among styrene exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.826-830. Illus. 19 ref.
Rotational shifts: are they harmful to workers' health?
The literature is reviewed and a discussion is held with a specialist to determine the effects of rotational shift work. Lack of sleep and serious physical-health and mental-stress problems are found. The benefits and advantages are also pointed out. Indicators for monitoring the effects, shift factors and trade union involvement are discussed.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 1987, Vol.49, No.10, p.54-57. Illus.
Toxicology and hazard assessment of 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone II)
Potential adverse health effects from occupational exposure to 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP) are reviewed and hazards assessed. Further toxicologic evaluations should be conducted using only high-purity material that is free from possibly confounding impurities and stabilisers. Safety considerations when handling the material are included.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.42, No.5, p.292-296. 35 ref.
Thomas T.L., Stewart P.A., Stemhagen A., Correa P., Norman S.A., Bleecker M.L., Hoover R.N.
Risk of astrocytic brain tumors associated with occupational chemical exposures
A case-referent study was conducted on the risk of brain tumours among workers exposed to organic chemicals in petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing. The cases (N = 300) were white men aged ≥ 30 years with a confirmed diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytoma, or a mixed glioma with astrocytic cells. The referents (N = 386) were white men who died from causes other than brain tumour, epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease, suicide, or homicide and were frequency-matched with the cases on age at death, year of death, and study area. No statistically significantly elevated odds ratios were associated with employment in the chemical industry. The risk of astrocytic tumours was elevated among the subjects with production or maintenance jobs in petroleum refining; however, it decreased with length of employment. There were nonsignificant excess risks of astrocytic tumours among the men exposed to cutting fluids or organic solvents and also among the subjects exposed to lubricating oils, organic solvents, or cutting fluids for ≥ 20 years.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1987, Vol.13, No.5, p.417-423. 29 ref.
Assessment of concentration peaks in setting exposure limits for air contaminants at workplaces, with special emphasis on narcotic and irritative gases and vapors
This review and criteria document for Nordic countries discusses mathematical models of toxic effects; history of the time-weighted average and short-term exposure limits in various countries; effects of concentration peaks from the toxicokinetic standpoint (alcohols, esters, ketones, hydrocarbons, chlorinated and nitro hydrocarbons). Considerations for the setting of limits are described.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1987, Vol.13, No.5, p.389-398. Illus. 45 ref.
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary and conclusions; identity, properties, analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in-vitro test systems; effects on man; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 72p. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary and conclusions; identity, properties, analytical methods; sources in the environment, environmental transport and distribution; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in vitro test systems; effects on man; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment; recommendations; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 67p. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.
Scientific risk assessment and the regulation of human cancer risks: Background and new directions
The history of the development of regulating risk assessment methodology with particular reference to potential carcinogens is discussed. The scientific basis for possible improvements in risk assessment methodology for potential carcinogens is identified and the significance of the potential improvements is considered with special reference to the health professional. Topics discussed were: the key role of industrial hygiene professionals; the beginnings of risk assessment; extrapolation models; the future of risk assessment (pharmacokinetics, assumptions, model improvements); a new problem of a range of values; and new areas for quantitative risk assessment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1987, Vol.48, No.9, p.798-803. Illus. 23 ref.
Williams M.A., Petratis M.M., Baechle T.R., Ryschon K.L., Campain J.J., Sketch M.H.
Frequency of physical activity, exercise capacity, and atherosclerotic heart disease risk factors in male police officers
A total of 171 male police offers volunteered to assess risk factors for developing atherosclerotic heart disease and to evaluate the relation of fitness to risk. Substantial numbers of offices had elevated risk: 22% were smokers, 76% had elevated cholesterol, 26% had elevated triglycerides, 16% had elevated BP, and 60% had elevated body fat. Increased fitness was associated with decreased risk. Compared with Group II (moderate fitness) or Group III (low fitness) Group I (high fitness) had significantly lower values of body fat, diastolic BP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, lipid ratios, triglycerides, and smoking incidence. Low fitness was associated with the highest prevalence of abnormal exercise tests. Police officers may have a high prevalence of risk and increased fitness may be associated with reduced risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1987, Vol.29, No.7, p.596-600. 30 ref.
Health experience of workers in the petroleum manufacturing and distribution industry: A review of the literature
This review, concentrating on the effects of exposure to motor fuels, revealed a deficit in mortality due to all types of cancer. The possibility exists that occupational factors may play a part in the pathogenesis of brain cancer and renal diseases. The evidence for a link between occupational factors and other health effects is weak.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.475-497. 70 ref.
Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational exposure to benzene [USA]
The 1978 US standard on occupational exposure to benzene (see CIS 78-1937) was vacated (voided) by the US Supreme Court in 1980, which meant that the old (1971) OSHA standard of 10ppm remained in effect. After further risk assessment, OSHA issued this reduced standard, reducing the permissible exposure limit from 10ppm to an 8h TWA of 1ppm and a short-term exposure limit of 5ppm. The effective date of the standard is 10 Dec. 1987. The risk assessment that led to the standard, including both epidemiologic studies and animal experiments and the reasons for the adoption of this standard, are discussed in detail. Also included: technological, economic and environmental aspects of the new standard, exposure monitoring, respiratory protection, protective clothing, medical surveillance, communication of benzene hazards to employees, recordkeeping, a substance safety data sheet on benzene.
Federal Register, 11 Sep. 1987, Vol.52, No.176, p.34460-34578. Also available separately from: OSHA Office of Publications, US Department of Labor, Room N-3101, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA.
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Silica and some silicates
This monograph covers: occurrence and production; biological and chemical properties; biological data relevant to carcinogenic risk; data summaries for the substances. Substances included: silica, wollastonite, attapulgite, sepiolite, talc, and erionite.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 289p.
Brownson R.C., Chang J.C.
Exposure to alcohol and tobacco and the risk of laryngeal cancer
The association between various risk factors and laryngeal cancer was evaluated using a case-control design. The analysis was limited to white males and included 63 cases and 200 controls. The odds ratios associated with previous tobacco use, adjusted for age and alcohol use, followed an increasing linear trend. Similarly, a dose-response relation between alcohol use and laryngeal cancer was identified. The risk for laryngeal cancer was increased synergistically by alcohol and tobacco. After controlling for alcohol and tobacco, the only occupational category with an elevated risk was non-construction labourers. Further studies of the interaction between alcohol and tobacco, occupational factors, and laryngeal cancer aetiology are suggested.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1987, Vol.42, No.4, p.192-196. 31 ref.
Ramos Antón A.
Procedimiento para el análisis de riesgos de operación - Método HAZOP/Procedimiento para el análisis de riesgos de operación - Método HAZOP
The major accidents (fires, explosions, release of dangerous substances into the environment) in recent years involving industrial plants have made both the authorities and industries aware of the need for new and more efficient methods of accident prevention. This has led to the development of major hazard analytical procedures starting at the planning stage and then continuing through the whole life of the plant. This article describes the HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Studies) method and covers the procedures, the different stages of application and the analysis of the results obtained. Numerous charts are included in the article.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1987, No.101, p.38-49. Illus. 8 ref.
Amenazas y riesgos biológicos; Aplicaciones de las biotecnologías/Amenazas y riesgos biológicos; Aplicaciones de las biotecnologías
First part of a review article concerning the risks related to the rapid development of biotechnology, especially in the field of genetic engineering. Contents: the biological revolution and its consequences; risks and threats in biology; impacts of the biotechnological development; prevention of accidents; the problems of genetic engineering; future perspectives; security and regulations concerning biotechnology.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1987, No.101, p.9-22. Illus.
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: identity, properties, and analysis; sources of human and environmental exposure; transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effect on organisms in the environment, on animals and on man; evaluation of human risks and effects on the environment; recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 236p. Bibl.
This evaluation of toxicity data includes: identification, properties and analysis; sources, transport and distribution; levels of human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms and animals; effects on man; evaluation of health risks for man; recommendations. Repeated inhalation exposure to 40-800mg/m3 may lead to central nervous system depression and gastrointestinal and liver abnormalities. 1,2-dichloroethane is carcinogenic for rats and mice when administered by gavage. 1,2-dichloroethane should therefore be considered as presenting a carcinogenic risk to man. Levels in the environment should be kept as low as feasible.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 90p. Bibl.
Hantula V., Roto P., Kangasniemi T., Oksa P., Mattila M.
Systematic workplace survey - Health and safety hazards in the construction industry
This manual written for occupational health personnel is intended to be a practical tool in the collection of the relevant information needed in order to make proper decisions and recommendations concerning risks on construction sites. Contents: monitoring of the risks; method for the survey; directions for the analysis; the working environment (physical and chemical factors); physical and mental strain; safety. Two work-sheets to be used in this systematic survey are appended.
Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1987. 48p. Illus. 8 ref.
Evaluation of hazards and safety measures in the working environment: Industrial hygiene
Evaluation des risques et des actions de prévention en milieu professionnel: hygiène industrielle [en francés]
Papers presented at a meeting devoted to the social value of occupational health research, held in Paris (France), Oct. 1985. Subjects discussed: methods of evaluation (epidemiology, animal experiments, short-term tests for hazard evaluation); means of identifying persons exposed to hazards and of measuring exposure levels; means of evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures; economic aspects of occupational exposure to carcinogens and noise.
Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, INSERM, Bureau de l'édition, 101 rue de Tolbiac, 75654 Paris Cedex 13, France, 1987. 229p. Illus. Bibl. Price: FF.120.00.
Comparing risk management practices at the local levels of government with those at the state and federal levels
The observations made point towards the conclusion that compared with state and federal officials, local government officials in the USA have little understanding of, hence little concern for, the magnitude of risk to citizens caused by various hazards. To the extent that it seems desirable to place risk-management type decisions in the hands of local government officials, they must develop some capacity for risk quantification and comparison. The findings are drawn both from generalised surveys of local and state decision makers and from analyses of specific cases. These case studies include the decision to: remove asbestos from schools; close down a copper smelting facility in Tacoma, WA; shut off contaminated drinking wells; site hazardous waste facilities; and store hazardous chemicals.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1987, Vol.15, No.1-2, p.256-296. Illus. 6 ref.
Risk assessment: controlling hazardous materials
Recent events such as the Bhopal chemical plant accident in India and the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in the USSR have demonstrated that technologies have the potential to release hazardous materials to the environment with catastrophic consequences. This paper discusses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and suggests that this methodology can be useful in the regulatory arena. This conclusion is based both on previous experience (e.g. the Reactor Safety Study) and growing interest in the methodology from many different sectors, including regulatory agencies such as EPA, NASA, OSHA, and NRC, the military, in addition to the private sector, such as insurance companies. Since human error is a major contributor to accident risk in large technologies, this paper also discusses at some length how such error may be quantified in risk assessments, as well as how risk may be reduced through improved management practices. Finally, regulatory developments in this area, and future directions for change, are also highlighted.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1987, Vol.15, No.1-2, p.123-135. Illus. 19 ref.
Paté-Cornell E., Boykin R.
Probabilistic risk analysis and safety regulation in the chemical industry
The recent evolution of risk regulations in general is discussed. The state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the chemical industry and the current use of the results by the industry and the regulatory agencies are examined. The methodology of chemical risk assessment for routine as well as catastrophic release is discussed. More specifically are examined the questions of how to assess and report the uncertainties involved in the risk analysis, and where to include conservativeness. As an illustration, the problem of uncertainties in the dose-response relationships for carcinogens is considered. The adequacy and feasibility of safety goals such as those proposed in the nuclear industry as a basis for regulatory standards are discussed. The notion of coherence of standards is explored and a proposal is made to treat explicitly the analytical uncertainties both in the assessment of the risk and in the safety goals.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1987, Vol.15, No.1-2, p.97-122. Illus. 59 ref.
Ricci P.F., Cox L.A.
De minimis considerations in health risk assessment
Absence of statutory guidance for determining "de minimis" threshold levels of risk which do not merit regulatory efforts has been identified as a critical regulatory problem by many, including recently the US Supreme Court. The development of a formal de minimis approach requires resolution of several legal and technical issues. Conceptual and legal rationales for a de minimis policy to determine plausible risk bounds for chronic health risks are presented. A conceptual framework for adopting generic de minimis policies is also developed. The findings suggest that there are several opportunities for applying this concept under existing statutory mandates.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1987, Vol.15, No.1-2, p.77-95. 14 ref.
Lognormal model for health risk assessment of fluctuating concentrations
Health risk assessments of exposures to harmful materials increasingly are required because of legal and economic pressures. An important part of the procedure is the mathematical model for the dose-effects relation. If a linear no-threshold relation is assumed, then the mean of fluctuating concentrations may be used for the calculation of health risk. For threshold and nonlinear relations the calculation with the use of the mean concentration is inaccurate because higher concentrations produce disproportionately higher effects. A mathematical model based upon lognormal concentrations and probit effects is proposed. Rather than monitoring concentrations for unlikely high values, the method requires estimation of their geometric mean and geometric standard deviation. A health risk assessment may then be calculated simply and conveniently from the charts and tables provided. The method clarifies some issues and the specifics of utilising and improving the required data.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1987, Vol.48, No.2, p.140-149. Illus. 27 ref.
Bernardinelli I., De Marco R., Tinelli C.
Cancer mortality in an Italian rubber factory
Cancer mortality in an Italian rubber factory [en ruso]
An attempt was made to identify any cancer hazards that might currently be affecting men employed in this type of work. A total of 4,917 male workers who first started working in a large rubber factory between 1962 and 1972 have been followed up until 31 January 1983. The number of deaths from all causes and from malignant neoplasms was determined and compared with the expected number of deaths. Mortality from all causes was 85% of that expected. A slight overall excess of deaths from cancer was found; this was due to the excess mortality in the 35-44 age group. A trend in mortality with duration of exposure was found for employees with 10yrs of follow-up or more. A high risk for some tumour sites emerged.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.44, No.3, p.187-191. Illus. 18 ref.
Babrouskas V., Levin B.C., Gann R.G.
New approach to fire toxicity data for hazard evaluation
The inadequacies of present smoke toxicity testing methods are discussed and a new methodology suggested. Is is based on the determination of a small number of gases; they must be identified and toxicity measurements made under fire conditions, using animals.
Fire Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1987, Vol.81, No.2, p.22-23, 27-28, 70-71. Illus. 34 ref.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA Final Rule - Preliminary assessment information and health and safety data reporting; Addition of chemicals [USA]
EPA is adding 4 chemical substances to 2 model information-gathering rules contained in the Toxic Substances Control Act (see CIS 89-23): the Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR) and the Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule. Manufacturers, processors and importers of these chemicals will be required to report end-use, exposure, volume and unpublished health and safety data to the EPA. The substances are: 2-butanone oxime; 2-propanol; 2-methoxy-2-methyl-propane; N- [5-[bis[2-(acetyloxy)ethyl]-amino]-2-[(bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-4-etho xyphenyl]-acetamide (Disperse Blue 79). In addition, a 5th substance (phosphoric acid, tributyl ester) was added to PAIR and is now designated for response within 12 months. Details of the 2 Rules and an economic analysis of their impact follow.
Federal Register, 14 Nov. 1986, Vol.51, No.220, p.41328-41331.
A review of hazard identification techniques and their application to major accident hazards
This report reviews the techniques available for identifying hazards associated with the processing, storage and handling of dangerous substances. The identification techniques fall into three categories: comparative methodology relies on experience in the form of codes or checklists; fundamental methodology aims to discover all possible conditions and deviations in order to identify those which may be hazardous; the failure logic diagram approach identifies and structures combinations or sequences of occurrences with accident potential. The report discusses each of these techniques and shows how they may be applied. In addition, explanations are given of check lists and their use; Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies, failure mode and effects analysis and fault logic diagrams. An example illustrates hazard identification techniques as applied to a hypothetical batch reactor process.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, 1986. 37p. 26 ref. GBP 5.00.
Bensiali A.K., Glendon A.I.
Unit: Risk assessment and control - Module: Safety inspection and auditing
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are 4 segments: 1 - Using checklists; 2 - Behaviour sampling; 3 - Health and Safety Audit design; 4 - Management performance in health and safety.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE, United Kingdom, 1986. 64p. Illus. 6 ref.
Unit: Risk assessment and control - Module: Accident investigation and reporting; Interpretation of accident data statistics
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are 6 segments: 1 - Accident investigating techniques; 2 - Interview techniques; 3 - Report writing and remedial treatments; 4 - Foundations of statistics; 5 - Statistical pietures (tables, histograms, bar charts, pie charts, scattergrams); 6 - Applied statistics.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth P01 3HE, United Kingdom, 1986. 160p. Illus.
Unit: Risk assessment and control - Module: Safety training
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are 4 segments: 1 - The need for safety training (the context; practical constraints; ideal aims; education and training: theories of training, skills, human/machine interfaces, errors); 2 - Defining safety trainees (legislative requirements; trainee selection procedures); 3 - Course design (objectives; content; presentation; the setting; trainers; trainees; timing and scheduling); 4 - planning and running a training course (including a case study of a training course on chemical hazards and safety).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Department of Design, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1986. 84p. Illus. 11 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Some chemicals used in plastics and elastomers
This review covers: chemical and physical properties; production, use, occurrence and analysis; biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity; evaluation of 20 compounds. Substances covered: acrylamide, n-butyl acrylate, ethyl and methyl acrylates, vinyl acetate, vinyl bromide, vinyl fluoride, 1,3-butadiene, 4-vinylcyclohexene, vinylidene chloride and fluoride, 11-aminoundecanoic acid, caprolactam, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-4,4'-diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate, 2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine, melamine, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and its dihydrochloride, dichloroacetylene.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, Vol.39, 1986. 412p. Bibl. Price: CHF 60.00.
Sandén Å., Järvholm B.
Pleural plaques, respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in shipyard workers exposed to man-made mineral fibres
In a cross-sectional study, the frequencies of respiratory symptoms, pleural plaques and ventilatory function in shipyard workers with (n = 938) and without (n = 774) man-made mineral fibre (MMMF) exposure were compared. In men with 10 years of exposure to MMMF, coughing with phlegm was found to be somewhat more common (rate ratio = 1.3; P<0.01). No difference in ventilatory function, as measured by FEV1 or FVC, was found. Men with MMMF exposure had pleural plaques slightly more often (rate ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8). The influence of possible unadjusted confounding factors such as asbestos exposure is discussed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1986, Vol.36, No.3, p.86-89. 14 ref.
Environmental Protection Agency
Guidelines for carcinogenic risk assessment [USA]
These guidelines are non-binding policy statements, with no direct effect on the regulated community. It is emphasised that risk assessment is on a case-by-case basis, giving full consideration to all relevant scientific information. Contents: hazard identification (physical and chemical properties, routes and patterns of exposure; structure-activity relationships; metabolic and pharmacokinetic properties; toxicologic effects; short-term, long-term and human tests; weight of the evidence); dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterisation; the EPA Classification System for categorising weight of evidence for carcinogenicity. Appendices contain responses to comments from outside the Agency on, among other topics: inference guidelines; evaluation of benign tumours; transplacental and multigenerational animal bioassays; maximum tolerated doses; mouse liver tumours; quantitative estimates of risk.
Federal Register, 24 Sep. 1986, Vol.51, No.185, p.33992-34003. 29 ref.
Environmental Protection Agency
Guidelines for mutagenicity risk assessment [USA]
These guidelines are non-binding policy statements, with no direct effect on the regulated community. It is emphasised that risk assessment is on a case-by-case basis, giving full consideration to all relevant scientific information. Contents: discussion of concepts related to heritable mutagenic risk; test systems; qualitative assessment (hazard identification): mutagenic activity, chemical interactions in the mammalian gonad, weight-of-evidence determination; quantitative assessment (dose response, exposure assessment, risk characterisation).
Federal Register, 24 Sep. 1986, Vol.51, No.185, p.34006-34012. 28 ref.
Environmental Protection Agency
Guidelines for estimating exposures [USA]
These guidelines are non-binding policy documents, with no direct effect on the regulated community. It is emphasised that risk assessment is on a case-by-case basis, giving consideration to all relevant scientific information. Contents: general guidelines and principles (exposure and dose, decision path to determine the scope of an assessment, uncertainty); organisation and contents of an exposure assessment (overview, elements of the assessment). Appendices contain responses to comments from outside the Agency on, among other topics: the technical nature of the approach; measurement versus modelling; uses of information; worst-case estimates; uncertainty analysis; characterisation of populations; terminology problems.
Federal Register, 24 Sep. 1986, Vol.51, No.185, p.34042-34054.
Environmental Protection Agency
Guidelines for the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures [USA]
These guidelines are non-binding policy documents, with no effect on the regulated community. It is emphasised that risk assessment is on a case-by-case basis, giving consideration to all relevant scientific information. Contents: proposed approach to risk assessment (when data are available on the mixture, when data are available on similar mixtures, and when data are available on mixture components only); assumptions and limitations; mathematical models and the measurement of joint action. Appendices contain responses to comments from outside the Agency on, among other topics: mixtures of carcinogens and systemic toxicants; complex mixtures; dose additivity; interpretation of the Hazard Index; use of interaction data; uncertainties and the sufficiency of the data base.
Federal Register, 24 Sep. 1986, Vol.51, No.185, p.34014-34025. 40 ref.
García Goday J.M., Arbizu Duralde A.
Contaminantes atmosféricos - Base de los límites de exposición
General description of methods used for the determination of safe exposure limits for pollutants, including carcinogenic substances, in the work environment. Coverage: existing exposure limits in the United States (TLVs, ceiling values, combined effects of various substances); determination of TLVs (epidemiologic studies, the use of chemical analogies for new substances, animal and human experiments); limitations of the concept of TLVs; exposure limits in other countries (USSR, France); exposure limits in Spain; exposure limits for carcinogenic substances.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1986, Vol.33, No.131, p.16-24. 7 ref.
Mäkinen R., Kangas J., Korhonen K.
Chemicals in the pulp industry - Use, exposure, and health risks in Finland
Massateollisuuden kemikaalit - käyttö, altistuminen ja terveysvaarat Suomessa [en finlandés]
In 1982 nearly 5.4 million tons of pulp were produced in the mills which responded to the questionnaire (80% of all mills). In order to produce this amount, approximately 1.6 million tons of chemials were required. In addition, 3.4 million tons of chemicals were circulated inside the mills, mainly cooking chemicals. 223 chemicals were reported. Exposure does not appear to be very severe in the pulp industry. Gases and aerosols causing lung damage must be considered the most harmful factors. 44 mills, employing 8,048 workers, gave details on accidents; in 1982, there were 24 chemical accidents, which caused a loss of 340 work days.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1986, Vol.4, No.1, p.17-30. Illus. 21 ref.
Armstrong T.J., Radwin R.G., Hansen D.J., Kennedy K.W.
Repetitive trauma disorders: Job evaluation and design
Repetitive trauma disorders of the upper extremity are a major cause of lost work in many hand-intensive industries. Reported risk factors include repetitive and forceful exertions, certain postures, mechanical stress, low temperatures, gloves, and vibration. Risk factors can be identified with job analysis procedures based on traditional work-methods analysis. Risk factors can be controlled through reallocation of work, balancing of tools, selection of alternative tool designs, work relocation, selection of suitable hand protection, and elimination of hand exposure to low temperatures and vibration. Drawing-board manikins are used with computer-aided design systems to estimate the best work location for a given task.
Human Factors, June 1986, Vol.28, No.3, p.325-336. Illus. 59 ref.
Hazop and hazan - Notes on the identification and assessment of hazards. Second edition
Second edition of the Hazard Workshop Module first analysed as CIS 85-2034. It is primarily aimed at university students and those attending in-house training courses in industry. Contents: hazard identification and assessment; hazard and operability studies (hazop); hazard analysis (hazan); a manager's guide to hazard analysis; objections to hazop and hazan; sources of data and confidence limits; history of hazop and hazan.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1986. 94p. Illus. Bibl.
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