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  • Risk evaluation

1988

CIS 90-1987 Graham J.D., Green L.C., Robers M.J.
In search of safety: chemicals and cancer risk
This book analyses the controversies that arise in the US concerning the regulation of chemicals that are known or suspected to cause occupational cancer and gives some recommendations designed to clarify and strengthen the important role that science can play in the resolution of these problems. Contents: objectives and methods; setting regulatory priorities; interpreting the scientific evidence on formaldehyde and cancer, and on benzene and cancer; the problem of setting standards; quantifying cancer risks; science and policy conflict.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, USA, and 126 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SD, United Kingdom, 1988. 260p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 27.95 (in the UK).

CIS 90-1509 Chemical control program guide
This book provides a guide to the action to be taken in order to identify potential and actual health hazards arising from toxic substances in the workplace. Topics covered: general introduction to chemical hazards in the workplace and an outline of legal requirements in Canada; guidelines for establishing a chemical control programme and setting a policy directive; procedure for identifying chemicals and their potential hazards; consideration of how hazardous materials are used in the workplace and effectiveness of existing controls; controls and work practices; communication of information to supervisors and employees. A table gives examples of chemical contaminants arising from a range of industrial processes.
The Industrial Accident Prevention Association, IAPA, 2 Bloor St. W., 31st Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 2nd ed., 1988. 109p. 23 ref.

CIS 90-990 Maresch C.M., Cook M.R., Cohen H.D., Graham C., Gunn W.S.
Exercise testing in the evaluation of human responses to powerline frequency fields
Exercise testing of 11 young men was used to examine the effects of exposure to 60Hz (9kV/m, 16A/m) electric and magnetic fields. After exercise, examination of heart rate, body temperature and various biochemical indicators revealed no significant differences between exposed and unexposed conditions. However, during non-exercise sessions, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in heart rate when subjects were exposed to the electromagnetic fields.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1988, Vol.59, No.12, p.1139-1145. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 90-642 Lang R.
The use of hazard analysis at the design stage
Die Anwendung von Gefährdungsanalysen im Stadium der Projektierung [en alemán]
An automation programme in a metal-working factory was examined at the design stage for potential hazards. The various units of the production process, mainly the flexible manufacturing system and the transport and storing facilities, were analysed in order to identify risk factors. Hazards were eliminated and further safety requirements included in the project.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Feb. 1988, Vol.34, No.2, p.159-161. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 90-522 Mołocznik A.
Studies on physical and chemical properties of vegetable dust for the evaluation of risk in the working environment
Badania fizyko-chemicznych właściwości pyłów roślinnych dla oceny zagrożenia w środowisku pracy [en polonés]
A concept of integrated evaluation of the risk for human health posed by vegetable dust in the working environment is described, taking into consideration the pathogenic effect of dust on the respiratory tract and the thermo-kinetic properties of dust. The concept was based on: the physical and chemical parameters of airborne, settling and deposited dust; the maximum permissible concentration of total and respirable dust; the lower explosive limit. Verification studies were carried out in grain mills, as cereal dusts - in comparison with other vegetable dusts - occupy the foremost places in morbidity and accident rate statistics and affect the largest number of people.
Medycyna Wiejska, 1988, Vol.23, No.3, p.192-202.

CIS 90-17
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA Final Rule - Preliminary assessment information and health and safety data reporting: Addition of chemicals [USA]
EPA is adding 6 chemical substances to 2 model information-gathering rules contained in the Toxic Substances Control Act (see CIS 89-23): the Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR) and the Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule. Manufacturers, processors and importers of these chemicals will be required to report end-use, exposure, volume and unpublished health and safety data to the EPA. The substances are: 2-butenal (or: crotonaldehyde); tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate; tris(2-chloro-1-propyl)phosphate; tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate; tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate; tetrakis(2-chloroethyl)ethylene disphosphate. The first of these is designated for response within 12 months, while the others are recommended with intent-to-designate. A 7th substance, butanal, is also recommended without being designated for response within 12 months. Also discussed: the Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR); the Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule; economic analysis of the 2 rules.
Federal Register, 16 Nov. 1988, Vol.53, No.221, p.46279-46282.

CIS 90-227 Gun R.T., Grycorcewicz C., Esterman A.J., Bedwards J.B.
Ultralow volume application of organophosphate concentrate in grain terminals: A new occupational health hazard
The introduction of ultralow volume (ULV) application of the organophosphate pesticide Fenitrothion in grain terminals presents a risk to workers of skin contact with concentrate. Blood testing, by the Ellman method, of a group of 5 grain terminal workers working on grain treatment showed a lowering of mean red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC ChE) activity to 23 units/gmHb (normal value 28-40) with a range of 16-29. The probable cause was identified as percutaneous absorption of Fenitrothion concentrate by workers using ungloved hands to clean blocked drip feed nozzles. Modification of work practices was followed by a rise of mean RBC ChE to 33.6 units/gmHb (range 32-36).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1988, Vol.45, No.12, p.834-837. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 90-290 Gobbato F., Valentinuzzi C.
Exposure to radiowaves in physiotherapy
Esposizione a radioonde in fisioterapia [en italiano]
An assessment of the electromagnetic fields emitted from short and ultra short wave diathermy sources was made to evaluate the hazards to the operator and patient. In ultra short wave diathermy the power density depends on the direction of the emission and decreases with the square of the distance from the source. Regression functions between power density and distance were calculated and analysed statistically. It is not possible to construct a simple algorithm in short wave diathermy, so the field must be mapped from direct measurements. Operator safety is easy to achieve by following simple procedures. Particular caution must be used to protect the patient from exposure of critical biological organs.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1988, Vol.79, No.1, p.70-77. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-1984 The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride: a historical review and assessment
It is well established that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of vinyl chloride can cause angiosarcoma of the liver, but there is no convincing evidence that it causes cancer at other sites, or that it has teratogenic or heritable mutagenic effects in man. Various non-carcinogenic effects of chronic occupational exposure, collectively called "vinyl chloride disease" have not been reported in workers exposed to vinyl chloride after permissible levels were lowered to a few ppm in the early 1970s. Compliance with limits on industrial emissions and residual monomer in plastic products has reduced general exposure to negligible levels.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, B. 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 28 July 1988. 147p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-2025 Högström R.M., Gamberale F., Knave B., Törnqvist S.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
Health hazards in work relating to the production and distribution of electricity - Interim report 4. Employees' assessment of their working environment
Hälsorisker i arbete vid elproduktion och eldistribution - Delrapport 4. De anställdas bedömning av sin arbetsmiljö [en sueco]
Interim report from a study on the health hazards in the electric power production and distribution industry in Sweden (the Elmiljö study). The report describes how 681 workers evaluated their working conditions six months after starting work. This evaluation was then compared to the evaluation made by a group of safety engineers. Noise, electric and magnetic fields, heavy lifting and unfavourable work postures were considered to be the most common exposure factors. Generally the work environment of the linemen and the power plant personnel were considered to be more severe than the work environment of the other occupational categories.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 119p. 5 ref.

CIS 89-1419
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA Final Rule - Chemical Information Rules; Addition of Chemicals [USA]
EPA is adding 18 chemical substances to the list of substances identified in the Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR). Manufacturers and importers of these substances must submit production volumes, end uses and exposure data to the EPA. The Agency will use the tabulated data to evaluate risks associated with these substances. The substances are: barium chloride, bromine, 4-vinylcyclohexene, ferro-manganese, hydrocyanic acid, hydrofluoric acid, manganese oxide, molybdenum oxide, silver nitrate, palladium (II) chloride, phosphorus, selenium, silver, sodium fluoride, cobaltous sulfate, manganese (II) sulfate, tungsten carbide, vanadium oxide. Also included: rationale and objectives of the Rule; commentary on Rule; economic analysis.
Federal Register, 31 Mar. 1988, Vol.53, No.62, p.10387-10390.

CIS 89-1625 Eye irritation testing
This report discusses the Draize rabbit eye test and alternatives. The test may overestimate the ocular hazard to man in some cases, but appears to be effective in demonstrating the absence of ocular hazards. More data on human eye irritation must be collected if the correlation is to be improved. Alternative tests are insufficiently validated to replace the rabbit model, but some may be useful for initial screening. The various present systems for classifying ocular hazards are so different that a given chemical can be classified in several different ways on the basis of the same experimental data. Recommendations: modification of the test to minimise the number of animals used and the discomfort to which they are subjected; harmonisation of classification systems.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, B.63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 1988. 65p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-1591 Schmincke E.
Risks of hazardous substances of a product group as examplified by the polymer polystyrene
Schadstoffrisiken einer Produktgruppe am Beispiel des Kunststoffs Polystyrol [en alemán]
Polystyrene is used as an example for describing a new method of assessing the risk posed by chemical products and materials. The method is based on identifying hazardous substances arising at various stages of production, use and disposal. In the case of polystyrene, many toxic substances develop during its 5 production stages. Its disposal, too, is full of risks while its uses pose no hazards other than the release of residual components. It is recommended to improve the risk evaluation method by including a comparative analysis of risks involved in the production, use and disposal of a suitable substitute.
WSI Mitteilungen, Feb. 1988, Vol.41, No.2, p.78-87. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 89-1681 Gamberale F., Anshelm Olsson B., Eneroth P., Lindh T., Wennberg A., Andersson L.I., Hagman M., Johansson L., Ljungberg H., Törnqvist S., Östman U.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
Acute effects of ELF electromagnetic fields - A field study of linemen working with 400kV power lines
Akuta effekter av lĺgfrekventa elektromagnetiska fält - En fältstudie av linjearbetare i 400kV ledningar [en sueco]
26 experienced linemen were studied for two days while they performed simulated, routine inspection of insulators on steel poles carrying a 400kV power line. The first day the inspection was performed on a power line in service. Mean exposure was estimated to be 28kV/m and 23.3µT respectively. The second day the same work was performed on an identical power line which was not in service. The possible effects of exposure were studied using automated behavioral performance tests, EEG, a mood scale and a questionnaire for the assessment of subjective symptoms. Blood samples were also collected for each subject. The analysis did not, however, reveal any signiicant difference between the two conditions which could be attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 36p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 89-1338 Ditz D.W.
The risk of hazardous waste spills from incineration at sea
A critical assessment is presented of the risk of spills from hazardous waste incineration aboard ocean going vessels. The likelihood of spills is estimated on the basis of recent domestic and worldwide chemical tanker experience. The probability of a spill is significant for projections of future ocean incineration demand. The severity of spills is explored using mathematical models of chemical transport and fate. This analysis is site specific and presents upper and lower bounds on the average pollutants concentration from spills of polychlorinated biphenyls in Mobile Bay (Gulf of Mexico). Severe impacts on the water quality and marine life in this region would result from spills of less than the capacity of a single incineration vessel. Some inherent uncertainties in the analysis of these risks bear strongly on the reliability of the programme, the adequacy of contingency plans, and current libiliaty requirements.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1988, Vol.17, No.2, p.149-167. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 89-1285 Ĺesson B., Skerfving S., Mattiasson L.
Experimental study on the metabolism of triethylamine in man
Five healthy volunteers were exposed by inhalation to triethylamine (TEA; 4 or 8h at about 10, 20, 35, and 50mg/m3), a compound widely used as a curing agent in polyurethane systems. Analysis of plasma and urine showed that an average of 24% of the TEA was biotransformed into triethylamine-N-oxide (TEAO) but with a wide interindividual variation (15-36%). The TEA and TEAO were quantitatively eliminated in the urine. The plasma and urinary concentrations of TEA and TEAO decreased rapidly after the end of exposure (averge half time of TEA was 3.2h). There was excellent association between air levels of TEA and the urinary concentrations in samples obtained within 2h of the end of exposure. Thus the urinary level of TEA taken in this period is useful as a biological monitoring of exposure. An air concentration of 10mg/m3 corresponds to an average urinary concentration of about 40mmol/mol creatinine (at sedentary work).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1988, Vol.45, No.4, p.262-268. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-1196 Shaw G.M., Gold E.B.
Methodological considerations in the study of parental occupational exposures and congenital malformations in offspring
The existence of hazardous substances in the workplace has raised concerns about the potential of these substances for adverse reproductive effects. Identification of associations between parental occupational exposures and congenital malformations in the offspring may provide the opportunity for preventing such exposures and thus reduce the risk of malformations. However, there are many methodological considerations inherent in studying the potential relation between parental occupational exposures and congenital malformations in the offspring. Considerations relating to outcome include methods and timing of ascertaining cases with malformations, diagnostic criteria, and problems in grouping malformations for purposes of analysis. With regard to measuring exposures, issues include methods for obtaining valid estimates of the nature, duration, timing of exposure, and exposure-response relationship. Other methodological issues discussed include selection of appropriate reference groups, sample size, and multiple hypothesis testing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.6, p.344-355. 88 ref.

CIS 89-1320 Phosphine and selected metal phosphides
This evaluation of the toxicity data on phosphine and the phosphides of aluminium, magnesium and zinc includes: summary; identity, properties and analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in vitro test systems; effects on man; effects of human health risks and effects on the environment; recommendations; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. 100p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 13.00.

CIS 89-935 Richardson M.L.
Risk assessment of chemicals in the environment
Contents of this textbook: introduction and overview of present methodology; contribution of toxicology to risk assessment; accidental and intentional environmental pollution.
Royal Society of Chemistry, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1V OBN, United Kingdom, 1988. 579p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-967 Venart J.E.S.
Major hazards in the transport and storage of pressure liquefied gases
Proceedings of an international conference held at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, on 10-13 Aug. 1987. Contents: experiments; modelling and experiment; computer modelling; release; risk assessment.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Dec. 1988, Vol.20, Special issue. 393p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-553 Austin S.G., Sielken R.L.
Issues in assessing the carcinogenic hazards of ethylene oxide
Characterisation of the health risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure to ethylene oxide is made difficult by the limited dose-response information contained in the few published epidemiologic studies available, and the absence of toxicological data for chronic exposures in species other than the rat. Federal regulatory agencies have relied heavily on conventional quantitative risk assessment techniques in setting revised occupational exposure standards for ethylene oxide. This paper indicates the variability in risk assessment results that can be obtained using the multistage dose-response model and a single animal study depending on the method used to characterise risk, the health endpoint selected, the use of confidence intervals, and the method used to equate animal and human exposure levels. Selection of the most pessimistic options available in each of these four areas is shown to result in a virtually safe dose being characterised as 0.005ppb, whereas other reasonable assumptions yield a safe dose estimate of 1.3ppm.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.236-245. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 89-630 Schubert R.
Fire hazard analysis
Brandgefährdungsanalyse [en alemán]
This manual is intended for managers responsible for fire safety in their enterprises, and for others who are active in the practice of fire prevention. Chapters cover: fire prevention as a management task; basic problems in fire hazard analysis; organisation and carrying out of a fire hazard analysis; fire hazards of substances; systematics of fire hazard analysis; classification of fire safety measures; fire safety measures (fire prevention, limitation of fire spread, fire fighting personnel and equipment, evacuation and medical care). Reference is made to relevant standards and regulations of the German Democratic Republic, especially standard TGL 30002/01, "Concepts of Fire Safety".
Staatsverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 190p. Illus. 106 ref. Index.

CIS 89-618 Man-made mineral fibres
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary; identity, properties and analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental concentration and human exposure; deposition, clearance, retention, durability and translocation; effects on animals and in-vitro test systems; effects on man; evaluation of human health risks; recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. 165p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 19.00.

CIS 89-666 Martinez K.F., Sheehy J.W., Jones J.H., Cusick L.B.
Microbial containment in conventional fermentation processes
Walkthrough surveys were conducted by NIOSH at 6 US fermentation plants. About 200 bioaerosol samples were collected using a 2-stage cascade impactor. The highest measurement obtained was at a filter press where the geometric mean of total viable microorganisms was 5626 colony forming units/m3 with the predominant strain being the process microorganism. The data collected indicate that controls are most needed around high-energy oprerations where aerosolution is likely to occur, such as filtering operations, agitator shafts, and sampling ports. In addition, work practices are a major factor to be considered.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, June 1988, Vol.3, No.6, p.177-181. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 89-230 Thiocarbamate pesticides: A general introduction
This evaluation of the toxicity data includes: summary; identity, properties and analytical methods; sources of human and environmental exposure; environmental transport, distribution and transformation; environmental levels and human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms in the environment; effects on animals and in vitro test systems; effects on man; previous evaluations by international bodies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. 49p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.

CIS 89-227 Chromium
This toxicity data evaluation includes: physical and chemical properties and analytical methods; sources, transport and distribution; levels of human exposure; kinetics and metabolism; effects on organisms and animals; effects on man; evauation of health risks for man; recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1988. 197p. Bibl. Price: CHF 22.00.

CIS 89-274 Possible health hazards for cardiac pacemaker wearers from exposure to electromagnetic fields
This booklet covers how pacemakers work; types; susceptibility to electromagnetic interference; effects of electromagnetic fields on pacemaker performance; sources of interference; how to avoid interference; what the health and safety committee should do.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Mar. 1988. 5p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 88-1970 Paustenbach D.J.
Assessment of the developmental risks resulting from occupational exposure to select glycol ethers within the semiconductor industry
The hazards posed by the monomethyl and monoethyl ethers of ethylene glycol and their acetates are discussed. Included are: properties and uses; exposure hazard ratings; potential for exposure; personal protective equipment; developmental toxicology; hazard assessment (mutagenicity); reproductive toxicology tests; adequacy of the TLVs; sampling and analysis; risk assessment; skin absorption. The airborne concentration of the ethers is generally low enough to protect workers against reproductive and other toxic effects as long as dermal exposure is minimal.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.23, No.1, p.29-75. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-1993 Abribat J.C., Aussel H., Avignon M., Hou A., Huré P., Laforest J.C., Lardeux P., Millet B.
Introduction to technological risk analysis in chemical processes
Introduction ŕ l'analyse du risque technologique dans les procédés chimiques [en francés]
This document is designed to assist managers of small and medium size enterprises in examining the main aspects of safe plant operation through increased control over the chemical reactions they use. It also suggests some methods for solving certain of the problems mentioned. The contents include why, when, how and by whom a risk analysis should be undertaken: collection of basic data (substances, chemical reactions, plant), definition of safe conditions for normal process operation, systematic search for danger factors (substances, processes, plant, human and external factors), hazard classification and risk assessment, selection of preventive measures (technical measures, organisation, training, safety instructions and procedures). An appendix describes a real case of risk analysis in industry by various methods.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.131, Note No.1675-131-88, p.265-276. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 88-2061 Vandevyver B., Tobelem W.
Manufacture of lightweight wooden packaging. Hazards and means of prevention
Fabrication des emballages légers en bois - Etude des risques et mesures de prévention [en francés]
As a result of the alarming number of accidents recorded in the French lightweight packaging industry (106 accidents with lost time and 11 with permanent disability per 1000 workers in 1985), the INRS was requested to carry out a study on risk factors identification and to suggest methods for safety improvements. Contents: risk analysis; accident statistics, machines and installations (main task, related tasks and interventions, plant layout and circulation, waste disposal, noise); assembly line hazards: interventions by maintenance and assembly line workers; inadequate reliability of assembly lines and consequences thereof; attitudes and opinions of firms with regard to safety: management, workers and staff representatives, machine manufacturers; summary and safety guidelines for firms and manufacturers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.131, Note No.1674-131-88, p.255-264. Illus.

1987

CIS 95-544 Singleton W.T., Hovden J.
Riesgos y decisiones
Risk and decisions [en inglés]
Este trabajo contiene las comunicaciones presentadas y las discusiones mantenidas, que tuvieron lugar en un coloquio sobre el concepto de riesgo y los métodos para la toma de decisiones en materia de tecnología del riesgo y de gestión de la seguridad. En el sumario: conceptos y medidas del riesgo (probabilidades, psicología del riesgo, el riesgo bajo la óptica de un responsable de la seguridad, aspectos culturales); riesgo y comportamiento (riesgo subjetivo, percepción del riesgo, riesgo y tratamiento de la información, organización y seguridad en una plataforma petrolífera, riesgos mayores y comportamiento); riesgo y política general (elaboración de una política naciona, política institucional de los riesgos, riesgos en la industria, riesgos en las industrias de defensa, riesgos de cáncer debidos a los productos de alimentación y farmacéuticos.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester PO19 1UD, West Sussex, Reino Unido, 1987 (réimprimé en 1994). xv, 232p. Ref.bibl. Indice. Precio: GBP 15,95, USD 25,95.

CIS 91-1517 Wuorinen V.
Job hazard analysis
Analyse des dangers professionnels [en francés]
This information note discusses the four basic stages in conducting a job hazard analysis: selecting the job to be analysed, breaking the job down into a sequence of steps, identifying potential hazards and determining preventive measures to overcome these hazards. A sample job hazard analysis worksheet is included.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 9p. 5 ref.

CIS 90-1361 Chapman H., Holden P.L.
Feasibility study of the assessment of risks involved in the conveyance of explosives by road
This report examines the feasibility of applying the techniques of probabilistic risk assessment to the evaluation of the risk posed by conveyance of explosives. It highlights the differences between 5t loads conveyed by traditional means and 16t loads conveyed in freight containers. Various types of explosive loads are described and potential hazardous situations are identified together with the mechanisms by which they may occur. The application of risk assessment techniques to these hazardous situations has been investigated whenever possible. It is concluded that it appears feasible to undertake a risk assessment for the conveyance of explosives which would have a level of uncertainty attached for the results to be meaningful.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, Apr. 1987. 40p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 89-2022 Burström L., Landström U., Hagberg M., Öberg R.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
Exposure to vibrations among sheet-metal workers in the heavy engineering industry
Vibrationsexponering bland plĺtslagare inom tyngre verkstadsindustri [en sueco]
Report on an investigation concerning the dose of hand-transmitted vibrations among sheet-metal workers. The vibration levels were determined during normal working conditions on 36 hand tools. The results showed that the average level of vibrations were 5.5m/s2 from the grinders, 10.3m/s2 from the hammers and 1.5m/s2 from polishers. The average time of exposure, based on subjective and objective analyses, was close to 100 minutes per day. The exposure time was higher for the right hand than for the left one. The risk assessment, based on ISO 5349 indicated a finger blanching after 6-7 years in 10% of the exposed workers.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 23p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 89-913 Pleškov I.V., Kerimova T.T.
Role of cotton and flax dust in pathological changes in the upper respiratory tract
Rol' hlopkovoj i l'njanoj pyli v vozniknovenii patologičeskih izmenenij verhnego otrezka respiratornogo trakta [en ruso]
Medical examinations of 368 female workers exposed to mixed dust at a cotton-spinning mill and a flax-treating plant were carried out. Dust concentrations in the plants were at or slightly above the MAC. High levels of microbial contamination were found: 17,000/m3 at the cotton mill and 36,000/m3 at the flax treating plant. The high incidence of upper respiratory diseases and pathological changes of the mucosa of the nose, pharynx and larynx among the workers was probably due to the vegetable dust. Vasomotor rhinitis was the most common disorder.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1987, No.9, p.7-11. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 89-880 Gurova A.I., Drozzina N.A., Smoljar N.Ja., Zasorina I.N.
Basis for maximum allowable concentration for chrysanthemic acid, chrysanthemic ethyl ester and chrysanthemic chloranhydride in workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju PDK hrizantemovoj kisloty, ėtilovogo ėfira i hlorangidrida v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Chrysanthemic acid, ethyl chrysanthemate and chrysanthemoyl chloride - intermediates in the industial synthesis of the new insecticide neopyamine - were studied in animal experiments. The compouds are of moderate toxicity on intragastric administration, are only slightly absorbed by the skin, produce moderate irritation and do not provoke sensitisation. Of the 3, chrysanthemoyl chloride was the most toxic (LD50 = 160mg/kg, mouse) but was not embryotoxic or teratogenic. Maximum allowable concentrations of 10mg/m3 for chrysanthemic acid and ethyl chrysanthemate and 2mg/m3 for chrysanthemoyl chloride are proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1987, No.7, p.53-54. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 89-879 Balakin V.A.
The dust factor in the manufacture of metallised pellets
Pylevoj faktor v proizvodstve metallizovannyh okatyšej [en ruso]
Dust associated with the manufacturing of metallised pellets for steel production is supposed to be one of the main hazards of the process. Animal experiments showed that the toxicity and fibrogenicity of the dust are low. A maximum allowable concentration of 4mg/m3 (hazard class 4) for metallised pellet-related dust is proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1987, No.7, p.13-17. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-871 Manenko A.K., Kravec-Bekker A.K., Ivanova O.P., Sahnovskaja N.N., Drobjaz'ko V.P.
Comparative assessment of the toxicological characteristics of some derivatives of oxazolone (phosalone)
Sravnitel'naja ocenka toksičnosti i haraktera dejstvija na organizm nekotoryh proizvodnyh oksazolona (fozalona) [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological characteristics of phosalone and its precursors showed a decrease in their toxicity in the following order: benzoxazolone, 6-chlorobenzoxazolone, chloromethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolone, hydroxy methyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolinone. A MAC was established for benzoxazolone (1mg/m3). A Tentative Safe Exposure Level of 2mg/m3 was established for 6-chlorobenzoxazolone and chloromethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolone. A MAC of 3mg/m3 was recommended for hydroxymethyl-6-chlorobenzoxazolinone.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.36-38. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 89-870 Javorovskij A.P.
Comparative toxicological and hygienic assessment of polyoxypropylene epoxides and bases for group MACs for their volatile components in workplace air
Sravnitel'naja toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika polioksipropilenėpoksidov i obosnovanie gruppovoj PDK ih letučih komponentov v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Animal experiments were carried out to study polyoxypropylene epoxides (PE), a group of new compounds with similar toxicological characteristics. PE do not penetrate the skin but slightly irritate the skin and the conjunctiva. Acetone, toluene and epichlorohydrin, which separate out from PE at temperatures of 20-100°C produce hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Since PE have similar toxicological characteristics, the group MAC of 100mg/m3 as acetone has been set up for their volatile components in workplace air. These experiments demonstrated the possibility of setting group standards for newly synthesised epoxy resins representing homologous series.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1987, No.8, p.28-31. 6 ref.

CIS 89-941 Klein W., Kördel W., Kuhnen-Clausen D., Boose C.
Improvement of a procedure for the environmental hazard classification of new chemical substances
This report discusses a computer-based environmental hazard ranking (EHR) system for new substances developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. The system uses the Base Set data required for the notification of new substances according to Annex VII of the Directive 79/831/EEC. It provides sufficient flexibility to be able to consider additional tests according to Annex VIII of the Directive (Level 1) and thus allows extension of the primary assessment by confirmation or reduction of the estimated hazard within the same system. The EHR has been improved in cooperation with the French working group 'Chimie et Ecologie' which developed the CeE-system working with interactions. Quality and scoring of the Base Set data have been standardised in a way that the harmonised systems produce identical results.
Fraunhofer-Institute for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5948 Schmallenberg-Grafschaft, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 48p. Illus.

CIS 89-997 Chapman H., Holden P.L.
Feasibility study of the assessment of risks involved in the conveyance of explosives by road
This report studies the feasibility of the assessment of risks involved during the conveyance of explosives by road. It highlights the differences between 5 tonne loads conveyed by traditional means and 16 tonne loads which are conveyed in freight containers. In particular it has identified the hazardous situations that can arise and the mechanisms by which they might occur. The application of risk assessment techniques to these hazardous situations has been investigated wherever possible and the information requirements to carry out such an assessment have been specified.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, 1987. 46p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 89-864 Gžegockij M.J., Kuz'minov B.P., Šarova T.I., Kokot V.P., Žuk S.Šč., Vus M.M.
Basis for a maximum allowable concentration for O-Methyl-O-ethylchlorothosphosphate in workplace air
Obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii O-metil-O-ėtilhlortiofosfata v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Animal experiments revealed that O-methyl-O-ethylchlorothiophosphate is moderately toxic (LD50 700-800mg/kg in rats and mice) and cumulative. It produces local irritation, affects the nervous system and suppresses cholinesterase in blood. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.3mg/m3 (aerosol, hazard class 2) for O-methyl-O-ethylchlorothiophosphate is proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1987, No.6, p.57-58. 2 ref.

CIS 89-863 Sivkov G.V., Lomonova G.V., Klimova E.I., Gorbunova N.A.
Basis for a maximum allowable concentration for oxalon fibres in workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij pyli volokna oksalon v vozduhe rabočej zony [en ruso]
Animal experiments to study the toxicological characteristics of oxalon fibres showed their low toxicity on intraabdominal and intragastric administration. On intratracheal administration, oxalon dust is not fibrogenic, but does slightly irritate pulmonary tissue. A maximum allowable concentration of 10mg/m3 (hazard class 4) for oxalon fibres in workplace air is proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1987, No.6, p.56-57. 2 ref.

CIS 89-971 Woodward J.L.
Proceedings of the international symposium on preventing major chemical accidents
Papers at this symposium (Washington D.C., USA, 3-5 Feb. 1987) were technical in nature and covered: hazard identification; storage and transfer of hazardous chemicals; process considerations; reactive chemicals; post-release mitigation; human factors.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1987. 949p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-129 Boyle A.J.
Unit: Risk assessment and control - Module: Human reliability
Training manual designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. Four segments: 1 - Human reliability (3 main adaptation mechanisms: muscular changes, habituation, learning). 2 - Reliability of information input (human beings as information processors; vision; hearing; smell and taste; touch; balance; proprioceptors; nerve endings in the joints). 3 - Information processing (limits on information input; attention; long- and short-term memory; expectancies; decision making; influences on information processing). 4 - Personal factors in human reliability (fatigue, boredom and stress; attitudes, motivation and personality; the environment, groups and organisations; dealing with danger).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Department of Design, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1987. 138p. Illus.

CIS 89-173 IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Genetic and related effects: An updating of selected IARC Monographs from Volumes 1 to 42
Presentation of the results of a recent appraisal of the findings from tests for genetic and related effects in experimental systems and from studies of DNA damage, chromosomal effects and mutation in humans for all agents (chemicals, groups of chemicals, industrial processes, occupational exposures and cultural habits totalling 209 items) that had been evaluated in Volumes 1-42 of the Monographs.
International Research Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1987. 729p. Bibl.

CIS 88-1879 Schulte P.A.
Simultaneous assessment of genetic and occupational risk factors
The medical and epidemiological literature were surveyed and the methods for assessing genetic and occupational risks in the study were identified and critiqued. 5 major methodological approaches were identified: adjustment for race, ethnicity, and sex; case studies of occupational disease in genetically susceptible workers; cross-sectional evaluations of the prevalence of disease among genetically differentiated groups; case-control studies of the association of genetic characteristics and disease; and family studies of disease aggregations. These approaches, in part, allow for controlling genetic factors or identifying susceptible genes or phenotype markers that may differentiate occupational populations according to risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.29, No.11, p.884-891. 71 ref.

CIS 88-2005 Assessment of mutagenicity of industrial and plant protection chemicals
Contents of this report prepared by experts on behalf of ECETOC: general considerations; strategy for the detection of germ cell mutagens; selection of assays and interpretation of test results; tests in-vitro, number and types of tests to employ, genetic specificity of mutagenic action, terminology associated with activity in in-vitro assays, handling of isolated positive responses observed in-vitro, metabolism and tissue distribution; tests in-vivo, the difference between experiments in-vitro and in-vivo, the use of in-vivo somatic cell assays as a pre-sceen for potential germ cell mutagens; correspondence between proposed testing strategy and governmental requirements; recommendations. Regulatory requirements, including suggested tests for the detection of anomalies, are summarised for plant protection chemicals (USA, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Italy and Japan) and for general chemicals (EEC, USA, OECD recommendations).
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Bte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1987. 28p. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 88-1992 Downs T.D., Crane M.M., Kim K.W.
Mortality among workers at a butadiene facility
Several studies of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) workers have reported excess cancers at various sites. The current study examined cause-specific mortality in a cohort of 2,586 male workers employed for at least 6 months between 1943-1979 in a butadiene manufacturing plant. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated using national (NSMR) and local (LSMR) comparison populations. The all-cause NSMR was 80 (p<0.05) and the all-cancer NSMR was 84; the corresponding LSMRs were 96 and 76 (p<0.05). No significant excesses were observed for any cause of death except lymphosarcoma and reticulum cell sarcoma (NSMR=235). When the cohort was subdivided into routine, non-routine, and low-exposure groups, the SMRs were consistently elevated for this cause of death in all 3 groups. This suggests that butadiene may not be responsible for the excess, but the association deserves close attention in future studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.3, p.311-329. 12 ref. Appendices.

CIS 88-2047 Upton A.C.
Prevention of work-related injuries and diseases: Lessons from experience with ionizing radiation
This article presents the scientific basis for the assessment of biological effects of ionising radiation (IR) on the human organism (organs and tissues are treated in detail) in connection with conditions of exposure (dose-incidence relationship, length of exposure, source of radiation etc.). The results show that principles for assessing the risks of IR are applicable to a considerable degree to toxic chemicals as well.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.3, p.291-309. Illus. 82 ref.

CIS 88-1503 Ingle J.
Unit: Harmful dusts, gases and vapours - Module: Making a survey
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. Two segments: 1 - Making a survey (recognition of hazards; inspection tools; planning a survey of air contamination; making a survey; interpretation of results; variation of results from a survey; control of airborne contaminants); 2 - Sample survey of exposure to wood dust in a joiners' shop.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, Hamps., United Kingdom, 1987. 81p. Illus.

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