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CIS 92-475 Daniell W.E., Vaughan T.L., Millies B.A.
Pregnancy outcomes among female flight attendants
An examination of Washington State birth certificates over a period of 4 years showed no significant relationship between maternal employment as a flight attendant and any of the adverse pregnancy outcomes examined (low birthweight, prematurity, low Apgar scores, abnormal sex ratios). Although the study confirmed a previously reported finding that female flight attendants were nearly twice as likely to report a spontaneous foetal loss as the outcome of their last pregnancy, the relative risk was only 1.3 when comparison was restricted to women employed outside the home.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1990, Vol.61, N.9, p.840-844. 25 ref.

CIS 92-496 Risk analysis for alternative manning of hybrid bells
A detailed analysis was carried out of the risk associated with the operation of the hybrid diving bell. It was concluded that operating the hybrid bell with 2 divers and a standby diver at the surface is likely to result in a lower loss of life when compared to using 2 divers with a standby in the bell and another standby diver at the surface. It was also found that for the 3-man operating mode, the third man incurs a significant personal risk. Analysis of the standby diver data revealed that he provides a valuable contribution to the life saving capabilities of the diving team.
Health and Safety Executive, Library Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Nov. 1990. 188p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1760 Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 and Regulations [Australia]
The main purpose of the Act is to establish a national system for the notification and assessment of industrial chemicals. Contents: definitions; setting up of an Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances (which would include a confidential section in order to protect industrial secrets) to be maintained by the Environment Department; assessment and notification of new chemicals; issuing of permits; acceptance of assessment conducted in an Australian State or Territory or in another country; declaration of priority existing chemicals (i.e. chemicals judged by the Director of Chemicals notification and Assessment to have harmful health or environmental effects); prohibition of certain priority existing chemicals. The Regulations contain details about the kind of data considered as "basic information" about a chemical and various administrative arrangements.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. iv, 42 + 10p.

CIS 91-1770
Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen (Committee for the Prevention of Emergencies due to Dangerous Substances)
Methods for the determination of possible damage to humans and goods due to the release of dangerous substances [Netherlands]
Methoden voor het bepalen van mogelijke schade - aan mensen en goederen door het vrijkomen van gevaarlijke stoffen [en holandés]
Description of methods to be used for the determination of risks during the establishment of safety studies in which hazardous substances are involved. Main topics covered: methods for the determination of effects of thermal radiation (effects of thermal radiation on humans, statistical model, protective clothing, damage by flash fires); a method for the determination of the effects of blasts on constructions (interaction between blast and construction, determination of dynamic response, strength of window panels, calculation of a defined damage level); investigation of effects on people submitted to the phenomena of an explosion; formation of toxic products during fires (combustion, pyrolysis, reactions of combustion products); acute inhalation toxicity study: a model based on extrapolation from data on 25 substances; protection from outdoor pollution by being indoors: a mathematical model for calculation of the reduction of the indoor concentration and dose.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-1946 Prince A.J.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
The DATABANK - A computer program for evaluating the physical properties of hazardous vapours
This report describes the contents and use of the DATABANK, a computer programme for evaluating temperature dependent physical properties of hazardous vapours at atmospheric pressure. The DATABANK consists of a data file, an index of substances (currently 25), an index of properties, and software to extract the properties at a given temperature, both interactively and to link with hazard analysis codes. Some properties consist of a single number, others are stored as coefficients for polynomials in temperature. The temperature range is stored, and full references to the source of the data are given.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA4 3NE, United Kingdom, 1990. 19p. 15 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 91-1602 Asbestos in rooms: Check-list for evaluating the urgency of asbestos replacement
Asbest in Innenräumen: Checkliste für die Bewertung der Dringlichkeit von Sanierungsmassnahmen [en alemán]
A check-list is presented for the determination of the hazard due to asbestos used in buildings. It covers: types of asbestos products present (such as asbestos-containing panels, sprayed asbestos, products with a low asbestos content), the type of asbestos used in the products (particularly crocidolite), the kind of surface of the asbestos products, the extent of surface damage of the asbestos products, the use of the building (e.g. by children) and the location of the asbestos products (e.g. ventilation duct, floor, wall).
Arbeit und Ökologie-Briefe, 1989, No.4, p.12-14. 1 ref.

CIS 91-1652
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Information useful for the identification of hazards during the manufacture, storage, transport, use and disposal of substances - An annotated checklist
This annotated checklist relates to substances which may have the potential of a hazard in terms of a major accident, pollution, or worker health and safety. Chapter 1 comprises a brief review of the stages in the assessment of risk. Chapter 2 presents the checklist indicating the information that may be needed to identify, assess and control the hazards. Topics covered: fixed facilities including storage, transportation of hazardous substances, vulnerable areas and populations at risk, emergency response and planning.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 32p. 82 ref.

CIS 91-1621 Hollett B.A., Froehlich P.A., Caplan P.E., Cooper T.C., Shulman S.A.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
An evaluation of glove bag containment in asbestos removal
This report examines the effectiveness of the bag control method during the removal of asbestos-containing pipe lagging and evaluates different sampling and analysis methods for determining the level of asbestos contamination. Glossary. During asbestos removal operations in 4 public schools, personal exposures to airborne fibres were determined using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) methods. Aggressive and non-aggressive sampling techniques were used for collecting area samples and sample analysis was performed using both PCM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicated that the glove bags did not completely contain the asbestos and that the choice of sampling and analysis methods could have an effect on the perceived level of asbestos contamination. Glossary.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1990. xiii, 116p. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 91-1335 Davillerd C.
Types of laser-related risks - Survey conducted on two categories of users
Représentation des risques du laser - Etude auprès de deux catégories d'utilisateurs [en francés]
The increasing use of lasers in industry and research confronts risk prevention specialists with a new problem: laser-related hazards, about which little is known. In order to provide users with more information, a preliminary survey was carried out to assess risk awareness (and risk representation) in a sample group of 108 operators divided into two categories: manufacturing industry and research laboratories. The field survey revealed considerable differences in the degree of user information and equipment operating safety, as well as differences in the extent of risk awareness in the users. Safety messages (posters, for example) should be formulated bearing these differences in mind and they should be designed as an integral part of broader preventive measures (training, workplace,layout, work organisation).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1801-141-90, p.787-798. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 91-1317
Health and Safety Commission
Information approved for the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances for supply and conveyance by road
This list updates the 1984 edition (CIS 85-1315). It provides an authorised and approved list of dangerous substances to be transported by road in the United Kingdom, with information on classification, indication of risk, indication of safety precautions, substance identification number, classification for conveyance and appropriate warning sign for each substance.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 288p. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 91-795 Raghavan K.V., Khan A.A.
Methodologies for risk and safety assessment in chemical process industries: A manual and guide book
Training manual aimed at safety engineers in the chemical process industries, particularly in developing countries. It was prepared in conjunction with the Commonwealth Workshop on Hazard assessment and disaster mitigation in petroleum and chemical process industries, held in Madras (India), Dec. 1990. Contents: chemicals and chemical hazards; hazardous unit operations and processes in chemical plants; hazard identification (fire and explosion indexing; maximum credible accident analysis; hazard and operability studies; process/system checklists); past accident analysis to establish the credibility of risk assessment techniques; hazard quantification; quantitative risk analysis and management.
Commonwealth Science Council, Commonwealth Secretariat, Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London SW1Y 5HX, United Kingdom, 1990. iii, 118p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-808 Favaro M., Mouteau M.
Evaluation of a priori risk analysis methods - 2. Principal methods of systems safety
Bilan des méthodes d'analyse a priori des risques - 2. Principales méthodes de la sécurité des systèmes [en francés]
This report is part of a general review of a priori risk analysis methods. The first part (ND 1768-138-90: "1. From inspection and checking to system ergonomics") focussed more on risk control procedures and ergonomic methods (workplace analysis, general analysis). This 2nd part looks at methods and tools generally grouped under the heading "systems safety". In condensed form it covers the essentials of this predominantly technical approach to occupational risk prevention. As well as a methodological and technical review of the subject, it addresses the questions raised by the implementation of these methods: data reliability, probability evaluation, the notion of "human reliability".
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1779-139-90, p.363-389. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 91-1045 Kilbom Å., Hagberg M.
Work-related musculoskeletal diseases - High risk jobs and risk factors
Arbetsrelaterade muskuloskeletala sjukdomar - Riskyrken och riskfaktorer [en sueco]
Literature review of epidemiologic studies of work-related musculoskeletal diseases. High-risk jobs, identified by means of questionnaires and clinical-epidemiological studies, are reported for each of the body regions: shoulder-neck, elbow-forearm, wrist-hand, low back and hip-knee-ankle. Work-related and individual risk factors are summarised. Preventive measures at the workplace are discussed, and the important role played by the occupational health services as an early warning system is stressed.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 62p. Illus. 152 ref.

CIS 91-854 Støttrup Hansen E., Ahlbom A., Axelson O., Hogstedt C., Juul Jensen U., Olsen J.
"Negative results" - No effect or information? A review of some problems in occupational epidemiology
The purpose of this report was to give a comprehensive analysis of some of the major problems in performing a scientific assessment of work-related hazards. How can reliable negative results be distinguished from non-informative data? Firstly, it is stated that the observation of no association is fundamental for a no-effect claim. Secondly, the effect estimate must be precisely determined, and the apparent absence of any relationship must not be ascribable to non-differential misclassification, any "healthy worker effect", or any other systematic error. When evidence from several studies is tabulated, it should be noted in particular whether the absence of any association was observed consistently and universally.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 59p. 72 ref.

CIS 91-949 Wennberg A., Cizinsky G., Hagman M., Iregren A., Johansson L., Struwe G.
Manganese exposure in Swedish steel smelters - A health hazard to the nervous system
Manganexponering i svensk smältverksindustri - En hälsorisk för nervsystemet [en sueco]
30 men (age 20-64 years) who had been exposed to 0.19-0.45mg/m3 of manganese for 1-45 years at manganese steel smelters and 60 controls (age 22-65 years) were examined. The investigation covered: a general health inquiry; brainstem and cerebral auditive evoked potential (AEP); EEG and diadochokinesometry; simple and complex reaction time, finger tapping, digit span, mental arithmetic, vocabulary, a coding task and manual dexterity; diagnostic interview scheme (DIS), dynamic rating scale for neurasthenic syndrome (DNS) and comprehensive psychopathological rating scale (CPRS). No group differences concerning health, EEG or the psychiatric examinations were found. Diadochokinesis was slower, cerebral AEP latency increased, reaction time and tapping digit span were impaired in the exposed group. These effects are interpreted as early signs of disturbances of the same type as parkinsonism.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 32p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 91-772 Roland H.E., Moriarty B.
System safety engineering and management
This comprehensive reference/self-teaching textbook covers at length today's most sophisticated system safety processes offering step-by-step instruction for all programme procedures - from formulation and management to conducting required analysis that can be directly applied to achieve a satisfactory state of safety. Six chapters of the book, each containing exercises for self-teaching, focus respectively on management, statistical methods, network analysis, hazard analysis, risk analysis and decision analysis. Statistical tables and answers to quantitative exercises are summarised in appendices.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex PO22 9SA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1990. xiii, 339p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Appendices. Index. Price: GBP 47.50.

CIS 91-957 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate
The principal signs and symptoms of acute overexposure to EGBE and EGBEA are irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, drowsiness, nausea, shaking and weakness. Repeated exposure may damage the bone marrow, blood cells, kidneys and liver. This document presents recommendations for a standard covering exposure limits, monitoring, labelling, protective equipment, information of workers, engineering controls and work practices, hygiene and record keeping. Subsequent chapters cover: properties, production and potential for exposure; effects of exposure; sampling and analytical methods and medical and biological monitoring; existing occupational health standards; correlation of exposure and effects; methods for worker protection; research needs.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1990. 158p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 91-930
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Tributyltin compounds
Tributyltin (TBT) compounds are irritant to the skin and eyes, and inhalation of aerosols leads to respiratory irritation. Severe dermatitis has been reported following direct contact with tributyltin oxide. The potential problem is made worse by the lack of an immediate response to the skin. It is recommended that countries that have not yet regulated the use of TBT compounds should be encouraged to do so. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 273p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 29.00; CHF 20.30 (for developing countries).

CIS 91-928
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Data from several epidemiological studies lead to the conclusion that beryllium is the most likely cause of excess lung cancer observed in exposed workers. Cases of acute beryllium disease, resulting in nasopharyngitis, bronchitis and severe chemical pneumonitis, have drastically decreased, and today may only occur as a consequence of failures in control measures. Chronic beryllium disease differs from the acute form in having a latent period of several weeks to more than 20yrs; main effects affect the lung. Direct contact with soluble beryllium compounds causes contact dermatitis and possibly conjunctivitis. General population exposure is mainly confined to low levels of airborne beryllium from the combustion of fossil fuels. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 210p. Bibl. Price: CHF 23.00; CHF 16.10 (for developing countries).

CIS 91-805 Monteau M., Favaro M.
Evaluation of a priori risk analysis methods. 1 - From inspection and checking to system ergonomics
Bilan des méthodes d'analyse à priori des risques. 1. Des contrôles à l'ergonomie des systèmes [en francés]
This paper is the first part of an evaluation of a priori risk analysis methods. Methods reviewed range from inspection and checking to more complex procedures designed mainly for the diagnosis of organisational risks. Existing methods tend to complement one another. The increasing complexity of the methods used stems from the need to pinpoint risks which are increasingly random and difficult to detect. The 2nd part of the report will be published in Cahiers de notes documentaires 139 (2nd Quarter 1990), and will cover methods under the general heading "systems safety".
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note 1768-138-90, p.91-122. Illus. 91 ref.

CIS 91-848 Morris S.C.
Cancer risk assessment: a quantitative approach
This book is a guide to interdisciplinary practice in cancer risk assessment. It includes much practical data and shows how each discipline relates to the whole and inter-relates with other contributing disciplines. Contents: introduction; exposure and dose assessment - general issues, measurement of exposure and dose, modelling exposure, pharmacokinetics; dose-response assessment - toxicology, extrapolation from animals, structure-activity relationships and short-term bioassay, epidemiology, combined approaches to dose-response; risk characterisation and implications - characterisation of uncertainty, implications for risk management, future directions for quantitative health risk analysis.
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1990. vi, 416p. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 99.75 (USA and Canada), USD 119.50 (all other countries)

CIS 91-969 Webber D.M.
Health and Safety Executive
A model for pool spreading and vaporisation and its implementation in the computer code G*A*S*P
This report presents a mathematical model of the spreading and vaporisation of a hazardous liquid pool. The model can be used to predict the rate of cloud formation and so contribute to a hazard or risk analysis. Sample outputs from the computer code GASP (Gas Accumulation over Spreading Pools) are provided to illustrate specific features of the model.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Sep. 1990. 47p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 91-925
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Short-term exposure to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) at levels of 10-410mg/m3 has been found to produce irritation of either the eyes, the nose or the throat, and symptoms such as headache, nausea and vertigo. In a single report concerning long-term occupational exposure, workers complained of weakness, loss of appetite, headache, eye irritation, stomach-ache, nausea, vomiting and sore throat. Prolonged contact with MIBK caused irritation and flaking of the skin. It is recommended that atmospheric levels of MIBK should be kept below the occupational exposure limits. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 79p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 11.00 (in developing countries: CHF 7.70).

CIS 91-635 Errors in the operation of transport systems
Proceedings of a CEC workshop on errors in the operation of transport systems, held in Cambridge, United Kingdom, 26-28 May 1989. Topics covered: the role of error in organising behaviour; designing for transportation safety; errors and driver support systems; variable errors set a limit to adaptation; driving task simulation; error analysis and traffic behaviour; the basic driver error of late detection; age, IQ, awareness and recall of errors; drivers' margins of safety; the economy of risk; judgement and accident frequency; types and tokens in road accident causation; human error models as predictors of accident scenarios; task, activity and error analysis; error analysis and in-depth accident studies.
Ergonomics, Oct.-Nov. 1990, Vol.33, Nos.10 and 11, p.1183-1429. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-572
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Pharmaceutical drugs
These monographs survey the available literature on 5 antineoplastic agents, 4 antimicrobial agents, 2 diuretics, ciclosporin (an immunosuppressant), cimetidine (used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers), paracetamol (a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug) and dantron (a laxative). Data include: chemical and physical properties; production, occurrence and analysis; biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans; carcinogenic evaluation. Appendices provide a summary table and activity profiles for genetic and related effects. Of the drugs studies, ciclosporin and thiotepa are classified as carcinogenic to humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 415p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 65.00; USD 52.00.

CIS 91-568
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Tricresyl phosphate
The ortho isomer of tricresyl phosphate (TOCP) and isomeric mixtures containing it are considered major hazards to human health. There have been numerous reported cases of poisoning due to contamination of foodstuffs, and occupational poisoning, usually resulting from dermal exposure, has also been reported. Short-term symptoms of ingestion involve vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea, while characteristically delayed, longer-term symptoms are neurological, frequently leading to paralysis and pyramidal signs (spasticity, etc.). Irritant and allergic dermatitis have been reported. Because of the considerable variation among individuals in sensitivity to TOCP, it is not possible to establish a safe level of exposure and it is recommended that exposure should be minimised. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 122p. 226 ref. Price: CHF 15.00; developing countries: CHF 10.50.

CIS 91-567
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Deltamethrin has been reported to cause numbness, itching, tingling and burning of the skin and vertigo in exposed workers. Occasionally, a transient papular or blotchy erythema has been described. Most of these symptoms are transient and disappear within 5-7 days. Several non-fatal cases of poisoning have been reported through occupational exposure resulting from neglect of safety precautions. No long-term adverse effects have been reported. It is concluded that with good work practices, measures of hygiene and safety precautions, deltamethrin is unlikely to present a hazard for those occupationally exposed. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 133p. 261 ref. Price: CHF 16.00; developing countries: CHF 11.20.

CIS 91-624
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at work - Noise assessment, information and control
Contents of this guide, consisting of Noise Guides 3-8 (Guides 1-2 already abstracted as CIS 90-1354): equipment and procedures for noise surveys; engineering control of noise; types and selection of personal ear protectors; training for competent persons to carry out noise assessments; procedures for testing machinery noise; exemption from certain requirements of the UK Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 90-21).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 45p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.00.

CIS 91-566
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
2-Methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and their acetates
Information on the toxic effects of these 4 glycol ethers on humans is limited. There are reports of poisoning following ingestion of 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) and 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE), while repeated exposure of workers has resulted in anaemia, leucopenia, general weakness, ataxia and immunological effects. Haematological effects of glycol ethers have been documented and bone marrow toxicity has been reported in workers exposed dermally to 2-ME. Epidemiological studies have shown some evidence of adverse effects on the male reproductive system, with an increased frequency of adverse sperm counts. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 126p. Bibl. Price: CHF 15.00; developing countries: CHF 10.50.

CIS 91-565
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Several cases of barium poisoning have been reported, with doses as low as 0.2-0.5mg/kg body weight leading to toxic effects in adult humans. Clinical features of barium poisoning include acute gastroenteritis, loss of deep reflexes and muscular paralysis. No conclusive evidence is available on the possible relationship between barium in drinking water and cardiovascular mortality, and there is no evidence that barium is carcinogenic. Baritosis and an increased incidence of hypertension have been observed in individuals occupationally exposed to barium compounds. At normally occurring concentrations, barium does not pose a significant threat for the general population, although those occupationally exposed may suffer adverse effects. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 148p. 290 ref. Price: CHF 17.00.

CIS 91-582 Turner R.M., Fairhurst S.
Health and Safety Executive
Toxicology of substances in relation to major hazards: Hydrogen fluoride
This review examines the "dangerous toxic load" (DTL) for hydrogen fluoride, in accordance with the principles of toxicological assessment described in the HSE publication "Assessment of the toxicity of major hazard substances" (see CIS 90-1985). Contents: physicochemical properties of hydrogen fluoride; toxicological data available in humans and animals; derivation of DTL. Tables show LC50 values for hydrogen fluoride in animals and observations from single exposure inhalation studies in animals. A DTL value of 2,400,000ppm2 min is suggested for use in risk analyses.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 10p. 15 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.

CIS 91-581 Payne M.P., Delic J., Turner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Toxicity of substances in relation to major hazards: Ammonia
This review examines the 'dangerous toxic load' (DTL) for ammonia, in accordance with the principles of toxicological assessment described in the HSE publication "Assessment of the toxicity of major hazard substances" (see CIS 90-1985). Contents: physical properties of ammonia; general toxicological properties; toxicological data available in animals and in humans; derivation of DTL. Tables show LC50 values for ammonia and observations from single exposure inhalation studies in animals. A DTL value of 3.76 x 108 ppm2 min is suggested for use in risk analysis for land-use planning applications.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 17p. 65 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.

CIS 91-228
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Fenvalerate can induce numbness, itching, tingling and burning sensations in exposed workers. Clinical studies showed that these sensations develop with a latent period of approximately 30 minutes, peak by 8 hours and deteriorate after 24 hours. Some poisoning cases have resulted from over-exposure of workers due to neglect of safety precautions. With reasonable work practices, hygiene measures and safety precautions, fenvalerate is unlikely to present a hazard to those occupationally exposed. Detailed summary in French.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1990. 121p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 15.00.

CIS 91-227
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
There are no indications that d-phenothrin, when used as recommended, has an adverse effect on human beings. No cases of human poisoning have been reported. The exposure of the general population is expected to be very low and not likely to present a hazard. With reasonable work practices, hygiene measures and safety precautions, d-phenothrin is unlikely to be an occupational hazard. Detailed summary in French.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 64p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 10.00.

CIS 91-188 Paustenbach D.J.
Health risk assessment and the practice of industrial hygiene
This paper discusses how health risk assessments have been conducted over the past 10 years and some of their shortcomings. Improved methods and their impact on how exposure limits for air contaminants should be established are also discussed. Examples are given of possible pitfalls in all areas of the assessment process, i.e. hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. It is concluded that, in future, more enlightened approaches to interpreting animal bioassay data should improve hazard identification, and biologically based disposition and cancer models will provide better estimates of actual cancer risk. Reliance on worst-case exposure scenarios should no longer be necessary in the light of better information on specific exposure parameters and improved data handling methods.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1990, Vol.51, No.7, p.339-351. Illus. 124 ref.

CIS 91-225
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Summary report on the evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens (Collaborative study on In Vivo Tests)
This IPCS report describes criteria for the selection of an appropriate short-term in vivo test to determine the in vivo activity of established genotoxins and the selection of 4 test chemicals, the assays used, and the results of tests carried out on the selected chemicals. An assessment is made of the performance of the assays along with a selection of those considered to be most effective. Short-term in vivo tests have a vital role to play in the identification of those chemicals most likely to present a carcinogenic/mutagenic hazard. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 96p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: CHF 13.00.

CIS 91-347 Abdouni A.H., Raafat H.M.N.
Human reliability analysis in process industries and the application of expert systems technology
Accident statistics indicate the need to consider more explicitly the contribution of human reliability to overall system safety. Although Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a critical component of any risk study, the deficiencies which characterise these techniques have limited their use. Such techniques may be improved by the use of computers, in particular the use of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based expert systems, which are especially suitable for solutions of problems requiring human judgement and experience. Uses of expert systems include hazard identification and assessment, decision-making, process control. An expert system called HERAX (Human Error/Reliability Analysis Expert) has been developed mainly for use as part of a probabilistic risk analysis of nuclear and process plants.
Journal of Health and Safety, Apr. 1990, No.4, p.5-14. 22 ref.

CIS 91-99 Bernold T.
Product-life: from design to disposal
Proceedings of an international conference on industrial risk management, held in Zurich, Switzerland, 16-17 January 1989. Papers focus on an approach to risk assessment and management based on knowledge about a product throughout its entire life. Papers include: design of "user-friendly" plants; bridging engineering gaps; prediction and control of risks; comparative product-life-cycle confrontation of risks; liability and compensation; complexity, safety and reliability of the car; residual risk and its distribution in the project life cycle. Case studies from different industries illustrate applications of this concept in current safety management situations.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Sep. 1990, Vol.13, No.1-2, Special Issue, 178p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 91-221
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Selected mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, trichothecenes, ergot
Human exposure to mycotoxins has been documented mainly through food contamination. Information on adverse health effects is, however, scarce. Epidemiological data indicate that Balkan nephropahty may be associated with food contamination by ochratoxin A and a significant relationship has been observed between Balkan nephropathy and tumours of the urinary tract. Reported cases of illness associated with exposure to trichothecenes are scarce and none has been established as being due to trichothecenes, although two disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of contaminated wheat suggest a causative role. Claviceps-infected grain is a source of human exposure to ergolines, and several outbreaks of ergotism have been reported. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 263p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 29.00; Price in developing countries: CHF 20.30.

CIS 91-220
Health and Safety Commission - Education Services Advisory Committee
COSHH: Guidance for universities, polytechnics and colleges of further and higher education
Contents of this guide: principal aims of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (see CIS 89-1092); definition of 'substances hazardous to health'; duties of employers, employees and others; guidance on risk assessment and selection and training of assessors; selection, use and maintenance of control measures; need for routine monitoring and health surveillance; provision of information to those exposed to hazardous substances; outlines of relevant Approved Codes of Practice.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 34p. 19 ref. Price: GBP 2.00.

CIS 91-214
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Chromium, nickel and welding
Monographs providing chemical and physical data for chromium and nickel and their compounds, details of production, use, occurrence and analysis, and a review of biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans. It is concluded that chromium (VI) compounds are carcinogenic to humans, while metallic chromium (III) compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity. Nickel sulfate and combinations of nickel sulfides and oxides are considered to be carcinogenic, while metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic. The major welding processes are described along with the composition of welding fumes, operational exposures of welders and relevant biological data. Welding fumes are evaluated as being possibly carcinogenic in humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 677p. Bibl. ref. Price: CHF 95.00; USD 76.00.

CIS 91-274 The effects of explosions in the process industries
This paper summarises the present state of knowledge of explosions and indicates methods by which their effects in the process industries may be assessed. Topics covered: behaviour of blast waves and their interaction with structures; levels of damage caused by overpressure to a variety of structural elements; injuries caused by blast waves to people; estimation of blast effects (blasting scaling) and of the probable yield of an explosion; vapour cloud explosions and measurement of TNT equivalence; generation and range of missiles and their effects on targets.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1990. 26p. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 90-2100 Brazendale J.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Human error in risk assessment
This report describes and comments on the nature of human error and methods for predicting the risk from human error as part of a risk analysis study. Progress in quantification techniques is also reviewed in the light of current methodology. Details are given of an accident and human error classification scheme (TAXAC) which focuses on the interactions of human activities in an organisational setting. Guidance notes are provided for the use of the scheme, along with examples of its application.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, Feb. 1990. 68p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 90-1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some flame retardants and textile chemicals, and exposures in the textile manufacturing industry
The flame retardants chlorendic acid and chlorinated paraffins, and textile dye Disperse Blue I are possible carcinogens, as is nitrilotriacetic acid. Textile dye para-chloro-ortho-toluidine is a probable carcinogen. Processes and chemicals used in the textile manufacturing industry are described. Exposure data are provided for organic dusts, dyes, finishing agents and other compounds. Findings of bladder and nasal cancer among textile workers show that work in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 345p. Bibl. Index. Price: CHF 65.00.

CIS 90-1963 Workshop on brominated aromatic flame retardants, Skokloster, Sweden, 24-26 October, 1989 - Proceedings
This international workshop organised within the framework of the OECD's Chemicals Programme covers the following topics: chemistry, production and use of brominated flame retardants, occurrence in the environment, toxicology and ecotoxicology, content and/or formation of toxic products in flame retardants, risk assessment and risk management.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 141p. Bibl.

CIS 90-1646 Safety in the use of mineral and synthetic fibres
Sécurité dans l'utilisation des fibres minérales et synthétiques [en francés]
Working document and report of the Meeting of Experts on Safety in the Use of Mineral and Synthetic Fibres, held in Geneva (Switzerland), 17-25 Apr. 1989. The fibres discussed are divided into 3 main classes: 1. man-made mineral fibres (MMMF): continuous filament (glass), insulation wool (glasswool, rockwool, slag wool), refractory fibres (ceramic and others), special-purpose fibres (glass microfibres): 2. natural mineral fibres (other than asbestos): erionite, attapulgite, wollastonite, etc.; 3. synthetic organic fibres (aramid fibres, carbon and graphite fibres, polyolefin fibres etc.). The characteristics, manufacturing methods, occupational and non-occupational exposure of each type are reviewed. Information on health effects (irritation, respiratory symptoms, fibrosis, cancer), where available, is also reviewed, based on evaluations by IPCS and/or IARC. Other topics discussed: monitoring of airborne dust in the working environment; preventive and control measures; law and practice in selected countries. In annexes: ILO resolution (1986) concerning health risks of occupational exposure to fibres; Report of the Meeting; list of participants.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1990. 94p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 15.00. [en árabe]

CIS 90-1638 Nilsson R.
Cadmium - An analysis of Swedish regulatory experience
Review of the various actions taken by Swedish government authorities in order to control exposure of man and of the environment to cadmium. The author also provides a background to these actions in terms of information which provided the justification for control, given the social and political pressures existing at that time. Finally, attempts have been made to assess the impact of the regulations and some general conclusions from the experience derived from large scale chemicals management are also presented.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 124p. Illus. 88 ref. Price: SEK 80.00.

CIS 90-1483 Systematic safety and health work - Mapping and plan of action
Systematisk verne- og miljøarbeid - Kartlegging og handlingsplan [en noruego]
This training booklet gives practical advice on how to start a safety programme in the workplace. It contains information on the responsibilities of employers, the investigation of working conditions (called "mapping"), co-operation between management, safety delegates, employee representatives and plant health services, the establishment of a plan of action in order to achieve better working conditions and the information of personnel. A check list and a work sheet for the investigation of the working conditions as well as an example of a plan of action are included.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 1990. 8p. Illus.

CIS 90-1249 Coal-burning power station "Rete 2": Hazard evaluation
Centrale a carbone "Rete 2": valutazione dei rischi [en italiano]
Report of a hazard evaluation survey of a coal-burning electricity generating station near the Italian city of Reggio Emilia. Contents: technological characteristics of the station; results of the hazard survey (atmospheric emissions, air-quality measurements, noise, environmental radioactivity, liquid and solid waste); health and toxicological aspects of the survey (potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects of exposure to the substances found in the survey; subjective impact of the findings; environmental effects). On the whole, the safety and health measures implemented by the station are judged highly satisfactory, both from the occupational and the environmental point of view. The commission does make the recommendation, however, that there should be more consultation and cooperation with the population of the neighbouring areas than exist now.
Regione Emilia - Romagna / Sedi, via Ciamician 2, Bologna, Italy, Jan. 1990. 82p. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 94-252 Mattila M.
Improvement in the occupational health program in a Finnish construction company by means of systematic workplace investigation of job load and hazard analysis
An eight-month study carried out at three building sites involved analysis of chemical and physical hazards, physical workload, mental stress and risk of injury. Data were collected by observations, interviews and a worker questionnaire, and health and safety personnel and workers representatives together assessed occupational loads and hazards. Health and safety personnel then devised an occupational health care programme and proposed preventive measures. The investigation method proved to function well in that it improved the occupational health care programme, produced an overall analysis of occupational hazards and increased the number and quality of proposed preventive measures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, p.61-72. 19 ref.

CIS 94-184 Tourte J., Loriot J., Méreau P.
Contact lenses - Risks and advantages in the workplace
Les lentilles de contact - Risques et avantages en milieu de travail [en francés]
Updated survey of the hazards and advantages of contact lenses in the workplace. The wearing of contact lenses is increasing in popularity, and it must be kept in mind that they do not substitute for safety glasses. A psychological study is made of the rumours concerning occupational accidents affecting contact lens wearers, which became widespread after an actual incident in Baltimore in 1967 affecting an arch welder. The results of recent experiments are summarized. Survey of mechanical, chemical, physical and infectious hazards to contact lens wearers in the workplace in the absence of preventive measures. The particular problems of sensitive workplaces (control centres etc.) long work-shifts and respirators are reviewed. Other topics covered: advantages of contact lenses in certain jobs, what to do after an accident, role of the occupational physician, legislation in France, medical supervision.
Le concours médical, 1989, Vol.111, No.39, p.3467-3475. Illus. 30 ref.

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