Mental workload - 161 entradas encontradas
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Study of workloads of supermarket cash register operators
Etude des charges de travail chez les caissières de libres-services. [en francés]
This communication to the 13th National Symposium on Occupational Medicine (Tours, France, 2-5 Oct. 1974) studies the following aspects of cash-register operators' work: working hours; organisation; duties (restocking shelves; checking-out purchases); workpost description; job description; physical workload (posture, movements); mental strain; emotional strain; environmental stress. Unable to use heart rate measurement techniques or ECG recordings to evaluate workload, the author used 4 different data: duration of apprenticeship, fatigue, errors, absenteeism and staff turnover. Apprenticeship is relatively long; nervous fatigue certainly exists, but does not give rise to much absenteeism; errors are relatively infrequent. Favourable factors: generally short commuting distances; flexible hours; varied work; job satisfaction and relative prestige.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1976, Vol.37, No.1-2, p.112-121.
Monod H., Lille F.
L'évaluation de la charge de travail. [en francés]
This communication to the 13th National Symposium on Occupational Medicine (Tours, France, 2-5 Oct. 1974) takes stock of various questions confronting the plant physician when evaluating workload. Contents: historical background; concept of workload (definitions, workload component factors - including factors outside the workplace -, relative workload); workload indices (task analysis, work from the human standpoint); physiological workload indices (in the case of physical work, examples of studies using cardiac criteria, methods for assessment of mental workload (uses of theory of communications, time-and-motion studies, individual reactions under mental strain, effects of time/stress factors)); evaluation of relative workload (determination of maximum physical working capacity, comparison between physiological strain and aptitude for work; workload in workers subject to ill health or physical disability); role of the plant physician in workload evaluation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan-Feb. 1976, Vol.37, No.1-2, p.1-91. Illus. 185 ref.
13th National Symposium on Occupational Medicine, Tours, 2-5 Oct. 1974 - Workload
XIIIe Journées nationales de médecine du travail, Tours, 2-5 oct. 1974 - La charge de travail. [en francés]
This issue is devoted entirely to the record of proceedings of the Symposium on workload. The following aspects were covered in the main report and the papers presented: the viewpoint of the French Democratic Labour Confederation (Confédération française démocratique du travail: CFDT) on the improvement of working conditions and workload assessment; workload in the making and assembly of prefabricated panels; workload of supermarket cash-register operators; study of an ergonomic work table for female assembly workers in an electrical apparatus factory; autonomic effects of workload in air traffic controllers; blood analysis in workload evaluation; uses of telemetry in measuring heart rate and muscular contraction in some workpost studies; methodological aspects of workload evaluation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1976, Vol.37, No.1-2. 198p. Illus. Bibl.
Evaluation of mental load in the study and design of work conditions - Theory, measurement, application
L'évaluation de la charge mentale dans le cadre de l'étude et de l'aménagement des conditions de travail - Théorie, mesure, application. [en francés]
This report takes stock of developments in the assessment of mental load in the industrial context. The literature is reviewed and an attempt is made to clarify the concept of mental load in ergonomic terms; the chief methods of measuring mental load are reviewed, and the practical possibilities of applying these methods are examined.
Notes scientifiques et techniques de l'INRS, No.4, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Jan. 1975. 67p. Illus. 45 ref.
Heat and human work without major muscular effort: II. Study of specific effects of heat on psychomotor and mental performance (laboratory studies since 1958)
Chaleur et travail humain sans composante musculaire importante: II. La recherche d'effets spécifiques de la chaleur sur la performance psychomotrice et mentale (études faites en laboratoire depuis 1958). [en francés]
Earlier laboratory studies, reported in Part I of this article (Travail humain, Vol.36, p.197-220) showed no definite specific effects of heat on human psychomotor activity. Subsequent work, reported here, yielded the following results: with regard to its constant specific effects, heat appears to affect preferentially the reactive aspects of performance and those for which sustained attention is required. As for specific, time-dependent effects, a succession of phases, each characterised by a particular type of effect of the ambient temperature on performance, was distinguished. Comparison was also made between the effects of ambient temperature and of other, non-heat-related, stresses (noise, vibration, stimulants, sleep deprivation), on a given psychomotor activity.
Travail humain, July 1975, Vol.38, No.2, p.223-243. Illus. 51 ref.
Evaluation of psychic stress in air traffic controllers and card punching machine operators by measurement of the residual mental capacity by the double-task technique
Ocenka na psihičeskoto natovarvane na răkovoditelite na poleti i operatorite na perforirašti mašini posredstvom izmervane na ostatăčnija psihičen kapacitet črez metoda na dvojnata zadača [en búlgaro]
Residual mental capacity determined by the double-task method varied with the nature of the work and the prevailing conditions. Increasing the number of tasks under normal conditions has a less negative influence on residual mental capacity than execution of the same tasks in complex circumstances (e.g. bad weather conditions). During the shift the residual mental capacity deteriorates with increasing fatigue.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.17-22. 6 ref.
Problems in the assessment of mental load.
Ergonomic study demonstrating the complexity of the relation between the mental work load imposed by task demands, and the work load as experienced by each individual. Detailed observations on the role played in the above relation by the strategy used and the individual's capacity for mental work. The problem of prediction of performance is analysed in the light of the influencing factors obtained.
Travail humain, July 1974, Vol.37, No.2, p.279-302. Illus. 64 ref.
Lemaire C., Charpy J.P., Fructus X.
Working capacity and efficiency of divers down to 350 metres below sea level (500psi)
Capacité de travail et efficience du plongeur jusqu'à la profondeur de 350 mètres (36 ata). [en francés]
Tests carried out in 20 divers, to a maximum depth of 350m, showed that in simulated diving the pressure and helium-oxygen mixture have no effect on the muscular work capacity, sensorimotor efficiency and aptitude for mental tasks, whereas speed of compression and the addition of nitrogen have an adverse effect. Under actual deep-sea diving conditions other parameters due to immersion must also be taken into consideration (water resistance, temperature,, visibility). It is therefore indispensable that pressurisation should be carried out at a reasonable rate, without using agents having narcotic effects, that nitrogen should not be employed, and that the diver should be protected from the cold by adequate clothing.
Maroc médical, Aug.-Sep. 1974, Vol.54, No.582, p.492-495. 10 ref.
Valentin H., Essing H.G.
Health impairment due to overwork - Workload as a hazard factor
Gesundheitsschäden durch Überlastung - Risikofaktor Arbeitsbelastung [en alemán]
Statistical data on the effects of overwork on health, followed by a study of the different types of workload (physical, psychic and neurovegetative). From the occupational health viewpoint a distinction is drawn between general health impairment (premature deterioration and ageing, factors contributing to disability and mortality due to occupation), and specific organic lesions, which are examined in more detail (heart strain, overloading of the circulatory system, overloading of the dust clearance mechanisms of the bronchi and lungs, stress involving the peripheral nervous system and neurovegetative dystonia). A section is devoted to psychovegetative syndromes due to psychic fatigue. Description of methods used for examination.
Ärztliche Praxis, 2 Apr. 1974, Vol.26, No.27, p.1307-1310, and 6 Apr. 1974, No.28, p.1343-1346. Illus.
Determining the psychic workload: Present status and perspectives
Zum gegenwärtigen Stand und zu Perspektiven der Bestimmung psychischer Beanspruchung im Arbeitsprozess [en alemán]
Whereas established concepts and measuring methods are available for the physiological workload, no such criteria exist for assessing the load due to mental activity. The author defines the terms (task, demands, load, and stress) from the standpoint of psychic workload and examines the possibilities of determining its effects.
Sozialistische Arbeitswissenschaft, 1974, Vol.18, No.1, p.17-28. 24 ref.
Nishiyama K., Nakaseko M., Hosokawa M.
Cash register operators' work and its hygienical problems in a supermarket.
Health examinations of 27 cash-register operators were carried out and their workloads evaluated. The results of the investigation show that the mental and physical workloads involved may cause chronic irreversible fatigue and ultimately disease. It is recommended that safety and hygiene standards be established for cash-register operators.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1973, Vol.15, No.3, p.229-243. Illus. 24 ref.
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