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  • Abuso de alcohol y drogas

1990

CIS 91-1328 Petiot J.C., Parrot J., Lobreau J.P., Smolik H.J.
Combined effects of a moderate dose of alcohol and of exposure to noise upon auditory fatigue
Effects of alcohol consumption on hearing thresholds at 4 and 6kHz were studied on 16 subjects exposed for 20 minutes to 105dB continuous pink noise. Two minutes after noise had ceased, the mean hearing thresholds at 4kHz reached a significantly lower level in subjects under the effect of alcohol. Auditory fatigue was significantly lower than in a noise condition without alcohol. The rate of recovery from auditory fatigue was not modified by alcohol, but owing to initially lower auditory fatigue, recovery at 4kHz was attained earlier under alcohol. No noticeable effect of alcohol was found for auditory fatigue at 6kHz.
Archives of Complex Environmental Studies, Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.37-41. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-710
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Guard and security services [Germany]
Wach- und Sicherungsdienste [en alemán]
These safety regulations (effective 1 Oct. 1990, replacing those of 1 May 1964) cover services aimed at the protection of persons and property. Contents: scope; definitions; qualifications and work instructions; alcoholic beverages and drugs; responsibilities of employers with regard to danger; inspection; equipment; wearing of glasses; use of guard dogs (kennels, dog handlers, handling and transport of dogs); use of firearms; monitoring centres (for remote-control cameras or alarms); special provisions for the transportation of large amounts of money; safety vaults. In annex: implementation rules and commentary.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1 Oct. 1990. 12 + 14p. Appendix.

CIS 91-851 Hogstedt C., Alexandersson R.
Mortality among hard metal workers
Dödsorsaker hos hårdmetallarbetare [en sueco]
Mortality was studied in 3,163 male Swedish workers with at least 1yr of occupational exposure to cobalt at a hard metal manufacturing plant. The number of subjects who died from different causes between 1951 and 1982 was compared to expected figures based on national statistics. 292 subjects died before the age of 80 compared to 303.6 expected deaths. Subjects with employment of short duration showed a considerable excess risk, due in part to alcohol-related causes of mortality. Seven subjects with employment of long duration died of lung cancer; the expected figure was 2.5. Sixteen men with high exposure to cobalt and employment of long duration died because of ischaemic heart disease (9.4 expected). There was also an elevated risk of death due to pulmonary fibrosis. Exposure has decreased in recent decades but the results suggest that occupational exposure to cobalt should be kept to the lowest possible level so as to minimise risks.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 26p. 25 ref.

CIS 91-829 Pietri F., Clavel F., Auquier A., Flamant R.
Occupational risk factors for cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study
The role of the occupational environment in the occurrence of cancer of the pancreas was analysed in a case-control study of 171 cases of pancreatic cancer and 317 controls matched for age at interview, sex, hospital, and interviewer. The study was conducted in France between 1982 and 1985 and covered 15 important industries and various other occupations. The results are given for the whole population, a subgroup of manual workers (46 cases and 108 controls), and a subgroup of French nationals (114 cases and 253 controls). After adjustment for cigarette smoking, and coffee and alcohol consumption, workers in the food industry (OR = 1.86) and the leather industry (OR = 1.63) showed higher risks than those in other industries. In the sub-group of French nationals only the risk associated with the textile industry was significantly higher than unity (OR = 2.30). No significant increase in risk was associated with work in any of the other branches studied; printing showed a moderate increase in risk (OR = 1.54). The subgroup of manual workers showed an increase in risk for cancer of the pancreas among those working in the building materials and building trades classification (OR = 2.16) and transportation (OR = 1.57).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1990, Vol.47, No.6, p.425-428. 26 ref.

CIS 90-765 Books on the working environment
Böcker om arbetsmiljö [en sueco]
Catalogue of 84 publications classified under the headings: alcohol and tobacco; allergies; responsibilities; construction; research; physical factors; occupational health services; industries and occupations; chemistry; laws and regulations; medicine; psychosocial factors; rehabilitation; stress; ventilation; other.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, Feb. 1990. 8p. Illus.

1989

CIS 91-1521 Ameille J., Brochard P., Conso F., Efthymiou M.L., Proteau J., Raix A.
Occupational physicians and drug addiction: some comments on urine tests for drugs
Médecine du travail et toxicomanies: à propos du dépistage urinaire des drogues [en francés]
Discussion of the ethics of urine testing for illegal drugs by occupational physicians in France. The problem of erroneous diagnosis is also discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.7, p.675-677.

CIS 91-346 De la Gala Sánchez F., García Méndez P., Delgado Lacosta A.
Consumo de alcohol en la población laboral
Study of the alcohol consumption of 2,280 Spanish patients, all of whom had suffered an occupational accident. 94% of the patients were men between 18 and 64, with an average age of 37. 15.4% of the patients were non-drinkers, 20.1% light drinkers, 25.6% moderate drinkers, 15.1% heavy drinkers, 13.2% overdrinkers and 10.6% were considered to be at great risk due to their alcohol consumption. No biological alterations which could be blamed on alcohol were found in 59.8% of the subjects, who had said they did not drink or were light or moderate drinkers. Various degrees of disruptions were however discovered in 40.1% of the patients considered to be heavy drinkers, overdrinkers or those at high risk.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1989, No.36, p.13-15. 7 ref. Illus.

CIS 91-142 Ashton D.
Institute of Personnel Management
The corporate health care revolution: strategies for preventive medicine at work
This book is divided into three main sections: Part 1 reviews the origins and scale of current health problems and discusses the US and British experience of health promotion programmes, from both an economic and a medical viewpoint. Part 2 provides background information concerning 5 major risk factors (exercise, nutrition, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, stress) which may interact to produce various diseases, but which can be favourably influenced by worksite health promotion activities. Part 3 discusses how these risk factors interact to contribute to a number of major diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. The practical application of some health promotion strategies is also discussed.
Kogan Page Ltd., 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, United Kingdom, 1989. 396p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 30.00.

CIS 90-1895 Shepard I.M., Duston R.L., Russell K.S.
Workplace privacy - Employee testing, surveillance, wrongful discharge, and other areas of vulnerability
Contents: privacy and the (US) constitution; common law and statutory rights; drug and alcohol abuse; polygraphs; applicant investigations; psychological and honesty tests; AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome); medical screening (including genetic testing); employee investigations; workplace surveillance; sexual harassment; personal relationships; work record confidentiality; confidentiality of EAP (employee assistance programme) and medical information; wrongful discharge; defamation. Appendices include a state-by-state survey of workplace privacy law, selected cases, sample company policies and a selected bibliography.
Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., 1231, 25th St., NW, Washington D.C. 20037, USA, 2nd ed., 1989. 357p. + appendices. Bibl. ref. Price: USD 95.00.

CIS 90-1746 Sutherland K.M., Flin R.H.
Stress at sea: A review of working conditions in the offshore oil and fishing industries
This paper reviews the literature available on the psychosocial aspects of the offshore oil and fishing industries. Both work sectors present unique problems for their employees and these are discussed with reference to risk and safety, accidents and injuries, occupational stressors, marriage and family life, noise, alcohol and drug abuse and personality. The paper concludes that although both occupations are intrinsically different, some psychosocial similarities can be observed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1989, Vol.3, No.3, p.269-285. Bibl.

CIS 90-1183 Sniezek J.E., Horiagon T.M.
Medical-examiner-reported fatal occupational injuries, North Carolina, 1978-1984
Fatal occupational injuries are a major public health problem in the U.S. Utilising a medical examiner database from North Carolina, 1,233 fatal work-related injuries were identified in a 7-year time period. Twelve percent of these deaths were in out-of-state residents. For men, highest risk industries were forestry/fishery, agriculture, trade, and transportation/public utilities/communications. Only 4% of deaths occurred in women. The most common manner of death in women was homicide. Highest-risk industries for women were agriculture, trade, and transportation/public utilities/communications. Of 902 decedents tested, alcohol was found in 11%, and 7% had levels at or above 100mg%. Because of its completeness, the North Carolina Medical Examiner System is a useful tool to use in the surveillance of fatal occupational injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.15, No.6, p.669-678. 18 ref.

CIS 90-1382 Lees R.E.M., Laundry B.R.
Comparison of reported workplace morbidity in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts in one plant
A retrospective study of the minor morbidity diagnoses of 775 workers during two 10-year periods was undertaken. During the first, they worked an 8-hour rotating shift, during the second, a 12-hour shift system. Stress related symptoms were identified from medical reports kept by the plant health service. By age-sex standardisation and the calculation of morbidity ratios and confidence intervals, it was shown that the introduction of the 12-hour shift system was accompanied by a statistically significant fall in the incidence of stress-related complaints such as headaches, gastrointestinal upsets and alcohol-related complaints. No reduction was found in the incidence of other illness complaints, considered to be unrelated to stress.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1989, Vol.39, No.3, p.81-84. 15 ref.

CIS 90-1049 Dufficy H.
Psychoactive drugs - The problems at work
The problems of drug misuse among employees are discussed in this interview with the Deputy Director of the SCODA (Standing Conference on Drug Abuse) of the United Kingdom. The properties of commonly used drugs are listed.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1989, Vol.7, No.6, p.14-16. 2 ref.

CIS 90-1048 Tober G.
Dealing with alcohol at work: The development of workplace policies
Discussion of the problem of alcohol consumption during the working day. It is stated that moderate drinkers, because they are more numerous, contribute more to the overall level of alcohol-related problems than do "problem drinkers". Flow-charts are presented for workplace action in cases of (a) a referral from management and (b) self referral.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1989, Vol.7, No.6, p.11-13. 8 ref.

CIS 90-699 Wright C.
Occupational medicine - Alcoholism and chemical dependency in the workplace
Collection of major review articles, each accompanied by many references. Contents: occupational chemical dependency programmes; alcoholism in the workplace; management perspectives on alcoholism - the employer's stake in alcoholism treatment; role of the employee assistance programme in helping the troubled worker; the general medical evaluation of the alcoholic; women, work and alcohol; treatments for alcoholism; family therapy in the treatment of the employed alcoholic; children of alcoholics - a target for prevention efforts; nutrition and alcoholism - problems and therapies; occupational therapy in alcoholism; alcohol in the workplace - legal issues facing physicians; returning to work after rehabilitation - aftercare, follow-up and workplace reliability; substance abuse - an annotated bibliography.
Hanley and Belfus, Inc., Medical Publishers, P.O. Box 1377, Philadelphia, PA 19105-9990, USA, Apr.-June 1989. p.195-390. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 29.00 (outside the US: USD 34.00, airmail: USD 40.00).

CIS 90-140 Medicinal drugs and safety at work
Contents of this data sheet: side effects; all drugs are poisons; the need for better education; risk for drivers; daytime drugs; visual effects.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0DA, United Kingdom, 1989. p.G:22:1-G:22:7.

CIS 89-2095 Lewis R.J., Cooper P.S.
Alcohol, other drugs, and fatal work-related injuries
The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of fatal work-related injuries that involved alcohol and other drugs in Harris County, Texas (which includes most of the city of Houston) during 1984 and 1985. A total of 207 death certificates and 196 autopsy reports that classified deaths as occurring at work were identified, and the demographic and toxicological information was reviewed. Tests for alcohol were conducted for 88.3% of the workers autopsied; 13.3% had a detectable blood alcohol content. Drug screens, in addition to tests for alcohol, were performed on 87.8% of the workers autopsied; 7.0% had detectable traces of drugs which had the potential to alter physiological functions needed to avoid injury. Only one case of illicit drug use was detected. When substances were detected, alcohol and prescription drugs, not illicit drugs, were the ones most frequently found.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.31, No.1, p.23-28. 13 ref.

1988

CIS 91-855 Health promotion for working populations
Promotion de la santé des travailleurs [en francés]
This report of a WHO expert committee examines ways in which the workplace can be used as a setting for health promotion activities that go beyond the traditional concern with work-related hazards. It concentrates on programmes and activities developed for workers that have demonstrated their ability to alter life-styles, improve health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism and accidents at work.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 49p. 82 ref. Price: CHF 8.00.

CIS 90-2097 Cárdenas García C., Moreno-Jiménez B.
Prevención primaria del consumo de alcohol en el ámbito laboral - una campaña-piloto
A campaign for the reduction of alcohol consumption at work was carried out in a Madrid comapny in the food sector which employed 100 workers, mostly males. The alcohol consumption of the workers investigated and information concerning the negative effects of alcohol was transmitted to the workers. The duration of the campaign was 40 days and it resulted in a slight decrease of alcohol consumption among the participants and a significant increase of the knowledge concerning alcohol among them. This did not, however, increase the awareness of the risks associated with this consumption.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.30, p.21-30. 19 ref. Illus.

CIS 90-2099 Drugs in the workplace
Les drogues en milieu de travail [en francés]
This booklet provides general information on drug abuse at the workplace and suggests ways of overcoming the problem. An introductory chapter looks at the consequences, cost and extent of drug use in the workplace. A chapter explains the factors governing the intensity of effects, the path towards drug dependency, and the major functional effects and signs of use of a range of substances including alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, narcotics, hallucinogens, stimulants, barbiturates, solvents, tranquilisers. Final chapters discuss the need for a written drug policy and its implementation, and the legal aspects of drug control.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Drug Awareness Program, 1200 Alta Vista Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OR2, Canada, 1988. 35 + 35p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 90-1891 Wyatt A., Oxenburgh M.
Workplace health and safety manual in 1 volume
A very thorough reference guide to all aspects of occupational health and safety, easily updatable because of its ring-binder format. As specific national legislation is not emphasised, this manual can be used in all parts of the English-speaking world. It is divided into the following sections ("tab divisions"): scope and use of the manual; workplace consultation (employee participation, ILO support, OSH representatives and OSH committees); the body at work (details on various body parts and systems, and on how they can be affected by the working environment); hazards, diseases and controls; training; occupational rehabilitation; specific policies and programmes (AIDS, alcoholism, chemical safety, drug addiction, electricity, equipment, fires, hot working conditions, hearing conservation, Legionnaires' disease, machine guarding, maintenance, manual handling, the multicultural workplace, noise, occupational overuse injuries, smoking, women); emergency planning; contractors and third parties; ventilation; ergonomics and work design; records and documentation; outside assistance (including an address list for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the US and the UK); recent developments; glossary.
CCH International, Cnr Talavera and Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, N.S.W., 2113 Australia, Sep. 1988. 1 vol. (loose-leaf binder). Illus. Bibl.ref. Indices.

CIS 89-2098 Drug testing in the workplace. A conference
Tests de toxicomanie en milieu de travail. Une conférence [en francés]
Proceedings of a workshop organised by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety and held in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, on 3 December 1987.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 75p. 3 ref.

CIS 89-1050 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Alcohol drinking
On the basis of its evaluation of the related available toxicological data, IARC states that: (1) there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde (the major metabolite of ethanol) in experimental animals; (2) there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol and of alcoholic beverages in animals; (3) there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in humans: the occurrence of malignant tumours of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, ¿sophagus and liver is causally related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages; (4) alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic in humans (Group 1).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. Vol.44. 416p. Bibl. Price: CHF 65.00.

CIS 89-461 Do you use any of these?
Consommez-vous un de ces produits? [en francés]
Leaflet on the prevention of alcoholism and drug abuse at work. A table presents the particular effects and withdrawal symptoms associated with various kinds of dangerous drugs. The role of the employer, unions and the ILO in fighting drug and alcohol abuse are outlined.
International Labour Office, Vocational Rehabilitation Branch, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1988. 2p.

CIS 89-460 Workplace initiatives to prevent and reduce drug and alcohol problems
Lutter contre la consommation de drogue et d'alcool en prenant des initiatives sur le lieu de travail [en francés]
Contents: effects of alcohol and drug abuse; responses to alcohol and drug problems; the role of the ILO Resolution concerning measures against drug and alcohol abuse in working and social life.
International Labour Office, Vocational Rehabilitation Branch, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1988. 8p.

CIS 89-431 Nicotina
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit (OSHA): PEL (8h) = 0.5mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; irritation of eyes and skin; dependence; cardiac arrhythimia; neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral systems).
Noticias de seguridad, 1988, Vol.50, No.12, 4p. insert.

CIS 89-487 Brownson R.C.
A case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption
A case control study based on data from a cancer registry was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, alcohol use, and occupation on renal cell cancer risk. Information was obtained for 326 male and female cases and 978 age- and sex-matched controls. Elevated risks were identified for cigarette smokers and for men employed as truck drivers. No relationship between alcohol consumption and renal cancer was observed.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1988, Vol.43, No.3, p.238-241. 27 ref.

CIS 88-1883 Armstrong B.K., De Klerk N.H., Musk A.W., Hobbs M.S.T.
Mortality in miners and millers of crocidolite in Western Australia
6,505 men and 411 women were employed in the mining and milling of crocidolite in a mine in Western Australia between 1943-1966. Employment was usually brief (median duration: 4 months) and exposure intense (median cumulative exposure: 6 fibres/cc yrs). The Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for all causes in men was 1.53. Statistically significant excess death rates were observed in men for neoplasms, particularly malignant mesothelioma (32 deaths), neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus, and lung (SMR 2.64) and of the stomach (SMR 1.90); respiratory diseases, particularly pneumoconiosis (SMR 25.5); infections, particularly tuberculosis (SMR 4.09); mental disorders, particularly alcoholism (SMR 4.87); digestive diseases, particularly peptic ulceration (SMR 2.46) and cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 3.94); and injuries and poisonings, particularly non-transport accidents (SMR 2.36). The excess mortality from pneumoconiosis, malignant mesothelioma, and respiratory cancers, but not stomach neoplasms, was dependent on time since first exposure and on cumulative exposure. There was no significant increase in mortality from laryngeal cancer (SMR 1.09) or neoplasms other than those listed. In women, the SMR for all causes was 1.47 (95% confidence interval 0.98-2.21) and for neoplasms 1.99.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.45, No.1, p.5-13. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 88-1869 Chan C.K., Gee J.B.L.
Asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer: An analysis of the epidemiologic evidence
A review of nine case control studies indicates that the estimated risk (odds ratio) attributable to asbestos exposure alone is negligible when smoking and ethanol intake are appropriately controlled for. Six of the 12 cohort studies demonstrated no significant increase in the standardised mortality ratio due to asbestos exposure. The remaining six longitudinal studies showed an increased standardised mortality ratio from 1.91 to 5.41 but no adjustment was made for the confounding effects of smoking and ethanol consumption. In conclusion, the available epidemiologic evidence does not support a causal association between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.30, No.1, p.23-27. 42 ref.

CIS 88-1485 Sécurifilm catalogue
Sécurifilm présente son catalogue 1988 [en francés]
Catalogue of audiovisual training materials, available in VHS video and 16mm film formats. Classification: hospitals, hotels, public areas; prevention of industrial accidents; radioactivity; nuclear industry; industrial risks to the environment; alcohol and smoking; child safety; communication within the enterprise; medical technology. Each title is accompanied by the projection length, an abstract indicating contents, and price in FRF of the video and 16mm film version.
Sécurifilm, 10 parc de Béarn, 92210 St Cloud, France, 1988. 20p.

CIS 88-1128 AIMS Media 1988 - Safety and health film and video catalog
Catalogue of 16-mm films and videotapes (VHS, Beta and 3/4") available for sale and rental. Much of the material is on occupational safety, first aid, fire and electrical safety and alcohol and drug abuse. Some of the items are also available in Spanish.
AIMS Media, 6901 Woodley Ave., Van Nuys, CA 91406-4878, USA, 1988. 40p. Illus.

1987

CIS 97-86 Respuestas a los problemas de la toxicomanía y el alcoholismo en el medio laboral
Responses to drug and alcohol problems in the workplace [en inglés]
Este programa audio-visual, de carácter pedagógico, ha sido producido conjuntamente con la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y tiene como objetivo servir de ayuda a los empresarios y los sindicatos para implantar, por etapas, un programa de prevención y de gestión de las drogodependencias en el medio laboral (alcoholismo, toxicomanías, fármaco-dependencias). El programa contiene información sobre los siguientes aspectos: naturaleza y posibles causas de las drogodependencias en el medio laboral; problemas para los trabajadores, los empresarios, los sindicatos y la sociedad; objetivos de los programas de ayuda; principios a respetar a la hora de preparar e implantar los programas; respuestas que pueden ofrecerse a los drogodependientes en el medio laboral; medidas de control, prevención, orientación, tratamiento y readaptación profesional. Se muestran ejemplos de las líneas maestras y los programas que pueden adoptarse en la empresa, complementados con un inventario de legislación sobre esta materia y de las fuentes institucionales de información. El módulo contiene también un diaporama sonoro que puede ser utilizado para realizar presentaciones audiovisuales.
Publicaciones de la OIT, Oficina Internacional del Trabajo, 1211 Genève 22, Suiza, 1987. Módulo de formación (libros + diapositivas + audiocasete). Precio: CHF 150,00.

CIS 93-1750 Medscreen - Drug and alcohol abuse
Medscreen is a commercial service which offers companies assistance in dealing with the problem of drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace. This series of booklets covers: the impact of drug and alcohol abuse on the workplace; developing and implementing a corporate policy on drug and alcohol abuse; education to create an informed awareness of the implications of misusing drugs and alcohol; providing laboratory services for drug testing to identify those employees with a problem; providing access to counselling and treatment facilities.
Medscreen Ltd., 13 John Street, London WC1N 2EB, United Kingdom, 1987. 5 leaflets of 12p., 2p., 3p., 3p., 3p. Price: GBP 2.50.

CIS 92-2099 Walsh J.M., Yohay S.C.
Drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace: A guide to the issues
Contents of this basic reference source concerning drug and alcohol abuse in the US: choices facing employers in developing a substance abuse policy; effects of drug abuse on an individual; substance abuse programmes and employees' rights to privacy and due process of law; substance abuse programmes and employment discrimination statutes; substance abuse programmes in the unionised workplace - the National Labor Relations Act and collective-bargaining agreements; President's Executive Order on the use of illegal drugs by Federal Employees and State and local legislative proposals; elements of a substance abuse programme. Detailed bibliography classified by type of drug.
National Foundation for the Study of Equal Employment Policy, 1015 15th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20005, USA, 1987. viii, 150p. 173 ref.

CIS 89-142 Cultural factors in worksite health promotion
Proceedings of a workshop organised by the Interuniversitäres Forschungsinstitut für Fernstudien and the WHO Regional Office for Europe (Linz, Austria, 31 May-5 June l987). An introduction and a summary report on the meeting are followed by the papers presented. Topics: trends in worksite health promotion; establishment of a worker-oriented inter-faculty research group at Amsterdam University; a university-trade union cooperative research project in Austria; health promotion of disabled employees in Finland; health promotion through action-oriented research in organisation; professional roles and social mobilisation in health promotion; a Welsh programme of health promotion in the workplace; cross-cultural factors and their impact on industrial alcoholism programmes; occupational stress and health; cultural factors in worksite health promotion in Hawaii; a health promotion programme model for small business.
Interuniversitäres Forschungsinstitut für Fernstudien der österreichischen Universitäten, Scharitzerstrasse 10, 4020 Linz, Austria, 1987. 139p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 88-1974 Laplanche A., Clavel F., Contassot J.C., Lanouziere C.
Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: Report on a cohort study
A prospective exposed/non-exposed cohort study was carried out to evaluate the association between mortality and cancer morbidity and occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). 1,100 VCM exposed subjects and 1,100 VCM non-exposed controls matched for age (±2yrs), plant, and physician were included and followed up over a 5-year period. The percentages of deaths among the exposed (1.8%) and non-exposed subjects (1.6%) did not differ significantly. 18 (1.6%) and 15 (1.4%) cases of cancer were reported among exposed and non-exposed subjects, respectively. One case of angiosarcoma of the liver and 6 cases of lung cancer occurred among exposed subjects and 2 among non-exposed subjects. The percentage of diseases of the circulatory system was higher (p<0.02) in the 1st than in the 2nd group: this difference was explained mainly by the high incidence of Raynaud's disease (p<0.006).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.44, No.10, p.711-715. 21 ref.

CIS 88-1233 Ulfvarson U.
Assessment of concentration peaks in setting exposure limits for air contaminants at workplaces, with special emphasis on narcotic and irritative gases and vapors
This review and criteria document for Nordic countries discusses mathematical models of toxic effects; history of the time-weighted average and short-term exposure limits in various countries; effects of concentration peaks from the toxicokinetic standpoint (alcohols, esters, ketones, hydrocarbons, chlorinated and nitro hydrocarbons). Considerations for the setting of limits are described.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1987, Vol.13, No.5, p.389-398. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 88-1209 Dubrow R., Gute D.M.
Cause-specific mortality among Rhode Island jewelry workers
Death certificates for Rhode Island (USA) jewellery manufacturing workers from 1968 to 1978 were examined. Elevated ratios among males were observed for nonmalignant kidney diseases, liver cancer, drug dependence and accidental poisoning. Among females, the elevated ratios occurred with stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, skin diseases and drug dependence. Possible reasons for the elevated ratios are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.579-593. 46 ref.

CIS 88-840 Cyster R., Macklin D., McEwen J.
Alcohol policies - A guide to action at work
Practical handbook for senior management, personnel staff and others involved in the introduction of workplace programmes and policies on alcohol. Contents: the effects of alcohol; the impact of alcohol on society; risk factors in employment; preparing for a policy; preparation of the policy statement; prevention; training; information note on identifying guidelines for the interviewing of an alcoholic employee; resources needed for an effective programme; communicating the policy to employees; legal implciations. The appendix contains a list of useful addresses in the United Kingdom and a list of videotapes and training manuals that can be used in training programmes.
Industrial Society, Peter Runge House, 3 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5DG, United Kingdom, 1987. 46p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 3.75.

CIS 88-495 Gardner A.W.
Current approaches to occupational health - 3
This book covers some current issues in occupational health: low-humidity occupational dermatoses; occupational asthma; monitoring for new occupational risks of cancer; electromagnetic fields and health effects; psychiatric aspects of fitness for work; identifying and helping problem drinkers at work; toxicology and toxicology programmes; occupational health in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry; occupational health problems in health care workers; achieving safe behaviour; the role of legislation, regulation and enforcement in occupational health; occupational health programmes; ethical problems in occupational medicine; the health of an organisation; audit in occupational health.
John Wright and Sons Ltd., Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, 1987. 364p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 29.50.

CIS 88-504 Gestal J.J.
Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault
Literature review. Except for infectious diseases, all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); noise; radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than in the general population) and psychic problems association with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). Not all references cited in the text are given in the bibliography, a full version of which can be obtained from the author on request.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1987, Vol.44, No.8, p.510-520. 25 ref.

CIS 88-205 Zsögön É., Szoboszlay S., Groszmann M., Szépvölgyi E., Timár M.
Complex morbidity monitoring of miners
Bányászok komplex morbiditási vizsgálata [en húngaro]
Results of a survey of working conditions and of miners' health at 2 Hungarian coal mines. Data are presented on: daily energy needs of miners in various activities; microclimate parameters; dust exposure levels; noise exposure levels; average length of sinckness absence due to various diseases among miners; incidence of these diseases; prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases; relationship of chronic bronchitis and smoking among miners; levels of alcohol consumption.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1987, Vol.33, No.4-6, p.78-88. Illus.

CIS 87-903 Bygghälsan Bulletin
Summaries of research projects conducted by the Swedish Construction Industry's Organisation for Working Environment, Safety and Health. Current projects cover: pipelaying, soil stabilising, road construction, lift installation, asphalt, silicosis in concrete workers, respiratory cancer in workers exposed to man-made mineral fibres, mineral wool, assessment of noise injury, standards for the weight of blocks and masonry bricks, changes in muscle load when different gripping forces are applied during exposure to vibration, use of holography in the mesurement of vibration exposure, osteoarthrosis and shoulder pain in relation to exposure to vibrating tools, biological effects of exposure to solvents and paints, cancer in painters, lead exposure and reliability of its laboratory evaluation, strain in different parts of the body caused by postures and loads, alcohol habits of construction workers, the "health profile" of the working environment, planning for a better work environment, accidents, ergonomic equipment, guard rails, musculoskeletal disorders of the neck-shoulder region related to working positions, handling heavy plumbing and heating products, operator seats in vehicles.
Bygghälsan, Box 94, S-182 11 Danderyd, Sweden, 1987. 47p. Illus.

CIS 87-1120 Proust B., Joly J.P., Lhuintre J.P., Caillard J.F., Hillemand B.
Ethanol: special aspects, legislation and preventive action in connection with alcoholism
Ethanol: terrains particuliers, législation et perspectives d'action vis-à-vis des problèmes de l'éthanol [en francés]
Information note on alcoholism in special categories of people (women, children, young people, the elderly and athletes), and, in particular, in workers, covering: incidence and aetiology of alcoholism in the workplace, its effect on absenteeism, French legislation against alcoholism at work, anti-alcohol campaigns, relationship with traffic and other accidents. There are 3 levels of preventive action possible: primary (reduction in supply and education of the public), secondary (clinical and biological monitoring) and tertiary (prevention of back-sliding among ex-alcoholics).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1987, 8p. 49 ref.

CIS 87-1119 Hillemand B., Lhuintre J.P., Joly J.P., Proust B.
Ethanol or ethyl alcohol
L'éthanol ou alcool éthylique [en francés]
Information note on the effects of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) consumption. One chapter is devoted to health effects: digestion, neuropsychic, cardiovascular and haematological problems; effects of alcohol on the endocrine glands and the kidney; relationship between alcohol consumption on one hand and cancer and infectious diseases on the other; alcohol as a drug (addiction and its pathophysiology).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1987, 10p. 50 ref.

CIS 87-720 Alcohol and drugs: programmes of assistance for workers
Alcool et drogue: programmes d'assistance aux travailleurs [en francés]
Contents of this issue of the ILO's Conditions of Work Digest: introduction (rationale for workplace programmes to deal with alcohol and drug problems; policies, guidelines and classifications of such programmes); a survey of policies and guidelines developed by governments, employers' and workers' organisations and other groups; description of programmes of prevention, education and assistance in place (including examples of collective agreements from various countries); list of institutions; annotated bibliography of 123 items. Policies, guidelines and programmes are detailed for: Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA, USSR, Yugoslavia. In addition to most of these countries, the list of institutions also includes information for Austria and Belgium.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1987, Vol.6, No.1, 243p. French version published in 1989.

1986

CIS 89-349 Cagney J.K.
Beating the drug and alcohol problem in the workplace - Detection, control and treatment
Guide for personnel managers. Contents: Substance abuse in the workplace; the American scene; who is an alcoholic?; women and alcohol in the workplace; who is a drug abuser?; meeting the problem up front; problem handling; employee assistance; alcohol/drug testing; alcohol/drug treatment; alcohol/drug insurance; what employers are doing about this problem; state occupational alcoholism program consultants; chapters of the Association of Labour-Management Administrators and Consultants on Alcoholism, Inc.; facilities offering treatment and counselling; supervisor's guide to on-the-job alcoholism and drug problems; sample policies, forms and literature.
Bureau of Law and Business, Inc., 64 Wall Street, Madison, CT 06443-1513, USA, 1986. 355p. Illus. Price: USD 59.95.

CIS 88-1749 Supervisor's guide to on-the-job alcoholism and drug problems
This manual covers: alcohol and drugs in the workplace (cost of abuse, role of supervisors); detecting alcoholism and drug problems; who is an alcoholic (alcoholic progression, detection, early warning system); who is a drug abuser (what are drugs and who uses them, understanding drug abuse, early warning system); common drugs in the workplace (marijuana, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, tranquillisers); emergency procedures (alcoholism and drug crises); supervisor's check list.
Business and Legal Reports, Bureau of Law and Business, Inc., Hazardous Waste Bulletin, 64 Wall Street, Madison, CT 06443-1513, USA, 1986. 35p. Price: USD 9.95.

CIS 88-350 Wolf S.G, Finestone A.J.
Occupational stress - Health and performance at work
Contents of this book written for occupational physicians: stress, satisfaction and morale in relation to health and productivity; historical perspective; bodily mechanisms that mediate stress, aetiologic significance of the workplace, the work and the workers, stressful aspects of shift work; contributions of the employee's personality and behaviour to occupational stress; alcohol and other mood changing drugs; problems of ageing and retirement; responsibilities and liabilities of management; the medical department and employees; corporate liability for occupational medicine programmes; prevention and treatment - concept and practice of stress management, control of absenteeism, perspective and preventive strategies, experience with preventive measures.
PSG Publishing Company, 545 Great Road, Littleton, MA 01460, USA; John Wright and Sons Ltd, Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, 1986. 255p. Illus. 310 ref. Index. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 87-1115 Rolland de Ravel I.
Clinical and medico-legal aspects of certain kinds of occupational poisoning by trichloroethylene
Aspect clinique et médico-légal de certaines intoxications professionnelles par le trichloréthylène [en francés]
Thesis in medicine. Toxicology of trichloroethylene, acute and chronic poisoning, addiction, two case studies (cerebral atrophy, multiple sclerosis), preventive measures.
Université d'Angers, Faculté mixte de médecine et de pharmacie d'Angers, 49000 Angers Cedex, France, 1986. 113p. 77 ref.

CIS 87-896 Kobayashi F., Watanabe T.
Study of the health and living conditions of day labourers - analysis of 5 years of health examination records
Hiyatoi rōdōsha no seikatsu to kenkō ni tsuite - 5-nenkan no kenshin kiroku no bunseki [en japonés]
Every winter, especially before and after the New Year, more than 100 day-labourers are compelled to sleep outdoors around Nagoya station owing to the scarcity of jobs. Their age distribution peaks in their forties, and the percentage of men above sixty is very low. As job opportunities decrease, their living conditions become worse. Almost none of them have joined a health insurance programme. The following are considered to be their most important health problems: (1) trauma and other musculoskeletal diseases caused by heavy muscular work; (2) diseases such as tuberculosis, exaggerated by malnutrition or bad living conditions; (3) alcoholic liver disease or other alcohol-related diseases. These results suggest the necessity of more comprehensive and more effective policies.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.33, No.12, p.761-768. 10 ref.

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