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Abuso de alcohol y drogas - 495 entradas encontradas

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  • Abuso de alcohol y drogas


CIS 11-0577 Wang L., Wheeler K., Bai L., Stallones L., Dong Y., Ge J., Xiang H.
Alcohol consumption and work-related injuries among farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China
This population-based survey aimed to study the association between alcohol use and work-related agricultural injury. Farmers in a north-eastern province of China were questioned about work-related injury in the past year, alcohol use, farming practices and sociodemographic factors. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the role of alcohol drinking in agricultural injuries. Among 2,050 farmers who completed the survey, the 12-month prevalence of work-related injury was 12.2%. The leading external cause of injury was exposure to mechanical force. The odds of injury among farmers with past month drinking, who drank distilled spirits and reported intoxication were respectively 1.77, 1.89 and 2.12. The odds of injury also significantly increased with greater average amounts of pure alcohol per day, with increased frequency of drinking per week and with greater reported years of drinking. Each alcohol use variable was associated with injury in logistic regression models while controlling for sex, age, years of farm work, months of farm work in the past 12 months, driving a motor vehicle and agricultural machinery use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.825-835. 35 ref.

CIS 11-0293 Gjerde H., Christophersen A.S., Moan I.S., Yttredal B., Walsh J.M., Normann P.T., Mørland J.
Use of alcohol and drugs by Norwegian employees: A pilot study using questionnaires and analysis of oral fluid
The use of alcohol and drugs may affect workplace safety and productivity. Little is known about the magnitude of this problem in Norway. The employees of four participating companies in Norway filled in a questionnaire and provided a sample of oral fluid. Samples were analyzed for alcohol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG; a biological marker of recent large alcohol intake), psychoactive medicinal drugs and illegal drugs. Alcohol was negative in all samples, but 21.0% reported the intake of alcohol during the last 24 h. EtG was positive in 2.1% of the samples. Inefficiency or hangover at work during the past year was reported by 24.3%, while 6.2% had been absent from work during the past year due to the use of alcohol. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:13, 8p. 42 ref.
Use_of_alcohol_and_drugs.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0146 Bushnell P.T., Colombi A., Caruso C.C., Tak S.
Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer
Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey responses were collected during 2000-2008 in a multinational chemical and coatings manufacturer. Responses of 26,442 employees were sufficiently complete for analysis. Rates of smoking, lack of exercise, moderate to high alcohol use, obesity and short sleep duration were compared by work schedule type (day, night, or rotating shift) and daily work hours (8, 10, or 12 h). Prevalence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, adjusting for age group, sex, marital status, job tenure, and occupational group. The reference group was 8-h day shift employees. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.395-405. 50 ref.
Work_schedules.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0635 Resumen del informe sobre incentivos económicos para mejorar la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo: análisis desde la perspectiva europea
Summary of the report on economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health: A review from the European perspective [en inglés]
Résumé du rapport sur les incitations économiques visant à améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail: un compte rendu du point de vue européen [en francés]
Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) refer to processes that reward organizations which develop and maintain safe and healthy working environments. These processes may include, for example, linking the OSH performance of an organization to fiscal incentives such as lower insurance premiums or tax rates. These aspects are summarized in this fact sheet, also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Facts_95/EN.pdf [en inglés]
Facts_95/FR.pdf [en francés]
Facts_95/ES.pdf [en español]

CIS 10-0350 Kaewboonchoo O., Morioka I., Saleekul S., Miyai N., Chaikittiporn C., Kawai T.
Blood lead level and cardiovascular risk factors among bus drivers in Bangkok, Thailand
This study aimed to clarify the role of blood lead level (Pb-B) as a cardiovascular risk factor. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk, the second derivative finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used. The subjects comprised of 420 male bus drivers in Thailand. The SDPTG-AI increases with age, Pb-B, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was significant correlation between Pb-B and SDPTG-AI after controlling for age, body mass index and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that Pb-B is possibly an independent cardiovascular risk factor for bus drivers exposed to lower level of lead.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 18 ref.
Blood_lead_level.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0228 Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [en francés]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.


CIS 09-1211 Mäkinen T.M., Jokelainen J., Näyhä S., Laatikainen T., Jousilahti P., Hassi J.
Occurrence of frostbite in the general population - Work-related and individual factors
Based on data from several regional surveys in Finland, this study analyzed the incidence of frostbite in the general population and the related risk factors. The annual frequencies of mild and severe frostbite were 12.9% and 1.1%, respectively. Frostbite was found to occur more frequently among men than women. Work-related risk factors included employment in certain industries, high physical strain and weekly cold exposure at work. Individual factors that increase frostbite risk are diabetes, white fingers in the cold, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, stroke, depressive feelings and heavy alcohol consumption.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.35, No.5, p.384-393. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 09-1406 Gimeno D., Amick B.C., Barrientos-Gutiérrez T., Mangione T.W.
Work organization and drinking: An epidemiological comparison of two psychosocial work exposure models
To examine the relationship between psychosocial work exposure and drinking behaviours, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 3,099 workers in the United States. Factors assessed included job stress and alienating job conditions. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. High strain work showed no associations, while workers in passive jobs had an increased likelihood of heavy drinking (odds ratio (OR) 1.29) and a lower likelihood of frequent drinking (OR 0.71). Jobs with low complexity and low constraint related to more frequent drinking (OR 1.60). No associations with drinking at work were observed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.305-317. 75 ref.

CIS 09-1402 Sinokki M., Hinkka K., Ahola K,, Koskinen S., Klaukka T., Kivimäki M., Puukka P., Lönnqvist J., Virtanen M.
The association between team climate at work and mental health in the Finnish Health 2000 study
This study investigated whether team climate at work was associated with DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication in a random sample of 3347 Finnish employees aged 30-64 years. Data on team climate and depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were collected during interviews. Data on the use of antidepressant medication in a three-year follow-up period were collected from the national social insurance register. Poor team climate at work was significantly associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio (OR) 1.61) but not with alcohol use. Poor team climate also predicted antidepressant medication (OR 1.53), but not anxiety after adjustment for job demands and control.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.523-528. 51 ref.

CIS 09-1182 Leggat P.A., Smith D.R.
Alcohol-related absenteeism: The need to analyse consumption patterns in order to target screening and interventions in the workplace
The impact of alcohol, tobacco and drugs in the workplace is reflected in two to three times higher rates of absenteeism, three times higher compensation claims and a quarter of all occupational accidents. This editorial argues in favour of screening employees for their alcohol consumption during their regular annual medical examinations, and providing suitable preventive interventions and treatment.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.345-347. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1190 Peretti-Watel P., Constance J., Seror V., Beck F.
Working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among French clerks and manual workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among clerks and manual workers in France. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among a random sample of 4825 full-time workers. Manual workers and clerks who reported strong dissatisfaction toward unhealthy working conditions also reported more frequent current smoking, tobacco addiction, potential alcohol dependence and perceived stress. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, perceived working conditions and job dissatisfaction remained correlated with smoking and tobacco dependence.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.343-350. 47 ref.

CIS 09-799 Goetzel R.Z., Baker K.M., Short M.E., Pei X., Ozminkowski R.J., Wang S., Bowen J.D., Roemer E.C., Craun B.A., Tully K.J., Baase C.M., DeJoy D.M., Wilson M.G.
First-year results of an obesity prevention program at the Dow Chemical Company
This article presents the first-year results from a workplace obesity prevention programme at a large chemical company in the United States. A study was conducted among 8013 employees at nine treatment worksites who received weight management interventions and 8013 controls based at three other worksites who did not receive the interventions. Data concerning changes in employees' weight, body mass index (BMI), and other health risks were subjected to statistical analyses. After one year, a modest treatment effect was observed for weight and BMI largely because the control group subjects gained weight; however, no effect was observed for overweight and obesity prevalence. With the exception of blood glucose, other risk factors (tobacco use, high blood pressure, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure values) decreased significantly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.125-138. Illus. 72 ref.

CIS 09-732 Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref. [en inglés]


CIS 09-1188 Billings D.W., Cook R.F., Hendrickson A., Dove D.C.
A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia health promotion programme for the workplace, designed to help reduce stress and the risk of depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 309 working adults were randomly assigned to the web-based intervention group or to a control group. All participants were assessed on multiple self-reported outcomes before and after the intervention. Relative to controls, the web-based group reduced their stress, increased their knowledge of depression and anxiety, developed more positive attitudes toward stress treatment and adopted a more controlled approach to alcohol consumption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.960-968. 44 ref.

CIS 09-518 Training of future engineers and managers
Former les futurs ingénieurs et managers [en francés]
This issue is largely devoted to the proposals of an expert retained by the French Ministries of employment and of higher education on occupational safety and health training in universities and advanced learning institutions. It also presents several INRS publications and initiatives in various fields (emerging hazards, alcohol and drugs at work, wood dust, glycol ethers, standardization).
Réalité Prévention, Nov.-Dec. 2008, No.18, 4p. (whole issue). Illus. 7 ref.$File/ActuRealitePrevention18.pdf [en francés]

CIS 09-742 Lee T.K., LaBrie R.A., Rhee H.S., Shaffer H.J.
A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems
The objective of this study was to identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes among casino employees in South Korea depending upon whether or not they reported any gambling problems. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 388 employees on the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems were compared to those who reported any gambling problems. Exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems reported more smoking, alcohol consumption and depression compared to employees who did not report gambling problems. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.191-197. 23 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-739 Binge drinking - Is Australia's drinking culture affecting your workplace?
This article discusses the workplace safety implications of binge drinking in Australia, together with prevention efforts targeted at young workers. Contents: workers who binge; alcohol and accidents; cultural implications; day-to-day practice; the hangover effect; alcohol testing; legal aspects.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, May 2008, Vol.3, No.4, p.16-23. Illus.

CIS 09-364 Tavares E.P.N.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
The work of monitors of Febem
O trabalho dos monitores na Febem [en portugués]
Study of working conditions and health problems among monitors working in a Brazilian detention centre for minors called FEBEM.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2008. 84p. Illus. 15 ref. [en portugués]

CIS 09-491 Ochoa Mangado E., Madoz Gúrpide A.
Consumo de alcohol y otras drogas en el medio laboral
The consumption of alcohol and drugs is widespread in society in general, including among workers. The implications of the consumption of these substances in the working environment are very important, giving rise to diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities and reduced productivity. Various measures are necessary in occupational settings to prevent and to minimize the risks resulting from the consumption of these substances. These should include prevention and support programmes offering basic information and medical assistance to affected workers.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.25-32. 28 ref. [en español]

CIS 09-2 Chau N., Bourgkard E., Bhattacherjee A., Ravaud J.F., Choquet M., Mur J.M.
Associations of job, living conditions and lifestyle with occupational injury in working population: A population-based study
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between job demands and occupational injury, taking into account living conditions and lifestyle. A questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 2888 workers, aged ≥15 years, randomly selected from north-eastern France. Data were analyzed with adjusted odds ratios (ORas) computed with the logistic model. In total, 9.2% of workers had an injury during the previous two years. Odds ratios of the high job demands (tasks at height, handling objects, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, work in adverse climate, physical workload, vibrating platform, machine tools, cold, heat, awkward posture, noise, etc.) for injury were between 1.81 and 5.25. A strong exposure-response relationship was found between the cumulated job demands and injury. These ORas decreased when adjusted for sex, age, living conditions/lifestyle confounders and job category. The study identified a wide range of job demands and living conditions/lifestyle which predicted injury.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2008, Vol.81, No.4, p.379-389. 52 ref.

CIS 09-240 Phan Chan Thé E.
Addictive behaviour and safety-critical jobs
Conduites addictives et postes de sécurité [en francés]
This article discusses the management of addictive behaviour in occupational settings, with an emphasis on screening for the abuse of drugs and alcohol among persons assigned to safety-critical jobs. Two examples of safety-critical jobs are presented: truck drivers and dock handlers. The article also presents various statistics that help understand the importance and the severity of the problem of substance addiction in France.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2008, No.97, p.76-81. Illus.

CIS 08-1495 Maurais S.
Caution: Office parties and alcohol
Attention! Alcool et party au bureau [en francés]
No enterprise wishes to see their employees die in an accident after returning from a company-organized party or "farewell drinks" event. This article comments the legal responsibilities of employers with respect to this issue and presents simple means to ensure that employees return home safety: supply of breath analysers; supply of taxi vouchers or other means of conveyance; controlling the amount of alcohol served; ensuring that the catering staff is trained with respect to serving alcohol and aware of their responsibilities.
Travail et santé, June 2008, Vol. 24, No.2, p.9-11. Illus.

CIS 08-1500 Questel F., Dally S.
Legislation on alcoholism and its prevention
Législation se rapportant à l'alcoolisme et à sa prévention [en francés]
French legislation concerning alcoholism and its prevention consists of laws adopted over a series of years, whose objectives range from treating patients to protecting society and ensuring law and order. This article comments current public health and forensic legislation. Following a brief review of the classification of alcoholic beverages and the provisions regarding their licensing and permission, this article goes on to discuss the protection of individuals, drunkenness in public areas, the organization of the care of alcoholic patients, and forensic aspects of alcoholism in various fields (work, road safety, family and crime).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3nd Quarter 2008, No.160, 8p. 13 ref.

CIS 08-1475 Durcy M, Garnier A.
Alcohol, cannabis, drugs - The construction sector speaks up
Alcool, cannabis, médicaments... Le BTP brise le silence [en francés]
Topics addressed in this article on alcohol and psychotropic substance prevention in the construction sector: emerging awareness of the problem within the sector; interview of an occupational physician; screening systems and French regulatory framework; prevention approaches; awareness campaigns.
Prévention BTP, June 2008, No.108, p.38-47. Illus.

CIS 08-1350 Elsler D.
Protecting workers in hotels, restaurants and catering
The growing hotel, restaurant and catering sector (HORECA) employs more than 7.8 million, mostly young and low-skilled, people in the European Union. Typically, employees work long, irregular hours doing physically demanding work. The risks to workers' safety and health are many and varied, resulting from prolonged standing, carrying and lifting, exposure to high noise levels and working in too hot or cold environments. Workers also suffer cuts and burns, trips, slips and falls, and come into contact with dangerous substances. The work can be monotonous, stressful and draining. Nevertheless, employers and employees can work together to improve workplace safety and health. This prevention report on the HORECA sector highlights key risk prevention measures.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2008. 163p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [en inglés]

CIS 08-986 Alcohol in the enterprise
L'alcool dans l'entreprise [en francés]
French labour laws restrict the consumption of alcohol at work and prohibit the presence of intoxicated workers at the place of work. When these rules are not followed, employers may be fined. However, employers do have the means of controlling and punishing employees under the influence of alcohol at work, which are discussed in this article.
Cahier Pratique Tissot - Guide de la santé, sécurité au travail, Feb. 2008, No.107, p.5-6. Illus.


CIS 09-490 Barrientos-Gutierrez T., Gimeno D., Mangione T.W., Harrist R.B., Amick B.C.
Drinking social norms and drinking behaviours: A multilevel analysis of 137 workgroups in 16 worksites
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between drinking social norms and heavy drinking, frequent drinking and drinking at work. The sample included 5338 workers with complete data, spread between 137 workgroups from 16 American worksites. Multivariate adjusted models showed participants working in workgroups in the most discouraging drinking norms quartile were 45% less likely to be heavy drinkers, 54% less likely to be frequent drinkers and 69% less likely to drink at work than their counterparts in the least discouraging quartile. These findings suggest that public health efforts at reducing drinking and alcohol-related injuries and diseases should target interventions at worksites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.602-608. 33 ref.

CIS 08-1242 González E.E.
Ideas para un programa de prevención y de normativas en alcohol y drogas en el trabajo
This article presents various elements for the implementation of a programme for the prevention of alcohol and drug consumption at work. It also comments the ILO recommendations relating to this area, together with a United Nations publication which in particular discusses certain myths related to the consumption and supply of drugs that are not necessarily true.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 2007, Vol.53, No.316, p.23-30. Illus.

CIS 08-1237 Rowland B., Wishart D., Davey J., Freeman J.
The influence of occupational driver stress on work-related road safety: An exploratory review
Prior research has identified a number of stressors that impact on drivers by increasing stress levels, causing adverse behaviour and leading to effects such as aggressive behaviour, fatigue, inattention and substance abuse. For safety professionals and employers, one way to reduce the effects of occupational driver stress is to change perceptions so that work-related driving is recognized as being as important as other work-related tasks. This article explores relevant literature in relation to driver stress and suggests improvements to risk management and safety procedures, including assigning sufficient resources to target occupational stress and in particular driver stress.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.459-468. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 08-1000 Addictions and work
Addictions et travail [en francés]
Occasional or regular consumption of alcohol, cannabis or pharmaceutical drugs can endanger the safety and health of workers and cause occupational accidents. The prevention and care of addictions at the enterprise level is therefore necessary. This Internet document reviews the current situation with respect to addictions in France and the resulting occupational hazards, together with the corresponding regulatory framework. It explains in detail the strategy to be implemented within the enterprise, involving both collective and individual prevention measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2007. Internet document (HTML format). Illus. 19 ref. [en francés]

CIS 08-991 Ahola K.
Occupational burnout and health
In a study carried out in 1997, the prevalence of severe burnout cases in Finland was found to be 7%. Burnout is often accompanied by other health problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the current prevalence of burnout, the socio-demographic and occupational risk factors of burnout, relationships between burnout and psychiatric symptoms (mood and anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and somatic illnesses), work ability, sickness absenteeism and the use of health care services and medical treatment. It was carried out in the form of a population-based cross-sectional study, in which data on a representative sample 8028 persons was collected through interviews, questionnaires and health examinations. Findings are discussed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-731 Durand E.
Psychotropic drugs and work (II) - Antidepressants
Médicaments psychotropes et travail (II) - Médicaments antidépresseurs [en francés]
This literature survey addresses the use of antidepressants at work. The most recent publications on the topic cite a prevalence of depression of around 10% in the general population and a similar level in the working population. The consequences of antidepressants on work are little known. This article sheds light on current understanding with respect to vigilance, driving and co-exposure to toxic substances, and proposes several decision support tools aimed at occupational physicians. The ethical and practical aspects of medical treatment of employees are discussed, together with the issues of staying at work and returning to work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.487-508. Illus. 96 ref.$File/TC116.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-699 Lucas D.L., Lincoln J.M.
Fatal falls overboard on commercial fishing vessels in Alaska
Falls overboard are a major contributor to commercial fishing fatalities in Alaska. This article describes the problem of falls overboard and discusses possible ways to reduce the risk factors. Data from the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System on fatal falls overboard in the commercial fishing sector in Alaska between 1990 and 2005 were used; 71 such accidents were identified. An in-depth descriptive analysis of these fatalities was then performed to identify areas for intervention. Falls overboard did not decline significantly during those years. The most common circumstances associated with falling overboard were working with fishing gear, being alone on deck, losing balance or slipping, heavy weather, gear entanglement and alcohol.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.962-968. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 08-538 Ayers D.
Contractor safety: Building trust and communication
The effective management of contractor safety is not only necessary for the protection of their employees, but also for the protection of regular employees and facility property and equipment. This article discusses how to choose a contractor with the experience and ability to complete the job safely and to manage the contractual relationship with an eye to occupational safety and health. Topics addressed: setting expectations; contractor selection; chemical safety; contractor orientation; contractor auditing.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 2007, p.64-74. Illus.

CIS 08-494 Bianchi P., Vialla F.
Alcohol, a risk within the enterprise
L'alcool, un risque dans l'entreprise [en francés]
Topics addressed in these two articles on the risks to the enterprise caused by alcoholism and psychotropic substance abuse among employees: examples of prevention policies and measures adopted for managing the problems related to alcohol and psychotropic substance abuse among employees in several European countries; accounts given by safety and health officers of several enterprises; French legal framework concerning the responsibilities of employers and the disciplinary measures that can be taken towards employees.
Face au risque, June-July 2007, No.434, p.35-39. Illus.

CIS 08-131 Møller L., Stöver H., Jürgens R., Gatherer A., Nikogosian H.
Salud en la prisiones ¿ Guía de la OMS sobre principios básicos de salud en las prisiones
Health in prisons - A WHO guide to the essentials in prison health [en inglés]
Realizado sobre la base de experiencias obtenidas en numerosos países europeos, esta guía explica las medidas que deben adoptar las administraciones penitenciarias para proteger la salud de los reclusos y del personal de prisiones. Ello requiere que el conjunto de las personas que trabajan en las prisiones sean conscientes del impacto que la privación de libertad puede tener sobre la salud, los cuidados sanitarios de los reclusos y la forma de dispensarlos. Entre otros elementos esenciales se encuentran el conocimiento de las normas internacionales admitidas en materia de salud en los centros penitenciarios, la importancia de dispensar la asistencia sanitaria con idéntico nivel ético profesional que en otros servicios de salud y la promoción de un modelo integrado de asistencia sanitaria, salud y bienestar de las personas recluidas
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xvi, 179p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 40.00, USD 36.00 (CHF 28.00, USD 25.20 in developing countries) [en inglés]

CIS 08-242 Zaloshnja E., Miller T.R., Hendrie D., Galvin D.
Coste de los accidentes por consumo de alcohol de los empleados
Employer costs of alcohol-involved injuries [en inglés]
Este estudio trata de la estimación del coste de los accidentes debidos al abuso de bebidas alcohólicas por parte de los empleados, en los Estados Unidos. La incidencia se ha calculado a partir de los datos sobre lesiones de origen profesional, los accidentes in itínere y la asistencia médica a lo largo del período 1998-2000. Los costes para los empresarios se han calculado a partir de las estimaciones del costo de accidentes en función de las fuentes de abono de indemnizaciones a cargo de la administración federal, teniendo en cuenta la parte abonada por los empresarios. Así, el coste anual, para los empresarios, de los accidentes debidos al abuso de consumo de alcohol por parte de los trabajadores ascendió a 28,6 millardos de dólares USA. Sobre este montante, 13,2 millardos de dólares correspondieron a los accidentes, derivados del alcoholismo, ocurridos durante el trabajo. El coste anual, para los empresarios, de los accidentes de tráfico en los que al menos un conductor estaba borracho es de 9,2 millardos, de los que solo 3,4 millardos correspondían al abuso de alcohol en el marco de la actividad profesional
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.50, No.2, p.136-142. 44 ref.

CIS 07-1498 Kouvonen A., Kivimäki M., Väänänen A., Heponiemi T., Elovainio M., Ala-Mursula L., Virtanen M., Pentti J., Linna A., Vahtera J.
Sobrecarga laboral y comportamientos no saludables: estudio en el sector público de Finlandia
Job strain and adverse health behaviors: The Finnish public sector study [en inglés]
El objeto de este estudio transversal era explorar la asociación entre la sobrecarga de trabajo y el tabaquismo, el consumo importante de alcohol, la obesidad y el sedentarismo. El estudio se realizó sobre 34.058 mujeres y 8154 hombres, todos ellos empleados en las administraciones públicas de Finlandia. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario postal. La modelización mediante regresión puso de manifiesto el hecho de que trabajar con sobrecarga y los empleos con escasa capacidad de decisión estaban asociados a riesgos 1,3 y 1,4 veces más altos de presentar al menos tres comportamientos negativos. En el caso de los hombres, un trabajo pasivo estaba asociado con un riesgo 1,3 veces más alto de presentar, al menos, tres comportamientos negativos, mientras que en el caso de las mujeres, el trabajo activo estaba asociado a un riesgo 1,2 veces mayor de presentar, al menos, tres comportamientos negativos. Las exigencias laborales altas estaban asociadas, en las mujeres, con un mayor riesgo de presentar uno o dos comportamientos negativos. Se concluye que las condiciones de trabajo desfavorables pueden aumentar el riesgo de una mala higiene de vida. La disminución del estrés mediante un mejor grado de control sobre su trabajo y la disminución de las exigencias psicosociales podrían favorecer una vida más saludable
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.49, No.1, p.68-74. 31 ref.


CIS 09-787 CDC injury fact book
This report presents a comprehensive review at the injury problem in the United States and efforts underway to reduce it. It offers a wealth of injury data and descriptions of research and prevention programmes for a full spectrum of injuries - from those related to acute injury care or alcohol use to those resulting from youth violence. Topics addressed: public health approach to injury prevention; timeline of the significant achievements in preventing injury and its consequences; descriptions of data sources; sampling of partners; injury risk of various populations in each stage of life; comment on frequent injury issues.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2006. v, 111p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-997 Addictive behaviour in occupational settings - Report prepared in the context of the governmental plan on measures against illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol 2004-2008
Conduites addictives et milieu professionnel - Rapport établi dans le cadre du Plan gouvernemental de lutte contre les drogues illicites, le tabac et l'alcool 2004- 2008 [en francés]
In order to propose a framework for updating the regulations concerning addictions, the French inter-ministry working group having published this report interviewed representatives of employers and employees, occupational physicians, government agencies and research institutions. The report proposes 27 recommendations involving ethics, knowledge acquisition, the safety of the enterprise, its employees and its users, the redefinition of the mission of occupational physicians, the development of an occupational safety and health policy within the enterprise, access to health care and changes to labour and health legislation.
Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie, 7 rue Saint-Georges, 75009 Paris, France, Dec. 2006. 32p. [en francés]

CIS 07-1311 Ali K.M., Sathiyasekaran B.W.C.
Informáticos y síndrome del túnel carpiano
Computer professionals and carpal tunnel syndrome (CST) [en inglés]
En este estudio transversal sobre el síndrome del túnel carpiano (STC) se seleccionaron 648 individuos de entre 4.276 informáticos que trabajaban en 21 empresas, con ayuda de un método de muestreo al azar. El diagnóstico de STC se basaba en los datos clínicos. La prevalencia de STC era de 13,1%. El riesgo de STC era más alto entre los individuos que habían trabajado más de ocho horas con ordenador, entre los que trabajaban mas de 12 horas por día y entre los administradores de sistemas (odds ratio respectivamente de 3,3, 4,9 y 2,5). Las consideraciones ergonómicas son importantes para garantizar el buen posicionamiento de las manos durante el trabajo con ordenador. Se comentan otras observaciones de este estudio
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.319-325. 27 ref.

CIS 07-1242 Roesler U., Jacobi F., Rau R.
Trabajo y trastornos mentales en una muestra representativa de la población alemana
Work and mental disorders in a German national representative sample [en inglés]
Este estudio sobre la salud mental en el trabajo se ha realizado sobre 2.329 trabajadores alemanes (edades comprendidas entre 18 y 65 años) que participaron en una entrevista clínica estructurada asistida por ordenador. Además, precisaron si su actividad profesional comportaba una carga de trabajo físico, horas extraordinarias o estrés, evaluando en qué medida cada una de estas características les resultaba dificultosa para la ejecución de su trabajo. Los resultados han mostrado que el abuso o la dependencia de sustancias (incluid la nicotina) constituía el trastorno mental más común (prevalencia de 14,4% para 12 meses), seguida de la ansiedad (12,0%), los trastornos somatoformes (9,7%) y los trastornos afectivos (9,3%). Los análisis mediante regresión logística secuencial han evidenciado asociaciones significativas entre la presencia de estrés en el trabajo y trastornos afectivos y somatoformes. También se comentan otros resultados del estudio
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.20, No.3, p.234-244. 38 ref.

CIS 07-1080 O'Connor P.J., O'Connor N.
Muertes por accidentes de trabajo en el sector marítimo
Work-related maritime fatalities [en inglés]
Entre 1992 y 1998 se han registrado 74 fallecimientos entre los marinos australianos: 42 pescadores comerciales, 12 marineros de buques mercantes y 16 marinos que trabajaban en diversos sectores. Los principales factores que contribuyeron a dichas muertes fueron las condiciones meteorológicas, los errores de cálculo, las prácticas arriesgadas y no utilizar elementos de flotación en unas condiciones en que dichos elementos podrían haber salvado la vida. Los esfuerzos que se realicen deberían focalizarse en la disminución del consumo de alcohol y en una mejor disponibilidad de salvavidas y el respeto para usarlos
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2006, Vol.38, No.4, p.737-741. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 07-995 Durand E.
Medicamentos psicotrópicos y trabajo - Tratamiento de sustitución de opiáceos
Médicaments psychotropes et travail - Traitement de substitution aux opiacés [en francés]
En la tercera posición, tras el alcohol y el tabaco, el consumo importante de medicamentos psicotrópicos en Francia, constituye un problema que concierne a los médicos del trabajo, enfrentados a cuestiones ética s y sociales relacionadas con la reinserción de los toxicómanos en sus empleos. Este estudio bibliográfico está dedicado a los tratamientos de sustitución de opiáceos
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2006, No.108, p.441-460. Illus. 75 ref.$File/TC111.pdf [en francés]

CIS 07-985 Bondéelle A., Fellmann A., Favier A.L.
Alcohol y tabaco en el puesto de trabajo: Malos hábitos
Alcool, tabac... au travail - De bien mauvaises habitudes [en francés]
Temas tratados en este dossier sobre el alcohol y el tabaco en el puesto de trabajo: sensibilización acerca de los problemas derivados del alcoholismo y el tabaquismo; prevención en la empresa; tabaquismo pasivo; textos reglamentarios franceses; iniciativa de una empresa del sector de la mecánica para eliminar totalmente el alcohol y el tabaco en los centros de trabajo
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2006, No.667, p.28-36. Illus. 7 ref.$file/TS667page29.pdf?openelement [en francés]

CIS 07-317 Mester B., Nieters A., Deeg E., Elsner G., Becker N., Seidler A.
Linfoma maligno y profesión: Estudio alemán de casos y controles de base poblacional
Occupation and malignant lymphoma: A population based case control study in Germany [en inglés]
Estudio para identificar las profesiones susceptibles de estar asociadas con los linfomas malignos. Un total de 710 pacientes con linfoma maligno, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 80 años, fueron seleccionados en seis regiones de Alemania. Basándose en los registros de población se identificó para cada uno de los casos un control equiparable en cuanto a sexo, región y edad. Se calcularon los cocientes de posibilidades y los intervalos de confianza del 95% para los principales sectores industriales y profesiones mediante análisis de regresión logística condicional aplicando el ajuste en función del hábito tabáquico y el consumo de alcohol. Los pacientes con subtipos específicos de linfomas fueron comparados, además, con el grupo control en su conjunto mediante la técnica de análisis de regresión logística incondicional. Se comentan los resultados obtenidos, observándose una asociación positiva con los linfomas en los siguientes sectores industriales: productos alimentarios, bebidas, tabaco, productos del papel, artes gráficas, y metales.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.17-26. 94 ref.

CIS 07-312 Bergeret A., Choasson P.
29 Congreso Nacional de Medicina y Salud Laboral ¿ Lión 30 de mayo - 2 de junio de 2006
29e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Lyon 30 mai - 2 juin 2006 [en francés]
Actas de la conferencia sobre medicina y salud en el trabajo, celebrada en Lión, Francia, del 30 de mayo al 2 de junio de 2006. Temas abordados: clínicas de medicina del trabajo; vigilancia de riesgos químicos en el contexto de la movilidad profesional; gestión y prevención de crisis; conductas adictivas en el lugar de trabajo; transporte y trabajo; función de las enfermeras de salud laboral; ruido y audición; evaluación de riesgos en centros sanitarios; violencia en el trabajo; genotoxicidad y carcinogeneidad; encuestas sobre salud laboral; indicadores de salud laboral; carácter multidisciplinar; campos electromagnéticos; amianto; solventes.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, May 2006, Vol.67, No.2, p.117-462 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-493 Durcy M.
Alcohol, cannabis... en el lugar de trabajo: Cuestiones en juego sobre su prevención
Alcool, cannabis... au travail: les enjeux de la prévention [en francés]
Este artículo revisa el problema del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, en particular el cannabis y el alcohol, entre los trabajadores de la construcción. Temas abordados: aspectos éticos y legales de las pruebas de detección en el lugar de trabajo; prevención, información y apoyo social; estudio de un caso ocurrido en una empresa de construcción y campaña informativa para luchar contra el consumo de alcohol y cannabis.
Prévention BTP, June 2006, No.86, p.52-55. Illus.

CIS 07-472 Smith D.R., Mihashi M., Adachi Y., Koga H., Ishitake T.
Análisis detallado sobre factores de riesgo osteomusculares en enfermeras japonesas
A detailed analysis of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors among Japanese nurses [en inglés]
La versión japonesa del Cuestionario Nórdico Normalizado fue distribuida entre 1.162 enfermeras de un gran hospital universitario. La tasa de respuestas fue del 73%. La prevalencia de trastornos osteomusculares (TOMs) en un período de 12 meses fue del 85,5%. El consumo de alcohol, el tabaquismo y el hecho de haber tenido hijos fueron factores de riesgo significativos (cocientes de posibilidades (CP) ajustados 1,87, 2,45 y 2,53, respectivamente). Los factores de riesgo asociados al puesto de trabajo fueron la manipulación manual (CP 2,7 vs 11,97) y la realización de tareas arduas (CP 2,09 vs 2,76). Las enfermeras que declararon tensión premenstrual tenían una probabilidad de sufrir TOMs de extremidades superiores e inferiores 1,66 y 1,94 veces superior, respectivamente. El estrés mental fue también un factor de riesgo significativo de TOMs de cuello (CP 1,53) y hombros (CP 2,07). Se concluye que las estrategias de prevención centradas únicamente en la manipulación manual son insuficientes, y que se debe hacer mayor hincapié en los niveles de satisfacción en el trabajo, en la organización del trabajo y en el estrés de origen profesional.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.2, p.195-200. 16 ref.

CIS 07-84 Creación de un centro de trabajo sano: guía para los profesionales de la prevención y para los empresarios.
Creating a healthy workplace: A guide for occupational safety and health professionals and employers [en inglés]
Esta guía contiene ideas prácticas en las que pueden inspirarse los prevencionistas y los empresarios, a fin de mejorar la salud y el bienestar de los trabajadores. Para cada uno de los siguientes ocho dominios, preconiza cinco medidas simples que pueden aportar mejoras tangibles para la organización y las personas que trabajan en ella: crear un centro de trabajo seguro y sano; nueva contratación, fidelización y readaptación; bienestar mental y lucha contra el estrés; alteraciones osteomusculares; tabaquismo y abandono del habito de fumar; consumo de alcohol y otras sustancias; actividad física; alimentación sana.
Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of Occupational Medicine, 4 and 6 St Andrews Place, London NW1 4LB, United Kingdom, 2006. 38p. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 07-204 Craig B.N., Congleton J.J., Kerk C.J., Amendola A.A., Gaines W.G.
Factores de riesgo personales y no profesionales de lesiones o enfermedades profesionales
Personal and non-occupational risk factors and occupational injury/illness [en inglés]
En este estudio sobre la manutención de materiales se han evaluado las relaciones significativas desde el punto de vista estadístico entre las lesiones por accidente y 48 factores de riesgo, individuales y no profesionales, en 442 trabajadores de manutención voluntarios, de tres empresas localizadas en nueve puntos de Estados Unidos. A lo largo de un año se recopilaron datos relativos a lesiones por accidente en el seno de la población estudiada, después de medir la fuerza muscular y diversos factores antropométricos. Las mayores tasas de lesiones derivadas de accidentes estaban significativamente asociadas a la capacidad aeróbica, al tabaquismo, a la evaluación subjetiva de la condición física, a la práctica de la caza o de la pesca como actividad recreativa, al respeto de las limitaciones de velocidad, al porcentaje de grasa corporal, al hecho de haber estado implicado en una pelea violenta o haber sido testigo de ella y a una medición de la flexibilidad. Para lograr programas eficaces de prevención de lesiones por causa de accidente se debería ir más allá de los factores de riesgo ergonómicos asociados al puesto de trabajo, para fijarse en factores tales como el hábito de fumar, el control del peso o el abuso del alcohol.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.49, No.4, p.249-260. 86 ref.

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