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CIS 11-0045 Jaakkola M.S., Sripaiboonkij P., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers
The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures in tile industry and lung function, and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.151-158. Illus. 36 ref.


CIS 12-0344 Sapp A.L., Kawachi I., Sorensen G., LaMontagne A.D., Subramanian S.V.
Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers
The objective of this study was to investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. As part of a broader study on cancer prevention in small enterprises, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms. Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual level among workers and contextual level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item, worker trust in managers, buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.740-750. 94 ref.
Does_workplace_social_capital_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0508 Claessen H., Arndt V., Drath C., Brenner H.
Smoking habits and occupational disability: A cohort study of 14 483 construction workers
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of smoking habits on occupational disability among construction workers, an occupational group with particularly high smoking prevalence. The association between smoking and occupational disability was examined during a follow-up of over 10 years in a cohort of 14,483 male construction workers in Württemberg, Germany. The cohort was linked to the regional pension register of the German pension fund to identify workers who were granted a disability pension during the follow-up. HRs (hazard ratios) were calculated with non-smokers as reference by the Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, nationality, type of occupation, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Overall, 2643 cases of occupational disability were observed, with dorsopathy (21%) being the most common cause. Clear dose-response relationships were seen between smoking and occupational disability due to all causes, as well as occupational disability due to respiratory, cardiovascular and mental diseases, cancer and dorsopathy. Particularly strong associations were seen between heavy smoking and occupational disability due to mental and respiratory diseases (HR 3.25 and 3.26 respectively). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.67, No.2, p.84-90. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0146 Bushnell P.T., Colombi A., Caruso C.C., Tak S.
Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer
Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey responses were collected during 2000-2008 in a multinational chemical and coatings manufacturer. Responses of 26,442 employees were sufficiently complete for analysis. Rates of smoking, lack of exercise, moderate to high alcohol use, obesity and short sleep duration were compared by work schedule type (day, night, or rotating shift) and daily work hours (8, 10, or 12 h). Prevalence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, adjusting for age group, sex, marital status, job tenure, and occupational group. The reference group was 8-h day shift employees. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.395-405. 50 ref.
Work_schedules.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0635 Resumen del informe sobre incentivos económicos para mejorar la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo: análisis desde la perspectiva europea
Summary of the report on economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health: A review from the European perspective [en inglés]
Résumé du rapport sur les incitations économiques visant à améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail: un compte rendu du point de vue européen [en francés]
Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) refer to processes that reward organizations which develop and maintain safe and healthy working environments. These processes may include, for example, linking the OSH performance of an organization to fiscal incentives such as lower insurance premiums or tax rates. These aspects are summarized in this fact sheet, also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Facts_95/EN.pdf [en inglés]
Facts_95/FR.pdf [en francés]
Facts_95/ES.pdf [en español]

CIS 10-0431 Puttonen S., Härmä M., Hublin C.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - Pathways from circadian stress to morbidity
In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathways from the former to the latter need to be verified. This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioural, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioural changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.96-108. Illus. 129 ref.
Shift_work_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0350 Kaewboonchoo O., Morioka I., Saleekul S., Miyai N., Chaikittiporn C., Kawai T.
Blood lead level and cardiovascular risk factors among bus drivers in Bangkok, Thailand
This study aimed to clarify the role of blood lead level (Pb-B) as a cardiovascular risk factor. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk, the second derivative finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used. The subjects comprised of 420 male bus drivers in Thailand. The SDPTG-AI increases with age, Pb-B, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was significant correlation between Pb-B and SDPTG-AI after controlling for age, body mass index and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that Pb-B is possibly an independent cardiovascular risk factor for bus drivers exposed to lower level of lead.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 18 ref.
Blood_lead_level.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0228 Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [en francés]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 10-0251 Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures
This volume reviews the potential carcinogenicity of 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several occupational exposures involving coal-derived PAHs. These are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. Environmental sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons include industrial air pollution, urban air pollution, tobacco smoke and diet (which is commonly the main source of exposure in non-smokers who are not exposed to such hydrocarbons through their occupations). High occupational exposure can arise during the conversion of coal to coke and coal tar, and during the processing and use of products derived from coal tar. In this volume, benzo[a]pyrene, other PAHs and related occupational exposures were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2010. viii, 853p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00; USD 55.00; CHF 38.50 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge. [en inglés]

CIS 10-0234 Houston S., Mitchell S., Evans S.
Application of a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model among commercial pilots
In this cross-sectional study, a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction model was applied to United Kingdom commercial pilots. Variables included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, current smoking and diabetes status. Individual 10-year absolute CVD risk scores (also referred to as 10-yr global CVD risk) were calculated using a model developed by the Framingham Heart Study, a long-term ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of a locality of the United States. None of the female pilots and 9.7% of male pilots were found to be at high risk. High-risk pilots are concentrated around 60 years of age. These pilots may require more comprehensive risk assessment. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.81, No.8, p.768-773. Illus. 17 ref.


CIS 11-0486 Karunanayake C.P., Singh G.V., Spinelli J.J., McLaughlin J.R., Dosman J.A., McDuffie H.H., Pahwa P.
Occupational exposures and Hodgkin lymphoma: Canadian case-control study
The objective was to study the association between Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and occupational exposures related to long-held occupation among male workers in Canada. A population-based case-control study of HL was conducted among male workers stratified by province of residence and age group. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit statistical models. Several factors independently increased the risk of HL. Ever exposure to ionizing radiation from uranium showed a significant association with HL. Men who had smoked cigarettes for 25 years or more were the most likely to develop HL. Exposure to ultraviolet light and diagnosis with measles were negatively associated with HL, whereas diagnosis with shingles increased the risk of HL. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.51, No.12, p.1447-1454. 57 ref.

CIS 10-0834 Etter J.F.
Secondhand smoke in Geneva, 1996-2006 - Changes in exposure, opinions, and workplace smoking bans in the absence of national legislation
Postal surveys were conducted in 1996 and 2006 to assess change in duration of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), frequency of smoking bans at the workplace, and opinions on smokefree measures in Geneva, Switzerland, in the absence of national smoke-free legislation. A random sample of 742 participants in 1996 and 1487 in 2006 showed length of exposure to SHS decreased from 7h/week to 4h/week, with the largest decrease among 26-45 year olds. Workplace smoking bans increased from 33.4% to 66.3%. Agreement that SHS is dangerous to health increased from 77.5% to 86.0%. Agreement that all restaurant tables should be reserved to nonsmokers also increased, from 14.8% to 41.4%. Opinions were more favourable to all smoke-free measures in 2006 than in 1996, except, "More information should be given on the health dangers of SHS," suggesting a level of saturation was reached for information on SHS.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol. 15, No.2, p.159-165. 57 ref.

CIS 09-1340 Ayres J.G., Semple S., MacCalman L., Dempsey S., Hilton S., Hurley J.F., Miller B.G., Naji A., Petticrew M.
Bar workers' health and environmental tobacco smoke (BHETSE): Symptomatic improvement in bar staff following smoke-free legislation in Scotland
The objective of this study was to examine changes in the health of bar workers after smoke-free legislation was introduced in Scotland. Bar workers were followed from before legislation introduction and at two months and one year after the introduction. Participants included 371 bar workers recruited from 72 bars. Of the 191 (51%) workers seen at the one-year follow-up, the percentage reporting respiratory symptoms fell from 69% to 57% and for sensory symptoms from 75% to 64%. As these improvements were seen in both non-smokers and smokers, smoke-free working environments may have potentially important benefits even for workers who smoke.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.339-346. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-1138 Bondy S.J., Zhang B., Kreiger N., Selby P., Benowitz N., Travis H., Florescu A., Greenspan N.R., Ferrence R.
Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke
To evaluate the impact of an indoor smoke-free law in Toronto, Canada, implemented June 2004, this study used a pre-post comparison design to assess secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among 79 bar workers in Toronto and 49 bar workers in a control community, Windsor (no law change), at four times: pre-ban, and 1, 2, and 9 months post-ban. SHS exposure time and urinary cotinine level were substantially reduced in Toronto bar workers immediately after the ban by 94% (from 7.8 to 0.5 hours) and 68% (from 24.2 to 7.8 ng/mL), respectively. The reduction was sustained throughout follow-up. There was no change among Windsor bar workers. Compliance with the ban was high, and the ban led to a substantial reduction in SHS exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.612-619. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1043 Arjomandi M., Haight T., Redberg R., Gold W.M.
Pulmonary function abnormalities in never-smoking flight attendants exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke in the aircraft cabin
To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function, 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft were administered questionnaires and pulmonary function testing. Although the flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, other pulmonary function abnormalities were suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion, likely to be related to their exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in the cabin.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.639-646. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 09-1190 Peretti-Watel P., Constance J., Seror V., Beck F.
Working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among French clerks and manual workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among clerks and manual workers in France. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among a random sample of 4825 full-time workers. Manual workers and clerks who reported strong dissatisfaction toward unhealthy working conditions also reported more frequent current smoking, tobacco addiction, potential alcohol dependence and perceived stress. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, perceived working conditions and job dissatisfaction remained correlated with smoking and tobacco dependence.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.343-350. 47 ref.

CIS 09-732 Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref. [en inglés]


CIS 12-0262 A breath of fresh air - Managing a smoke-free environment
Smoking is banned in workplaces and enclosed public spaces across the United Kingdom. Employers, managers or persons in control of premises must display no-smoking notices and take reasonable steps to ensure that staff, customers and visitors are aware of the ban. Aimed at occupational safety and health professionals, this leaflet offers guidance on creating, managing and maintaining a smoke-free workplace.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, Oct. 2008. 4p. 7 ref.
A_breath_of_fresh_air_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0103 Ostrea E.M., Villanueva-Uy E., Ngerncham S., Punnakanta L., Batilando M.J., Agarwal P., Pensler E., Corrion M., Ramos E.F., Romero J., Thomas R.L.
An epidemiologic study comparing fetal exposure to tobacco smoke in three Southeast Asian countries
The high prevalence of smoking in Southeast Asia means pregnant women face exposure to tobacco smoke that may affect the health of their fetus. This study determined fetal exposure to tobacco smoke by meconium analysis for cotinine in three regions of Southeast Asia, located in the Philippines, Thailand and Singapore. Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke (active and passive ranged from 54.1% to 71.1%, while foetal exposure to tobacco smoke (by meconium analysis) ranged from 1.3% to 13.1%; however, a large proportion of infants who tested positive for cotinine (65%) were born to mothers who gave no history of either active or passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.257-262. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1110 Ebbehøj N.E., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Gyntelberg F.
Occupational organic solvent exposure, smoking, and prevalence of chronic bronchitis - An epidemiological study of 3387 men
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction between smoking and long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB). Data on 3387 men aged 63 ±10 years were collected by means of a questionnaire on health, lifestyle, working conditions and exposure to solvents, together with a clinical examination including measurements of height, weight, and peak-flow. CB was observed in 461 subjects (14.4%). Current smoking and the interaction of smoking and occupational exposure to organic solvents for five years or more were the factors most strongly associated with prevalence of CB. In the solvent-exposed group, odds ratio for CB was 7.0 for current smokers compared to non-smokers, while it was only 3.7 in the unexposed group. Possible reasons for this increased risk are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.730-735. 16 ref.

CIS 09-881 Arheart K.L., Lee D.J., Fleming L.E., LeBlanc W.G., Dietz N.A., McCollister K.E., Wilkinson J.D., Lewis J.E., Clark J.D., Davila E.P., Bandiera F.C., Erard M.J.
Accuracy of self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in the US workforce: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Occupational health studies often rely on self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. This study examines the accuracy of self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure. Data on serum cotinine, self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure for 17,011 workers were extracted from three United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Serum cotinine levels were used to classify workers into SHS exposure categories. The percent agreement between self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure with the cotinine categories was calculated. Workers generally reported their smoking status and SHS exposures accurately. However, substantial numbers of workers reporting no exposures had detectable levels of serum cotinine, indicating exposure to SHS. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1414-1420. 36 ref.

CIS 09-543 Seidler A., Schumann B., Handschuh C., Kronen A., Bergmann A., Ditchen D., Ellegast R., Elsner G., Grifka J., Haerting J., Hofmann F., Jäger M., Linhardt O., Luttmann A., Michaelis M., Petereit-Haack G., Bolm-Audorff U.
Importance of body mass and smoking in the aetiology of lumbar disk injuries - Findings of a German study of the spinal column
Die Bedeutung von Körpergewicht und Rauchverhalten für die Entstehung bandscheibenbedingter Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule - Ergebnisse der Deutschen Wirbelsäulenstudie [en alemán]
This study of the effects of body mass and smoking, coupled with lumbar loads, on lumbar disk injuries involved 564 cases of lumbar disc prolapse and 352 cases of lumbar chondrosis, together with a control group of 901 subjects randomly selected among the general population. Findings indicate a positive relationship between body mass and diagnoses of prolapse or chondrosis. It is estimated that the combined effect of body mass and lumbar load is at the most additive. With respect to smoking, no clear dose-related result was found; a slightly increased risk of lumbar disc injury was observable among moderate smokers, but not among heavy smokers.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 2008, Vol.58, No.12, p.354-359. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 09-423 Vicente-Herrero M.T., López-González A.A., Pont-Martínez P., Santamaría-Navarro C., De Paz Merchan S., Rodríguez-Fernández R.
Situación actual des tabaquismo entre los trabajadores de Correos-España tras la Ley 28/2005
This article presents the findings of a survey on smoking among employees of the Spanish postal service. It was carried out in the form of a questionnaire survey in a sample of 1432 volunteers among employees in five Spanish provinces. The overall prevalence was found to be slightly higher than in the general population of Spain (35% compared to national survey findings of 31% in 2003 and 30% in 2006). Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.87-95. Illus. 19 ref. [en español]

CIS 09-54 Boggia B., Farinaro E., Grieco L., Lucariello A., Carbone U.
Burden of smoking and occupational exposure on etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in workers of Southern Italy
This study evaluates the burden of smoking and occupational exposure on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diagnostic protocol was applied to a sample of 2019 workers of Southern Italy at baseline and after five and ten years. Exposures were evaluated by means of questionnaires and regulatory documents supplied by employers. Taking into account individual and occupational exposure levels, the sample was divided in four groups. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Higher COPD prevalence and incidence were observed in the most exposed group. Smoking habits and occupational exposure were confirmed as risk factors for COPD and an interaction between smoking and certain occupational exposures was observed. Smoking cessation programs could play an important role reducing the risk of COPD, in view of the synergism with occupational exposures observed in certain activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.366-370. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 09-130 Gan Q., Hammond S.K., Jiang Y., Yang Y., Hu T.W.
Effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in lowering secondhand smoke concentrations in offices in China
To examine the second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure level in Chinese office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in reducing SHS exposure, a survey was carried out in 14 office buildings from 10 provinces in China. Smoking in the building significantly elevated the SHS concentrations both in offices with at least one smoker and in offices with no smokers. In one building that recently adopted a smoke-free policy, the nicotine concentrations decreased significantly. It is concluded that the enactment of no-smoking policies would be effective in reducing SHS exposure in office buildings.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.570-575. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-68 Larsson M., Boëthius G., Axelsson S., Montgomery S.M.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden - before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law
This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation in Sweden. A total of 91 volunteers working in casinos, bars and restaurants in Sweden participated in the study, among whom 71 out of 91 (14 smokers and 57 nonsmokers) also participated in the follow-up survey 12 months after the introduction of the smoking ban. Data concerning exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms and attitudes towards the ban were obtained by means of questionnaires. Participants were also subjected to a spirometry. Findings are discussed. The introduction of the smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.34, No.4, p.267-277. 45 ref.

CIS 08-1376 Clark J.D., Wilkinson J.D., LeBlanc W.G., Dietz N.A., Arheart K.L., Fleming L.E., Lee D.J.
Inflammatory markers and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among U.S. workers
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) indicated by serum cotinine, and markers of inflammation in adult workers. Using the subpopulation of employed participants (20 years and older) who were non-smokers and denied home SHS exposure from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002, the association between serum cotinine and inflammatory markers was analyzed. Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher among participants reporting SHS exposure in the workplace. Exposure to SHS as measured by serum cotinine also resulted in increased homocysteine levels. These results provide further evidence in support of universal workplace smoking restrictions in order to protect worker health.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.626-632. 22 ref.

CIS 08-1240 Smith D.R.
Tobacco smoking by occupation in Australia and the United States: A review of national surveys conducted between 1970 and 2005
This article reviews national smoking surveys conducted in Australia and the United States between 1970 and 2005, with emphasis on the impact of occupational tobacco control. When the first research was published over 35 years ago, tobacco smoking was a regular feature in the general population of both countries, albeit with higher rates often documented among blue collar workers. Recent national investigations indicate that certain historical differences in smoking prevalence rates by occupation are persisting. Detailed examination also indicates that employee sub-groups such as cleaners and construction workers are now bearing much of the occupational smoking burden in Australia and the United States. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.77-89. 92 ref.

CIS 08-586 Vieira E.R., Kumar S., Narayan Y.
Smoking, no exercise, overweight and low back disorder in welders and nurses
This study assessed the association between smoking, lack of exercise, being overweight and low back disorder among welders and nurses. A total of 111 workers (64 welders and 47 nurses working in a steel company and a hospital respectively) completed a questionnaire on their personal and occupational factors. The annual and lifetime rates of work-related low back disorder were respectively 3.4% and 58%. Forty percent of the workers smoked and 49% did not exercise regularly. The lifetime rate of low back disorder was 86% for the workers that smoked and did not exercise, and 66% for the overweight workers. This study shows that low back disorder is common among welders and nurses. Low back disorder preventive programs in industry should include smoking cessation, regular physical activity campaigns and the promotion of healthy eating habits.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.143-149. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 08-400 Stayner L., Bena J., Sasco A.J., Smith R., Steenland K., Kreuzer M., Staif K.
Lung cancer risk and workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
This literature survey sought to quantitatively evaluate the association between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer. A meta-analysis of data from 22 studies on workplace exposure to tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk was carried out. Estimates of relative risk from these studies were analyzed by fitting the data to fixed and mixed effects models. Analyses of highly exposed workers and of the relationship between duration of exposure and lung cancer were also performed. The analysis indicated a 24% increase in lung cancer risk (relative risk (RR)=1.24) among workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. A two-fold increased risk (RR=2.01) was observed for workers classified as being highly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. A strong relationship was observed between lung cancer and duration of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2007, Vol.97, No.3, p.545-551. Illus. 53 ref.


CIS 08-997 Addictive behaviour in occupational settings - Report prepared in the context of the governmental plan on measures against illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol 2004-2008
Conduites addictives et milieu professionnel - Rapport établi dans le cadre du Plan gouvernemental de lutte contre les drogues illicites, le tabac et l'alcool 2004- 2008 [en francés]
In order to propose a framework for updating the regulations concerning addictions, the French inter-ministry working group having published this report interviewed representatives of employers and employees, occupational physicians, government agencies and research institutions. The report proposes 27 recommendations involving ethics, knowledge acquisition, the safety of the enterprise, its employees and its users, the redefinition of the mission of occupational physicians, the development of an occupational safety and health policy within the enterprise, access to health care and changes to labour and health legislation.
Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie, 7 rue Saint-Georges, 75009 Paris, France, Dec. 2006. 32p. [en francés]

CIS 08-399 Domínguez Gracia A.I., Rubio Aranda E., Martínez Terrer T., Conte Solano J.C., Rubio Calvo E.
Adquisición de un trauma acústico por multiexposición a tabaco y ruido laboral en la industria del metal
This study evaluated the combined effect of smoking and exposure to noise in the metalworking industry on hearing loss. It involved 257 workers, including 112 in good health, 66 with massive hearing trauma and 79 showing initial signs of hearing trauma. The study shows that the probability of hearing loss increases among workers exposed to noise in occupational settings and who are smokers. The worst results were found among workers smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and exposed to occupational noise for 20 years or more.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2006, Vol.LII, No.205, p.33-40. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 08-397 Hahn E.J., Rayens M.K., York N., Okoli C.T.C., Zhang M., Dignan M., Al-Delaimy W.K.
Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers
In this study, bar and restaurant workers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was compared before and three and six months after implementation of a smoke free ordinance in the county of Lexington, Kentucky, United States. Subjects consisted of 105 smoking and nonsmoking workers from randomly-selected establishments. Nicotine was determined in hair, while data on smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS and respiratory symptoms were collected during interviews. Thirty-eight percent were current smokers. When controlling for cigarettes per day, there was a significant decline in hair nicotine after three months, which was maintained after six months. Bar workers showed a significantly larger decline in hair nicotine compared with restaurant workers. Regardless of smoking status, respiratory symptoms declined significantly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.48, No.9, p.906-913. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 07-1139 Skogstad M., Kjærheim K., Fladseth G., Gjølstad M., Daae H.L., Olsen R., Molander P., Ellingsen D.G.
Modificaciones de la función respiratoria en personal de bares y restaurantes antes y despues de la entrada en vigor de la prohibición de fumar
Cross shift changes in lung function among bar and restaurant workers before and after implementation of a smoking ban [en inglés]
Con el fin de estudiar los efectos de una ley de prohibición del tabaquismo, en Noruega, sobre la función respiratoria del personal de bares y restaurantes, 93 individuos que trabajaban en 13 establecimientos de Oslo fueron examinados antes y después de su turno de trabajo y, a su vez, antes y después de la entrada en vigor de la ley. Las tasas medias de nicotina y de polvos totales antes de la prohibición de fumar eran, respectivamente, de 28g/m3 y 275µg/m3, en tanto que las tasas después de la prohibición, respectivamente, fueron de 0,6µg/m3 y 77µg/m3. La evaluación de la función respiratoria incluía volúmenes y flujos dinámicos. La diferencia entre la espiración máxima forzada (EMF) al principio y al final del turno pasó de 81ml a 52ml. Las disminuciones del volumen espiratorio máximo por segundo (VEMS) antes y después de un turno fue, respectivamente, de 89ml y 46ml, antes y después de la prohibición. La disminución del débito espiratorio medio (DEM25-75%) se modificó de manera significativa, al pasar de 199ml/s a 64ml/s. Entre los 26 individuos no fumadores y los 11 individuos asmáticos, la disminución del VEMS y del DEM25-75% fue significativamente mayor antes que después de la entrada en vigor de la prohibición de fumar. Entre los no fumadores se observó una relación entre la concentración de polvos y la disminución del DEM25-75% antes de la prohibición
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.482-487. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 07-985 Bondéelle A., Fellmann A., Favier A.L.
Alcohol y tabaco en el puesto de trabajo: Malos hábitos
Alcool, tabac... au travail - De bien mauvaises habitudes [en francés]
Temas tratados en este dossier sobre el alcohol y el tabaco en el puesto de trabajo: sensibilización acerca de los problemas derivados del alcoholismo y el tabaquismo; prevención en la empresa; tabaquismo pasivo; textos reglamentarios franceses; iniciativa de una empresa del sector de la mecánica para eliminar totalmente el alcohol y el tabaco en los centros de trabajo
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2006, No.667, p.28-36. Illus. 7 ref.$file/TS667page29.pdf?openelement [en francés]

CIS 07-576 Reid A., de Klerk N.H., Ambrosini G.L., Berry G., Musk A.W.
Riesgo de cáncer de pulmón en función del tiempo transcurrido tras la exposición al amianto y el cese del tabaquismo
The risk of lung cancer with increasing time since ceasing exposure to asbestos and quitting smoking [en inglés]
Este estudio tenía como finalidad determinar si el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón disminuía en función del tiempo transcurrido entre el fin de la exposición al amianto y el cese del tabaquismo, y evaluar el efecto relativo del amianto entre los no fumadores y los fumadores actuales. Se ha realizado sobre una cohorte de 2.935 antiguos trabajadores de una empresa australiana de extracción y molienda de amianto que respondieron a un primer cuestionario sobre tabaquismo en 1979 y de los cuales se disponía de estimaciones cuantitativas respecto de su exposición al amianto. Las relaciones entre la exposición al amianto, el nivel de tabaquismo y el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón se determinaron mediante regestión logística condicional. Se comentan los resultados. Las personas expuestas el amianto y al tabaco, pero que habían dejado de fumar, presentaban un riesgo mayor de cáncer de pulmón hasta transcurridos 20 años. Este estudio pone de manifiesto la importancia de los programas de prevención del tabaquismo entre los trabajadores que presentan un riesgo alto de desarrollar cáncer de pulmón
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.63, No.8, p.509-512. 23 ref.

CIS 07-627 Sánchez Barba J.C.
El tabaco en los centros de trabajo
En España, el tabaco provoca más de 46.000 muertes cada año y los costes sanitarios que genera se ha estimado que superan los 1,5 millardos de euros. Este artículo presenta algunas estadísticas sobre tabaquismo, cuyas cifras son alarmantes. Comenta diferentes aspectos de la legislación española relativos al consumo de tabaco en los lugares de trabajo, y subraya ciertas dificultades en su aplicación cuando los trabajadores rehúsan cumplir las medidas establecidas.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2006, No.176, p.52-64. Illus.

CIS 07-657 Labbé F.
Lucha contra el tabaquismo en la empresa
La lutte contre le tabagisme en entreprise [en francés]
En el sumario de este comentario sobre la ley francesa en materia de lucha contra el tabaquismo en los centros de trabajo: aplicación de la ley francesa sobre prohibición de fumar en los lugares de trabajo, con excepción de los espacios eventualmente previstos a tal efecto; responsabilidad de los empresarios para hacer respetar la ley, acondicionar los locales para fumadores y garantizar las sanciones, con el fin de proteger a los trabajadores contra el tabaquismo pasivo; integración de la lucha contra el tabaquismo en el marco global de la prevención.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Sep. 2006, No.93, p.5-6, 12. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 07-584 Menzies D., et al.
Síntomas respiratorios, función pulmonar y marcadores de inflamación entre los trabajadores de bares, antes y después de la entrada en vigor de la legislación anti-tabaco en los lugares públicos
Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation among bar workers before and after a legislative ban on smoking in public places [en inglés]
En Escocia, se ha prohibido el tabaco, en los establecimientos públicos cerrados, a partir del 26 de marzo de 2006. El objeto del presente estudio era analizar la asociación entre la legislación anti-tabaco y los síntomas, la función pulmonar y los marcadores de inflamación en los trabajadores de bares. El estudio se llevo a cabo entre los meses de febrero y junio de 2006. Sobre los 195 trabajadores de bares, asmáticos o no, reclutados desde el principio, 77 han participado a todo lo largo del estudio. Antes y después de la prohibición de fumar, se evaluaron los síntomas respiratorios y sensoriales, se efectuaron pruebas funcionales respiratorias, se determinaron las tasas séricas de cotinina, se realizó un contaje de células inflamatorias periféricas, se establecieron puntuaciones de la calidad de vida asmática y determinaciones de las tasas de oxido de nitrógeno en el aire espirado. Se comentan los resultados. La entrada en vigor de la legislación anti-tabaco estaba asociada a mejorías rápidas y significativas de la sintomatología, de los valores espirométricos y de la inflamación sistémica entre los trabajadores de bares. En el caso de trabajadores asmáticos, se observo una disminución de la inflamación de las vías respiratorias así como una mejora de la calidad de vida.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 2006, Vol. 296, No.14, p.1742-1748. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 07-581 McDuffie H.H., et al.
Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y función pulmonar en trabajadores del sector cerealista de Saskatchewan
Tumor necrosis factor alpha and pulmonary function in Saskatchewan grain handlers [en inglés]
El objetivo del presente estudio era evaluar la influencia del tabaquismo y del polimorfismo del factor de necrosis tumoral (FNT) alfa sobre la función pulmonar de trabajadores del sector cerealista de la provincia canadiense de Saskatchewan. Se recopilaron datos acerca de la actividad profesional, la sintomatología respiratoria, la función pulmonar y el ADN del genotipo, en 157 trabajadores varones. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la complejidad que existe para determinar los trabajadores que, de acuerdo con su genotipo, desarrollarán patologías respiratorias agudas y crónicas tras una exposición al polvo de cereales y a las toxinas contenidas en el humo de los cigarrillos.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.48, No.5, p.505-511. 50 ref.

CIS 07-494 Barruyer C.
La lucha contra el tabaco: Desarrollo de un plan empresarial eficaz
Tabagisme: bâtir un plan de lutte efficace en entreprise [en francés]
Se identifican los riesgos asociados al tabaquismo en las obras de construcción, teniendo en cuenta la presencia de solventes, amianto, polvo de madera o humos de soldadura. Este artículo explica cómo aplicar un plan antitabaco en la empresa e incluye el testimonio de una PYME que ha implantado un plan de estas características.
Prévention BTP, Sep. 2006, No.88, p.54-57. Illus.

CIS 07-170 Lundström N.G., Englyst V., Gerhardsson L., Jin T., Nordberg G.
Desarrollo de un cáncer de pulmón entre los trabajadores de una fundición primaria; estudio caso-control anidado.
Lung cancer development in primary smelter workers: A nested case-referent study [en inglés]
La finalidad de este estudio era evaluar el impacto de la exposición profesional al arsénico y al plomo frente al hábito de fumar entre los trabajadores de fundiciones de plomo que habían desarrollado cáncer de pulmón. En el seno de una cohorte constituida por 3.979 trabajadores de fundiciones de plomo, 46 individuos de sexo masculino habían desarrollado cáncer de pulmón. Se compararon con 141 controles, ajustados por edad, y los datos se sometieron a análisis mediante regresión logística condicional. El tabaquismo era cuatro veces más frecuente entre los casos que entre los controles. Limitando el análisis solo a los fumadores, el índice acumulado de exposición al arsénico se vio que era significativamente más alto entre los trabajadores de las fundiciones, lo que no ocurría respecto de los índices acumulados de exposición al plomo. Se concluye que la exposición acumulada al arsénico y el tabaquismo - pero no así la exposición al plomo - constituyen los principales factores de riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer de pulmón.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.376-380. 30 ref.


CIS 12-0247 Pan J., Barbeau E.M., Levenstein C., Balbach E.D.
Smoke-free airlines and the role of organized labor: A case study
Labour unions play an important role in debates about smoke-free worksites. This study investigated the role of flight attendants and their unions in creating smoke-free air travel. Case study methodology was used to search tobacco industry documents and labour union periodicals and to interview key informants (people identified as having first-hand information and experience in the campaign to make airlines smoke free). Tobacco industry strategies against the establishment of smoke-free worksites failed in the case of airlines, largely because of the efforts of flight attendants and their unions. Other factors contributed to the failure but likely would have been insufficient to derail industry efforts without strong stands by the flight attendants. This case illustrates the potential for successful partnerships between unions and tobacco control policy advocates when developing smoke-free worksite policies.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.95, No.3, p.398-403. 40 ref.
Smoke-free_airlines_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 08-14 Stop al tabaco - Serie de folletos par motivar y ayudar a los fumadores o ex-fumadores a dejar de fumar o seguir manteniéndose como ex-fumador
Stop tabac - Série de brochures pour motiver et aider les fumeurs ou anciens fumeurs à arrêter de fumer ou à rester ex-fumeur [en francés]
Serie de ocho folletos, de los que siete de ellos están destinados específicamente a las siguientes grupos de personas: fumadores de cigarrillos que no se habían planteado seriamente dejar de fumar; fumadores de cigarrillos que estaban decididos a dejar de fumar pero que no habían realizado ningún intento de hacerlo; fumadores de cigarrillos que están dispuestos a hacer un intento para dejar de fumar; personas que han dejado de fumar cigarrillos en los últimos seis meses; personas que han dejado de fumar cigarrillos hace más de seis meses; personas que han vuelto a fumar cigarrillos tras un intento de dejarlo; mujeres fumadoras. Finalmente, otro folleto trata de los aditivos que tiene el tabaco de los cigarrillos
Programme, IMSP-CMU, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland, [ca. 2005]. Series of 8 booklets. [en francés] [en francés] [en francés] [en francés] [en francés] [en francés] [en francés] [en francés]

CIS 07-1144 Toubeau E., Everaet K., Franquinet A.
Política en materia de tabaco
Politique en matière de tabac [en francés]
Het rookbeleid in de pratijk [en holandés]
De conformidad con el Real Decreto Belga de 19 de enero de 2005 relativo a la protección contra el humo del tabaco, los trabajadores tienen derecho a un lugar de trabajo libre de humo. Este decreto ofrece al empresario un marco legal que le permite instaurar una política al respecto. Este documento aporta consejos prácticos para desarrollar, implantar y mejorar la política anti-tabaco. La primera parte trata de la problemática del tabaco e insiste en la necesidad de una política anti-tabaco conforme a la nueva legislación. La segunda parte trata de ayudar a los empresarios en el desarrollo de una política anti-tabaco coherente y eficaz, mediante un plan con diversas fases. Los anexos contienen un ejemplo del compromiso de una empresa, un ejemplo de la puesta en práctica de una política anti-tabaco, estadísticas sobre las consecuencias del hábito de fumar y el texto completo del real decreto. También se incluye un folleto informativo para los trabajadores
Prevent, rue Gachard 88/4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, [ca 2005]. 26p. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 07-651 Ferrite S., Santana V.
Efectos conjugados del tabaquismo, la exposición al ruido y la edad, sobre el déficit auditivo
Joint effects of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss [en inglés]
Este estudio transversal se ha realizado con el fin de conocer los efectos conjugados del tabaquismo, el ruido y la edad sobre la agudeza auditiva. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo sobre 535 trabajadores de una empresa metalúrgica, todos ellos de sexo masculino. Se evaluó el déficit auditivo mediante exámenes audiométricos con sonidos puros. La evaluación de la exposición al ruido estaba basada en una matriz empleo-exposición creada a partir de una notación aportada por higienistas industriales y descripciones de los puestos de trabajo. Cada participante cumplimentó un cuestionario sobre temas socio-demográficos, de modo de vida, profesión y estado de salud. Los resultados han demostrado que la edad y las exposiciones profesionales al ruido estaban asociadas individual y positivamente con el déficit auditivo. Para todas las combinaciones de factores, el efecto estimado sobre el déficit auditivo era más elevado que la suma de los efectos de cada variable considerada de forma individual. El efecto sinérgico del tabaquismo, la exposición al ruido y la edad sobre el déficit auditivo observado en este estudio concuerda con la interacción biológica.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.48-53. 32 ref.

CIS 06-1497 Puesta al día: el método SOLVE para responder a los problemas psicosociales en los lugares de trabajo.
Update: The SOLVE approach to addressing psychosocial problems at work [en inglés]
SOLVE es un programa educativo e interactivo concebido para facilitar el desarrollo de una política de empresa y un plan de acción para tratar los problemas psicosociales en los centros de trabajo. El estrés, el alcohol y la droga, la violencia (física y psicológica), el VIH/SIDA y el tabaco son algunos factores que engendran problemas de salud entre los trabajadores y una disminución de la productividad para las empresas. En conjunto, representan una causa importante de accidentes, de lesiones mortales, de enfermedades y de absentismo laboral, tanto en los países industrializados como en los que se encuentran en vías de desarrollo. SOLVE está enfocado a la prevención , traduciendo los conceptos políticos y las ultima acciones a nivel nacional y de empresa. Este documento muestra una panorámica general del concepto SOLVE, su metodología y los medios para implantarlo en los lugares de trabajo.
Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Feb. 2005. 9p. Illus.

CIS 06-413 Nomura K., Nakao M., Yano E.
Déficit auditivo ligado al tabaquismo y a la exposición profesional al ruido en una empresa metalúrgica japonesa
Hearing loss associated with smoking and occupational noise exposure in a Japanese metal working company [en inglés]
Estudios precedentes han establecido una relación entre la perdida auditiva y el tabaquismo. El objeto de este estudio era determinar a un mismo tiempo la influencia de la exposición a niveles de ruido, en un contexto de aterosclerosis, sobre dicha perdida auditiva. Este estudio transversal se ha realizado sobre 397 trabajadores japoneses de sexo masculino de una empresa metalúrgica, durante su control medico habitual. Se midió la agudeza auditiva a 4kHz mediante un audiómetro de sonidos puros, en una sala donde el nivel sonoro era bajo. Del total de los individuos controlados, 55 de ellos (13,9%) presentaban un déficit auditivo a 4kHz, y 151 (38,0%) estaban expuestos al ruido. Tras efectuar los pertinentes ajustes por edad y exposición profesional al ruido, los odds ratios de déficit auditivo eran de 3,16 para los ex-fumadores y de 3,39 para los grandes fumadores, respecto de los que no habían fumado nunca. Los resultados indican que la asociación tabaquismo/exposición al ruido estaba enmascarada por la aterosclerosis. Futuros estudios deberían analizar con más precisión la influencia de la aterosclerosis en este contexto.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.78, No.3, p.178-184. 30 ref.

CIS 05-656 Blanpain R.
Tabaquismo en el lugar de trabajo
Smoking and the workplace [en inglés]
Esta publicación examina los esfuerzos que se están llevando a cabo a nivel mundial sobre el control del tabaquismo en el medio laboral. Entre los aspectos abordados figuran la legislación, las políticas de empresas, los litigios, el tema de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo, la industria mundial del tabaco, las políticas de la OIT en materia de tabaquismo, las políticas de la Unión Europea sobre tabaquismo y salud, y la cuestión del derecho a fumar. Incluye algunos capítulos donde se resume la situación en 13 países (Bielorrusia, Bélgica, Brasil, Irlanda, Italia, Japón, Holanda, Nueva Zelanda, Noruega, España, Suecia, Turquía y EE.UU.)
Kluwer Law International, P.O.Box 85889, 2508 CN The Hague, Netherlands, 2005. xii, 254p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 80.00.

CIS 05-292 Piirilä P., Lindqvist M., Huuskonen O., Kaleva S., Koskinen H., Lehtola H., Vehmas T., Kivissari L., Sovijärvi A.R.A.
Alteraciones de la función pulmonar entre los trabajadores expuestos al amianto y relación con las imágenes obtenidas mediante tomografía computerizada de alta resolución
Impairment of lung function in asbestos-exposed workers in relation to high-resolution computed tomography [en inglés]
Estudio para determinar las causas de las disfunciones ventilatorias y la capacidad de difusión en un total de 590 trabajadores expuestos al amianto, fumadores y con signos radiológicos de engrosamiento pleural o fibrosis pulmonar. Se realizó tomografía computerizada de alta resolución (TACAR) y espirometría, y se midió la capacidad de difusión. Los trabajadores fueron divididos en cinco grupos de acuerdo con la puntuación TACAR: afección pleural (190), fibrosis pulmonar (68), enfisema (148), fibrosis y enfisema combinados (74), y adherencias viscerales pronunciadas (110). Se compararon las alteraciones pulmonares entre los distintos grupos. La alteración moderada del volumen espiratorio forzado por segundo (cociente de posibilidades (CP) 2,72) y la capacidad vital forzada (CP 2,81) se asoció con fibrosis y enfisema combinados. El deterioro pronunciado de la capacidad de difusión se asoció con fibrosis y enfisema combinados (CP 4,94) pero no con afección pleural (CP 0,21) ni fibrosis pulmonar (CP 0,36). Entre los trabajadores que presentaban fibrosis y enfisema combinados, la puntuación media para fibrosis no difería de los que presentaban una capacidad de difusión normal, ligeramente reducida o notablemente inferior. Sin embargo, la puntuación para enfisema en pacientes con deterioro pronunciado de la capacidad de difusión fue significativamente superior en comparación con los que presentaban una capacidad de difusión normal. Los resultados muestran que la presencia de enfisema pulmonar es el factor más importante para determinar el grado de deterioro funcional en empleados fumadores con exposición al amianto.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.31, No.1, p.44-51. 33 ref.


CIS 09-896 Håkansta C.
Workplace smoking
This working paper has been prepared to create a knowledge base for further activities in the area of promoting and implementing smoke-free workplaces. It seeks to emcourage discussion among policy-makers, campaigners, trade unionists, employers and other interested in promoting smoke-free workplaces. Contents: the problem; legislative aspects; good practices carried out by governments, workers and employers; elements for achieving smoke-free workplaces.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. v, 71p. Illus. 84 ref. [en inglés]

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