Workplace health promotion - 523 entradas encontradas
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- Workplace health promotion
Parker B.J., Clark P.D., Hamilton D.J., Harben E.F.
Fifteen years' experience with hearing conservation programmes.
The South Australia Department of Public Health began these programmes for industry in the 1960s, and 2 early programmes of on-site periodic audiometric and medical assessments are described. Further developments included a symposium in 1968, which created considerable interest in industrial hearing problems, and training in audiometry for nurses employed in industry. Inclusion of hearing loss as a scheduled disease in 1971 led to a decline in industry's interest in the programmes; regulations in 1975 requiring employers to reduce noise exposure to workers created a new demand. The programmes are described: noise level survey; consultation on engineering noise control; worker protection measures (advice on hearing protectors, educational sessions with discussion, hearing loss assessments at 6-month intervals); recording and reporting; details of the computer programme. the present policy is to perform only screening (and no pre-employment) audiometry.
Occupational Health Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1979, Vol.1, No.2, p.13-23. Illus.
Spindler D.E., Olson R.D., Fishbeck W.A.
An effective hearing conservation program.
Organisation of the programme at a major chemical plant is described. A hearing conservation committee consisting of representatives from safety, industrial hygiene, medical, engineering and production was set up to review the programme twice a year until the equivalent exposure ratio (EER - relation of average daily exposure to permissible exposure) is less than one in all workers. Audiometric data are entered on a computer for rapid evaluation. So far, engineering and administrative measures have reduced the EER to less than 1 in 75% of workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1979, Vol.40, No.7, p.604-608.
Pregnant women in the workplace - A company program to control toxic exposures.
The procedures used to minimise exposure of pregnant women and foetuses include classification of the risks in a job (presence of toxic substances, radiation, physical hardship) and education of the women. The jobs are classified as restricted (presence of hazardous chemicals; the time in areas of potential harm is considered); controlled (where there may be limited contact with abortifacients or teratogenic agents); and unrestricted. The responsibility for the classification of a job rests with the environmental hygiene and toxicology department and the medical director. The possible adverse effects of harmful substances to women, the foetus and infants are listed.
National Safety News, Feb. 1979, Vol.119, No.2, p.52-55. Illus.
Godbey F.W., Hatch L.L.
Occupational safety and health program - Guidelines for colleges and universities.
The basic principles for establishing and maintaining a programme for accident and illness prevention are discussed and illustrated for institutions with little or no occupational safety and health programmes. Background information is given and the legislative requirements are explained. Other details are: organisation and staffing (programme objectives, administrative support, functions of executive and other staff and consultants, funding); programme functions (inspection and corrective action procedures, written rules and regulations, training, recordkeeping and reporting requirements forms and examples, accident and illness investigation and reporting for data collection, programme monitoring and evaluation); sources of information (list of names and addresses of associations and organisations, use of private companies, clearinghouses, government agencies, selected bibliography); glossary.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-108, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978. 95p. Illus. 62 ref.
Cohen M.L., Newman J.W., Hutchison M.K.
Occupational health in health service areas: Handbook for planning.
This manual contains suggestions and methods for establishing programmes for preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative services for governmental units. The chapters cover: planning approach (clinical services, environmental monitoring and safety services, surveillance and disease reporting system, health education, manpower needs, review function); data collection and utilisation (sources of information, developing an industrial profile, problems in developing the profile). The appendices contain examples of health planning statements from several regions in the USA (objectives and implementation); health problems which may occur in industrial groups and medical surveillance recommendations for specific toxic or harmful substances; a bibliography of basic references; sample worksheets for development of an industrial profile.
DHEW(NIOSH) Publication No.78-203, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 99p. 24 ref.
Hatch L.L., Rentos P.G., Godbey F.W., Schrems E.L.
Self-evaluation of occupational safety and health programs. Self-evaluation instrument - Electric utility industry.
These 2 documents present the concept of self-assessment by management and workers to control the hazards in the workplace. Contents of the 1st document: setting goals and objectives; programme elements; staffing and organisation; techniques for employee involvement; budgeting; recordkeeping; inspection; safety priority setting; hazard control; incentives; preplacement medical examinations; medical surveillance; ergonomics; alcoholism and drug abuse; training; role of the supervisor in training; objective and subjective measures; activity measures; relative risk assessment; information and consultation sources. Lists, forms and worksheets are shown. The last part deals with workplace safety and health under the following heads: ventilation; lighting; the working environment; sanitation; personal protective equipment; hazardous operations; handling and storage of hazardous materials; toxicology; pressure changes; psychological hazards. The 2nd document contains 37 yes-no check lists for equipment, potential hazardous substances and operations to evaluate compliance with legislation and standards.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publications Nos.78-187 and 78-202, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978, 2 Vols., 109p. and 105p. Illus. 38 ref.
Smith S.L., Schultze G.L., Curry B.H.
A management system for occupational safety and health programs for academic research laboratories - An administrative resource guide.
The system described is based on interviews with administrators at research universities, managers of government and private organisations and a literature review. Discussed are why university administrators should be concerned with such a system; scope of the system; planning; control of operations; evaluation of programme activities; financial planning; integrating the management elements. A separate small brochure (9 pages) contains an executive summary of the report.
DHEW(NIOSH) Publication No. 79-121, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978. 120p. 203 ref.
Davis S.C., Balzer J.L., Raymond M.A.
An industrial hygiene program for a surface mining operation.
An industrial hygiene (IH) programme in a multinational corporation operating mainly in the USA and engaged principally in mining, oil and gas exploration, development and production (including ocean shipping) is described. The programme covers all mine development stages (pre-exploration, exploration, planning and development, production, post-production) and is intended to develop purchase and design specifications to minimise occupational health hazards, review engineering plans and specifications for legal compliance and adherence to IH principles, establish a functional IH programme (engineering controls and tests, sampling systems for contaminants, personal protective equipment, medical surveillance, and training), communicate with government agencies to clarify regulations, conduct testing and obtain approval for compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act, and develop and operate a data management system to organise and correlate employee exposures, medical records and chemical inventories.
American Mining Congress Journal, May 1978, Vol.64, No.5, p.47-50. Illus.
Industrial noise regulation and worker protection.
This paper, based on an intensive review of historical studies of occupational noise exposure, sets forth the basis for approaching the goal of 100% protection of workers. Compliance with present standards virtually guarantees potential hearing impairment to large groups of workers. Conclusion: the only way to achieve 100% worker protection, at minimum risk of potential hearing impairment, is through an effective hearing conservation programme (estimated to cost $10-20 per worker per year) relying on medical surveillance, audiometric testing, and the use of personal protection and engineering controls where necessary and appropriate. Principles for managing such a hearing conservation programme are set out.
Noise Control - Vibration and Insulation, Feb. 1978, Vol.9, No.2, p.54-58. Illus. 8 ref.
Garofalo A., Wegman D.H., Robbins A., Noren J., Cohen M.L., Newman J.W., Hutchison M.K.
Planning for occupational health needs in a health service area.
This handbook is intended to serve as a starting point to describe occupational health problems for government agencies charged with helping to improve health. It presents a method for collection of employment and health hazard data and for the development of industrial profiles (inventory of industries, jobs and hazards) of occupational health problems. The contribution that industrial employers, government agencies, health experts and other resources can make to the profile preparation are discussed. Strategies for control of hazards and diseases are reviewed. An annotated bibliography of data sources and reference works and description of processes and hazards in selected industries is included.
Publication No.210-76-0190 or DHEW(NIOSH) Publication No. 78-203, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1977 or Sep. 1978. 236p.
Standards, interpretations and audit criteria for performance of occupational health programs.
This document is a management tool for evaluating or establishing industrial occupational health programmes. Sections relate to: administration; medical; nursing; industrial hygiene; health physics. Each section covers a variety of topics (policy, staff, equipment, facilities, organisation, hazard prevention, etc.) for which a standard (directed at optimum levels of performance) is cited with its interpretation, followed by a questionnaire to be filled in by a staff member responsible for the management of the services being evaluated in that section.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 66 South Miller Road, Akron, Ohio 44313, USA. No date. 209p. Price: US-$30.00.
Hipp L.L., Jirak P.D., Golonka E.J.
Evolution of an occupational health examination program.
The programme was designed for a specific manufacturing location presenting the possibility of occupational exposures to some 200 substances. Before the advent of the programme, over 90% of these had not been satisfactorily dealt with. The goals aimed at and the information sought in order to achieve them are set out. Exposure was divided into 9 major classes, subdivided by an alpha numeric coding system. A special screening programme was developed for toxic effects in the skin and respiratory systems. The programme is complemented by an industrial hygiene effort, and the role of the industrial hygienist is stressed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1977, Vol.19, No.3, p.205-207.
Ministry of Labour and Manpower, Inspectorate of Labour and Public Places, Quebec.
Guide for introduction of a hearing conservation programme in industry
Guide pour l'implantation d'un programme de conservation de l'ouïe dans l'industrie. [en francés]
In this document, used by labour inspectors in Quebec and available to employers on request, general information on the ear, noise and deafness is followed by details of the different phases of a hearing conservation programme: organisation; study of noise sources; temporary measures (wearing of ear defenders, pre-employment and periodical audiometric examinations); determination of objectives; possible solutions (replacement or modification of noisy machinery, isolation of machinery or of workers, improvement of workplace acoustics, etc.). Appendices: noise levels; permissible time of exposure according to sound level; audiograms; deafness according to time of exposure; noise level and age; measuring instruments; sound spectrum near a saw; noise chart; acoustic study; list of ear protectors; flow chart of a hearing preservation programme.
Prévention, Dec. 1976-Jan. 1977, Vol.11, No.30, 26p. Illus.
A vision conservation program.
An optimum vision conservation programme is discussed in detail that conforms to the US Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1970. The programme includes pre-employment medical examinations, continual education, appraisal of the visual requirements for a job, lighting requirements, safety eyewear policies, proper eye protection, and knowledge of the legislation. The pertinent regulations are cited, and each of the above factors is detailed. Improper practices with contact lenses and sunglasses are outlined.
National Safety News, Jan. 1977, Vol.115, No.1, p.70-74. Illus.
Bondy M.K., Lebow R.H., O'Malley M., Reilly T.
Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers - Agricultural health and safety considerations for a rural primary health care system.
This report describes activities in a rural primary health care facility to evaluate a programme for agricultural workers. Data were obtained through complete physical examinations and health, safety and occupational histories of 640 people. There were also 171 interviews with farmworkers; surveys of farm-related agencies, organisations and businesses; various educational activities; and 25 professional walk-through evaluations of farms and ranches. Health and safety education was attempted while conducting the examinations. Subjective data from the interviews revealed problems: machine and animal accidents (60%), lung and skin problems (30%).
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-150, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1976. 128p. Illus.
Organization and operation of an occupational health program.
Extensive article (total 62p.) intended to serve as a guide to plant physicians and other medical personnel interested in occupational medicine, in the implementation of such a programme within a company. Contents: definitions; varieties of programme; the medical department in the corporate structure; special characteristics of occupational medical services (protection against hazards, exposure limits, air quality, lighting, medical care and rehabilitation, health counselling, examples of record forms, etc.); programme costs; relationships with private practitioners; preparation of a medical department manual; design of dispensary facilities (illustrated); supplies and equipment; special programmes (automation with and without a computer, adaptation of health testing to industrial needs).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June, July and Aug. 1975, Vol.17, Nos.6, 7 and 8, p.360-400, 433-440 and 528-540. Illus. 130 ref.
LaDou J., Sherwood J.N., Hughes L.
Multiphasic health testing - Benefit-cost analysis of high-volume and low-volume testing programs.
Description of 2 programmes (approx. 500 and 30 patients, respectively, are screened per week). Unit costs were similar in both cases, apparently on account of the savings in personnel and space requirements of the smaller programme. Costs per positive test were also similar, and the authors suggest that physicians should consider establishing multiphasic health testing programmes in small settings.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1975, Vol.17, No.8, p.495-501. 10 ref.
Early detection of health impairment in occupational exposure to health hazards.
Détection précoce des altérations de la santé résultant de l'exposition professionnelle. [en francés]
Report of a WHO Study Group (Geneva, 10-16 Dec. 1974) comprising 6 international experts and representatives of the International Labour Office and other organisations. The purpose of the meeting was to review the measures used in periodic medical examinations of workers to detect early health impairment. The report examines the following aspects: health impairment; health evaluation; inter-individual and intra-individual variability in response; application of epidemiological methods in occupational health evaluation; psychosocial factors. The report gives illustrative examples of some general principles; respiratory impairment, biochemical parameters for evaluation, health impairment due to carbon disulfide, inorganic lead, organophosphorus and organochlorine insecticides, noise. The experts' conclusions are followed by their recommendations to governments, giving a list of priorities.
Technical Report Series No.571, World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1975, 80p. 54 ref. Price: SF.8.00.
The development of a long-term programme on non-ionizing radiation protection.
After a brief description of the applications and health hazards of the various forms of non-ionising radiation (NIR) (ultraviolet, infrared, microwave, laser and ultrasonic radiation), this note outlines the development and content of the long-term programme, with a flow chart showing the working plan for 1971-1979. The programme includes: definition of the range limits of NIR (represented in a table), survey of institutions active in the study of the health hazards of NIR, survey of legislation, preparation of a manual on NIR protection. Brief discussion of the need for and scope of international health criteria and protection standards relating to NIR. Annexes: conclusions and recommendations of a WHO working group on NIR; summary of recommended activities of a WHO evaluation group on microwaves.
Health Physics, Nov. 1974, Vol.27, No.5, p.514-522. 4 ref.
Gorohover I.A., Nizamov I.G., Bulgakova N.H.
Economic assessment of absenteeism due to sickness among employees of certain industrial establishments
Ėkonomičeskaja ocenka dinamiki zabolevaemosti s vremennoj utratoj trudosposobnosti rabotnikov promyšlennyh predprijatij [en ruso]
Description of a mathematical analysis carried out in 4 Soviet undertakings (mechanical engineering and chemistry) to assess the financial impact of industrial hygiene programmes on worker absenteeism due to sickness. The essential results are given in tables: gain in number of days worked due to reduction of sickness; savings in social security benefits as well as in medical care and hospitalisation costs.
Sovetskoe zdravoohranenie, Feb. 1974, No.2, p.8-11.
Priorities in preventive medicine - Where are the greatest yields?
Preventive efforts in the control of occupational diseases were hitherto based on the identification of primary causative agents in the work environment and their removal. Remaining problems involve a set of aetiological relationships in which the capacity of men to deal with the environmental stress has become a more important determinant of health than the external agent itself. In view of this change, future preventive programmes must be derived from an understanding of the influence on health of environmental stress, at home and at work, operating on individuals possessing different resistance capacities. Operation of such broadened preventive efforts are considered in relation to the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1974, Vol.29, No.1, p.52-55.
Hughes J.P., Moore R.T., Hoover A.W., Phillips R.M., Banathy B., Klarman H.E., Bellin L.E., Craig J.L., El Batawi M.A., Felton J.S., Hayden R.K., Higgins W.J., Keeler E., Malenbaum W., McCarthy J.J., Probasco P., Stone R.W., White B.J., Yerby A.S., Zenz C.
Cost effectiveness of occupational health programs.
A series of 7 articles devoted to a consideration of the controversial subject of the cost effectiveness of occupational health programmes. Most of the papers arose out of the proceedings of a NIOSH-sponsored conference (Fontana, USA, 8-9 Nov. 1973) called to provide a critique of an approach to cost-benefit analysis developed at the Kaiser Foundation International.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1974, Vol.16, No.3, p.153-186. Illus. 135 ref.
Knudson T.L., Kolanz M.E.
An innovative safety model and e-learning guide to working safely with beryllium throughout the industrial supply chain
Over the past 10 years, the primary beryllium producer in the United States has partnered with the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) in conducting research to develop a beryllium safety model to prevent chronic beryllium disease. As the result of this research-to-practice partnership, a philosophically different worker protection model evolved based on the premise of addressing all routes and pathways of potential worker exposure. The model's fundamental principles involve keeping: beryllium out of the lungs; work areas clean; off the skin; off clothing; at the source; in the work area; on the plant site; workers prepared to work safely. Recent research by NIOSH is demonstrating that the model has reduced beryllium sensitization and lowered the risk of chronic beryllium disease in employees hired since 2001. As a result, an e-learning tool was created to enhance the communication of the model throughout the industrial supply chain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2009, Vol.6, No.10, p.758-761. 7 ref.
An_innovative_safety_model.pdf [en inglés]
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